Public speaking

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Oral presentation)
The orator Cicero speaks to the Roman Senate.
Cicero Denounces Catiline (1889), fresco by Cesare Maccari

Public speaking, also called oratory or oration, has traditionally been defined as speaking in person to a live audience. Today it includes speaking, formally or informally, to an audience through digital technology – live, pre-recorded or at a distance.

Confucius, a philosopher and public speaking scholar, believed that good speech should impact individual lives, regardless of whether they were in the audience.[1] He also believed that someone of power could influence the world through words and actions.[1]

Public speaking has many purposes, usually mixing teaching, persuasion, and entertainment. Each purpose calls on slightly different approaches and techniques.

Public speaking was studied in Ancient Greece and Rome, where prominent thinkers analysed it as a central part of rhetoric. Today, the art of public speaking has been transformed by digital technologies, such as videoconferencing, multimedia presentations and other non-traditional forms of presentation.

Purpose of public speaking[edit]

The function of public speaking is determined by the speaker's intent when addressing a particular audience. It is possible for the same speaker, with the same intent, to deliver substantially different speeches to two different audiences. The main objective of public speaking is to evoke a change in the thoughts and actions of the audience.[2]

Although the name suggests otherwise, public speaking is often delivered to a closed, limited audience who share a common outlook. This audience can be composed of fervent supporters of the speaker, antagonistic individuals attending the event unwillingly or out of spite, or strangers with no particular interest in the speaker. However, effective speakers understand that even a small audience is not a homogeneous mass with a single point of view but rather a collection of diverse individuals.[3]

Broadly, public speaking aims either to reassure an anxious audience or to alert a complacent audience to something important. Once the speaker has determined which of these approaches is required, they will use a combination of storytelling and information delivery to achieve their goals.[4]


Persuasion is a term derived from the Latin word "persuādēre."[5] Persuasive speaking aims to change the audience's beliefs and is used commonly in political debates, where leaders attempt to persuade their audience, whether the general public or government officials.[5]

Persuasive speaking involves four essential elements: (i) the speaker or persuader; (ii) the audience; (iii) the speaking method; and (iv) the message the speaker is trying to convey. When attempting to persuade an audience to change their opinions, a speaker appeals to their emotions and beliefs.[5]

Various techniques exist for speakers to gain audience support. Speakers can demand action from the audience, use inclusive language like 'we' and 'us' to create unity between the speaker and audience, and choose words with strong connotations to intensify a message's impact.[5] Rhetorical questions, anecdotes, generalizations, exaggerations, metaphors, and irony also can be employed to increase the likelihood of persuading an audience.[5]


Public speaking can transfer knowledge to an audience. TED Talks are examples of educational public speaking. The speakers inform their audience about different topics, such as science, technology, religion, economics, human society, and psychology. TED speakers can use the platform to share personal experiences with traumatic events, such as abuse, bullying, grief, assault, suicidal ideation, near-death encounters, mental illness, or to raise awareness and acceptance for stigmatizing issues, such as disabilities, racial differences, LGBT rights, children's rights, and women's rights.[6]

Studies have shown the benefits of teaching public speaking strategies to students in an academic setting, including a higher level of self-confidence and helping to render community well-being with access to a variety of information.[7] Harvard University offers a range of courses in public speaking including persuasive communication and personal narratives.[8] With the continued popularity of academic conferences and TED talks taking place worldwide, public speaking has become an essential subject in academia for scholarly and professional advancement. Additionally, work meetings and presentations require proficiency in public speaking to actively formulate ideas and solutions, and modern technology helps companies to release information to a wider audience.


The intervention style of speaking is a relatively new method proposed by a rhetorical theorist named William R. Brown. This style revolves around the fact that humans create a symbolic meaning for life and the things around them.[9] Due to this, the symbolic meaning of everything changes based on the way one communicates. When approaching communication with an intervention style, communication is understood to be responsible for the constant changes in the society, behaviours, and how one considers the meaning behind objects, ideologies, and everyday life.[9]

From an interventional perspective, when individuals communicate, they are intervening with what is already reality and might "shift symbolic reality."[9] This approach to communication also encompasses the possibility or idea that one may be responsible for unexpected outcomes due to what and how one communicates. This perspective also widens the scope of focus from a single speaker who is intervening to a multitude of speakers all communicating and intervening, simultaneously affecting the world around us.[9]



The Orator, c. 100 BCE, an Etrusco-Roman bronze sculpture depicting Aule Metele (Latin: Aulus Metellus), an Etruscan man wearing a Roman toga while engaged in rhetoric; the statue features an inscription in the Etruscan alphabet.

