Oracle Grid Engine

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Oracle Grid Engine
GridEngine Logo
Developer(s)Oracle Corporation (formerly Sun Microsystems) in association with the community
Stable release
6.2u8; see the information on forks in the first section for sources for recent versions of the technology / October 1, 2012 (2012-10-01)
Operating systemCross-platform
TypeGrid computing

Oracle Grid Engine,[1] previously known as Sun Grid Engine (SGE), CODINE (Computing in Distributed Networked Environments) or GRD (Global Resource Director),[2] was a grid computing computer cluster software system (otherwise known as a batch-queuing system), acquired as part of a purchase of Gridware,[3] then improved and supported by Sun Microsystems and later Oracle. There have been open source versions and multiple commercial versions of this technology, initially from Sun, later from Oracle and then from Univa Corporation.

On October 22, 2013 Univa announced it acquired the intellectual property and trademarks for the Grid Engine technology and that Univa will take over support.[4]. Univa has since evolved the Grid Engine technology, e.g. improving scalability as demonstrated by a 1 million core cluster in AWS announced on June 24, 2018.[5]

The original Grid Engine open-source project website closed in 2010, but versions of the technology are still available under its original Sun Industry Standards Source License.[6] Those projects were forked from the original project code and are known as Son of Grid Engine[7], Open Grid Scheduler[8] and Univa Grid Engine.[9]

Grid Engine is typically used on a computer farm or high-performance computing (HPC) cluster and is responsible for accepting, scheduling, dispatching, and managing the remote and distributed execution of large numbers of standalone, parallel or interactive user jobs. It also manages and schedules the allocation of distributed resources such as processors, memory, disk space, and software licenses.

Grid Engine used to be the foundation of the Sun Grid utility computing system, made available over the Internet in the United States in 2006,[10] later becoming available in many other countries and having been an early version of a public cloud computing facility predating Amazon AWS, for instance.


The below feature sets date from the last Sun releases in 2009 or earlier. More current feature information can be found on the web sites of the open source forks or for Univa Grid Engine.

A screenshot of the xml-qstat web interface

Features in 6.2:

  • Advance reservation
  • Array job interdependencies
  • Rule-based Resource Quota control[11]
  • Enhanced remote execution (without using external rshd/rlogind/sshd processes)
  • Multi-clustering[12]
  • Daemons managed by the Service Management Facility on Solaris
  • Pseudo TTY (pty) support for interactive jobs
  • Job Submission Verifier (client-side and server-side job verification)
  • GUI Installer and SGE Inspect
  • Topology-aware scheduling and thread binding
  • Hadoop integration, Amazon EC2 integration for cloud computing

Other features of SGE include:

  • Multiple advanced scheduling algorithms allow powerful policy-based resource allocation
  • Cluster queues
  • Job and scheduler fault tolerance - Grid Engine continues to operate as long as there is one or more hosts available
  • Job checkpointing
  • Job arrays and job tasks
  • DRMAA (Job API)
  • Resource reservation
  • XML status reporting (qstat and qhost), and the xml-qstat[13] web interface
  • Parallel jobs (MPI, PVM, OpenMP), and scalable parallel job startup with qrsh[14]
  • Usage accounting
  • Accounting and Reporting COnsole (ARCO)
  • parallel make: distmake, dmake (Sun Studio), and SGE's own qmake
  • FLEXlm integration[15][16] and multi-cluster software license management with LicenseJuggler[17]


Grid Engine runs on multiple platforms, including: AIX, BSD - FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, HP-UX, IRIX, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, SUPER-UX, Tru64, Windows via SFU (Interix) or SUA (Microsoft Windows Services for UNIX) (as execution hosts only) and Z/OS (in progress[when?])

Cluster architecture[edit]

A typical Grid Engine cluster consists of a master host and one or more execution hosts. Multiple shadow masters can also be configured as hot spares, which take over the role of the master when the original master host crashes.[18]

Support and training[edit]

Univa is providing commercial support and training for Univa Grid Engine and Oracle Grid Engine. Below is a description of some of the historic options.

Sun provided support contracts for the commercial version of Grid Engine on most UNIX platforms and Windows.[19] Professional services, consulting, training, and support were provided by Sun Partners.[20] Sun partners with Georgetown University to deliver Grid Engine administration classes.[21] The Bioteam runs short SGE training workshops that are 1 or 2 days long.[22]

Users obtained community support on the Grid Engine mailing lists.[23] Grid Engine Workshops were held in 2002, 2003, 2007, 2009, and 2012 in Regensburg, Germany.[24]


The below contains historic information. More recent deployment information, specifically regarding commercial users, is available from Univa.

Notable deployments of SGE include:


In 2000, Sun acquired Gridware a privately owned commercial vendor of advanced computing resource management software with offices in San Jose, Calif., and Regensburg, Germany.[29] Later that year, Sun offered a free version of Gridware for Solaris and Linux, and renamed the product Sun Grid Engine.