Although evidence of public speaking training exists in ancient Egypt,[10] the first known writing on oratory[11] is 2,000 years old from ancient Greece. This work elaborates on principles drawn from the practices and experiences of ancient Greek orators.

Aristotle was one of the first oratory teachers to use definitive rules and models. One of his key insights was that speakers always combine, to varying degrees, three things: reasoning, which he called Logos; credentials, which he called Ethos; and emotion, which he called Pathos.[12] Aristotle's work became an essential part of a liberal arts education during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The classical antiquity works by the ancient Greeks capture how they taught and developed the art of public speaking thousands of years ago.

In classical Greece and Rome, rhetoric was the main component of composition and speech delivery, both critical skills for use in public and private life. In ancient Greece, citizens spoke for themselves rather than having professionals, such as modern lawyers, speak for them. Any citizen who wished to succeed in court, politics, or social life had to learn public speaking techniques. Rhetorical tools were first taught by a group of teachers called Sophists, noted for teaching paying students how to speak effectively using their methods.[13]

Separately from the Sophists, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle developed their own theories of public speaking, teaching these principles to students interested in learning rhetorical skills. Plato founded The Academy and Aristotle founded The Lyceum to teach these skills.[14]

Demosthenes was a well-known orator from Athens. After his father died when he was 7, he had three legal guardians: Aphobus, Demophon, and Theryppides.[15] His inspiration for public speaking came from learning that his guardians had robbed him of the money his father left for his education.[16] His first public speech was in the court proceeding he brought against his three guardians.[17] After that, Demosthenes continued to practice public speaking. He is known for sticking pebbles into his mouth in order to help his pronunciation, talking while running so that he would not lose his breath, and practicing speaking in front of a mirror to improve his delivery.[17]

When Philip II, the ruler of Macedon, tried to conquer the Greeks, Demosthenes made a speech called Kata Philippou A. In this speech, he spoke about why he opposed Philip II as a threat to all of Greece.[15] This was the first of several speeches known as the Philippics.[17] He made other speeches known as the Olynthiacs. Both series of speeches favored independence and rallied Athenians against Philip II.[17][16]


In the political rise of the Roman Republic, Roman orators copied and modified the ancient Greek techniques of public speaking. Instruction in rhetoric developed into a full curriculum, including instruction in grammar (study of the poets), preliminary exercises (progymnasmata), and preparation of public speeches (declamation) in both forensic and deliberative genres.

The Latin style of rhetoric was heavily influenced by Cicero and strongly emphasized a broad education in all areas of the humanities. Other areas of rhetorical study included the use of wit and humour, the appeal to the listener's emotions, and the use of digressions. Oratory in the Roman empire, though less central to political life than during the Republic, remained important in law and entertainment. Famous orators were celebrities in ancient Rome, becoming wealthy and prominent in society.

The ornate Latin style was the primary form of oration through the mid-20th century. After World War II and the increased use of film and television, the Latin oration style began to fall out of favour. This cultural change likely had to do with the rise of the scientific method and the emphasis on a "plain" style of speaking and writing. Even today’s formal oratory is much less ornate than in the Classical Era.


Ancient China had a delayed start to the implementation of Rhetoric (persuasion), as China did not have rhetoricians training students.[1] It was understood that Chinese rhetoric was part of Chinese philosophy, which schools taught focusing on two concepts: "Wen” (rhetoric); and “Zhi”(thoughtful content).[1] Ancient Chinese rhetoric shows strong connections with modern public speaking, as Chinese rhetoric placed high value on ethics.[1]

Ancient Chinese rhetoric had three objectives: (i) using language to reflect people’s feelings; (ii) using language to be more pointed, effective, and impactful; and (iii) using rhetoric as an "aesthetic tool."[1] Chinese rhetoric traditionally focused more on the written than spoken word, but both share similar characteristics of construction.[1]

A unique and key difference between Chinese and Western rhetoric is the audience targeted for persuasion.[1] In Chinese rhetoric, state rulers were the audience, whereas Western rhetoric targets the public.[1] Another difference between Chinese and Western rhetoric practices is how a speaker establishes credibility or Ethos.[1] In Chinese rhetoric, the speaker does not focus on individual credibility, like Western rhetoric. Instead, the speaker focuses on collectivism[1] by sharing personal experiences and establishing a connection between the speaker's concern and the audience’s interest.[1]