In 2001, Sun made the source code available,[30] and adopted the open source development model. Ports for Mac OS X and *BSD were contributed by the non-Sun open source developers.[31]

In 2010, after the purchase of Sun by Oracle, the Grid Engine 6.2 update 6 source code was not included with the binaries, and changes were not put back to the project's source repository. In response to this, the Grid Engine community started the Open Grid Scheduler project to continue to develop and maintain a free implementation of Grid Engine.[32][33][34]

On January 18, 2011, it was announced that Univa had recruited several principal engineers from the former Sun Grid Engine team and that Univa would be developing their own forked version of Grid Engine. The newly announced Univa Grid Engine did include commercial support and would compete with the official version of Oracle Grid Engine.[35][36][37]

On Oct 22, 2013 Univa has announced that it had acquired the intellectual property and trademarks pertaining to the Grid Engine technology and that Univa will take over support for Oracle Grid Engine customers.[38]

Other Grid Engine based products[edit]

The below contains historic information and some of the products and solutions are no longer available:

Add-on software[edit]

A number of SGE add-ons are available:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Oracle Grid Engine". Oracle Corporation. 2010-05-30.
  2. ^ "A Little History Lesson". Sun Microsystems. 2006-06-23.
  3. ^
  4. ^ "Univa Completes Acquisition of Grid Engine Assets, Becoming the Sole Commercial Provider of Grid Engine Software". Univa Corporation. 2013-10-22.
  5. ^ "Univa Demonstrates Extreme Scale Automation by Deploying More Than One Million Cores in a Single Univa Grid Engine Cluster using AWS". Univa. 2018-06-24. Retrieved June 24, 2018.
  6. ^ "The Grid Engine Source License". Sun MicroSystems. 2010-06-04. Archived from the original on 2013-11-12. Retrieved 2013-10-23.
  7. ^ "Son of Grid Engine". University of Liverpool.
  8. ^ "Open Grid Scheduler". The Open Grid Scheduler Community.
  9. ^ "Univa Grid Engine". Univa.
  10. ^ "World's First Utility Grid Comes Alive on the Internet". Sun Microsystems. 2006-03-22.
  11. ^ Specification: Resource Quota
  12. ^ "Hedeby Project home". Sun Microsystems. Archived from the original on January 5, 2009. Retrieved 2008-01-25.
  13. ^ "xml-qstat". Retrieved 2009-10-12.
  14. ^ "Long delay when submitting large jobs (mailing list message)". Sun Microsystems. Retrieved 2007-12-25.[permanent dead link]
  15. ^ "flex-grid". Retrieved 2009-10-12.
  16. ^ "Olesen-FLEXlm-Integration". Retrieved 2007-12-25.
  17. ^ "LicenseJuggler". Retrieved 2007-12-26.
  18. ^ "How to Install the Shadow Master Host". Sun Grid Engine 6.2u3 blog. August 27, 2009. Archived from the original on October 2, 2011. Retrieved October 6, 2011.
  19. ^ "Sun Store Grid Engine Entitlement Purchase". Sun Microsystems. Archived from the original on 2007-10-30. Retrieved 2008-03-03.
  20. ^ "Sun Grid Engine 6 Partners". Sun Microsystems. Retrieved 2007-12-14.
  21. ^ "Advanced Sun Grid Engine Configuration and Administration Class". Sun Microsystems. Retrieved 2007-12-14.
  22. ^ "Training". The Bioteam Inc. Retrieved 2008-03-24.
  23. ^ "Grid Engine Mail Lists". Sun Microsystems. Archived from the original on December 25, 2008. Retrieved October 6, 2011.
  24. ^ "Grid Engine Workshops". Sun Microsystems. Archived from the original on March 8, 2009. Retrieved October 6, 2011.
  25. ^ "Sun N1 Grid Engine Software and the Tokyo Institute of Technology Super Computer Grid". Sun Microsystems. Retrieved 2007-11-16.
  26. ^ "TACC > HPC Systems". The University of Texas at Austin. Archived from the original on 2009-08-01. Retrieved 2007-12-13.
  27. ^ "More Ranger Facts and Figures". Sun Microsystems. Archived from the original on 2012-04-17. Retrieved 2008-02-12.
  28. ^ "TOP500 List - June 2008". TOP500.Org. 2006-06-18.
  29. ^ "Gridware's resource management software increases efficiency and productivity in compute-intensive technical computing environments". Sun Microsystems. 2000-07-24.
  30. ^ "Sun Microsystems makes SUN GRID ENGINE software available to open source community". Sun Microsystems. 2001-07-23.
  31. ^ "Porting HPC Tools to FreeBSD". 2010-05-14.
  32. ^ Open Grid Scheduler
  33. ^ Eadline, Ph.D., Douglas (September 1, 2010). "The State of Oracle/Sun Grid Engine". Linux Magazine. Retrieved 2011-01-18.
  34. ^ Templeton, Daniel (2010-12-23). "Changes for a Bright Future at Oracle". Retrieved 2011-01-19.
  35. ^ "Univa Acquires Grid Engine Expertise" (Press release). Univa. 2011-01-18. Archived from the original on 2011-01-21. Retrieved 2011-01-18.
  36. ^ Feldman, Michael (2011-01-18). "Univa Rescues Grid Engine From Oracle". HPCwire. Archived from the original on 2011-01-24. Retrieved 2011-01-18.
  37. ^ Morgan, Timothy Prickett (2011-01-18). "Univa forks Oracle's Sun Grid Engine". The Register. Retrieved 2011-01-18.
  38. ^ "Univa Completes Acquisition of Grid Engine Assets, Becoming the Sole Commercial Provider of Grid Engine Software". Univa Corporation. 2013-10-22.
  39. ^ "Sun Compute Cluster Solution". Sun Microsystems.
  40. ^ "Installing and Configuring Sun Cluster HA for Sun Grid Engine". Sun Microsystems. 2008-02-15.
  41. ^ "GT 5.0.0 Release Notes".

External links[edit]