Chinese rhetoric analyses public speakers on three standards: (i) tracing, which is how well the speaker is doing compared to traditional speaking practices; (ii) examination, or how the speaker considers the audience’s daily lives; and (iii) practice, which is how relevant the topic or argument is to the "state, society, and people."[1]



Aristotle and one of his most famous writings, "Rhetoric" (written in 350 B.C.E), have been used as a foundation for learning how to master the arts of public speaking. In his works, rhetoric is the act of publicly persuading the audience.[18] Rhetoric is similar to dialect, he defines both as being acts of persuasion. However, dialect is the act of persuading someone in private, whereas rhetoric is about persuading people in a public setting.[18] More specifically, Aristotle defines someone who practices rhetoric or a "rhetorician" as an individual who is able to interpret and understand what persuasion is and how it is applied.[18]

Aristotle breaks rhetoric into three elements: (i) the speaker; (ii) the topic or point of the speech; and (iii) the audience.[18][19] Aristotle also classifies oratory into three types: (i) political, used to convince people to take or not take action; (ii) forensic, usually used in law related to accusing or defending someone; and (iii) ceremonial, which recognizes someone positively or negatively.[19]

Aristotle breaks down the political category into five focus or themes: "ways and means, war and peace, national defence, imports and exports, and legislation."[19] These focuses are broken down into detail so that a speaker can focus on what is needed to take into consideration so that the speaker can effectively influence an audience to agree and support the speaker's ideas.[19] The focus of "ways and means" deals with economic aspects in how the country is spending money.[19] "Peace and War" focus on what the country has to offer in terms of military power, how war has been conducted, how war has affected the country in the past, and how other countries have conducted war.[19] "National defence" deals with taking into consideration the position and strength of a country in the event of an invasion. Forces, fortifying structures, points with a strategic advantage should all be considered.[19] "Food supply" is concerned with the ability to support a country in regards to food, importing and exporting food, and carefully making decisions to arrange agreements with other countries.[19] Lastly, Aristotle breaks down the "legislation" theme, and this theme seems to be the most important to Aristotle. The legislation of a country is the most crucial aspect of all the above because everything is affected by the policies and laws set by the people in power.[19]

In Aristotle's "Rhetoric" writing, he mentions three strategies someone can use to try to persuade an audience:[18] Establishing the character of a speaker (Ethos), influencing the emotional element of the audience (Pathos), and focusing on the argument specifically (Logos).[18][20] Aristotle believes establishing the character of a speaker is effective in persuasion because the audience will believe what the speaker is saying to be true if the speaker is credible and trustworthy.[18] With the audience's emotional state, Aristotle believes that individuals do not make the same decisions when in different moods.[18] Because of this, one needs to try to influence the audience by being in control of one's emotions, making persuasion effective.[18] The argument itself can affect the attempt to persuade by making the argument of the case so clear and valid that the audience will understand and believe that the speaker's point is real.[18]

In the last part of "Rhetoric", Aristotle mentions that the most critical piece of persuasion is to know in detail what makes up government and to attack what makes it unique: "customs, institutions, and interest".[19] Aristotle also states that everyone is persuaded by considering people's interests and how the society in which they live influences their interests.[19]

Historical speeches[edit]

Despite the shift in style, the best-known examples of strong public speaking are still studied years after their delivery. Among these examples are:

As in other parts of general culture, the notion of a canon of the most important historical speeches is giving way to a broader understanding. Many previously forgotten historical speeches are being recovered and studied.[22]

Women and public speaking[edit]

There are many international female speakers. Much of women's earlier public speaking is directly correlated to activism work.


In 1937 two women founded the Penguin Club of Australia. Jean Ellis led the organisation to be nationwide.[23] The organisation was called "Speaking Made Easy" in 2020.[24]

United States[edit]

Between the 18th and 19th centuries in the United States, women were publicly banned from speaking in the courtroom, the Senate floor, and the pulpit.[25][pages needed] It was also deemed improper for a woman to be heard in a public setting. Exceptions existed for women from the Quaker religion, allowing them to speak publicly in meetings of the church.[26][pages needed]

Frances Wright was one of the first female public speakers in the United States, advocating equal education for both women and men through large audiences and the press.[25][pages needed] Maria Stewart, a woman of African American descent, was also one of the first female speakers of the United States, lecturing in Boston in front of both men and women just 4 years after Wright, in 1832 and 1833, on educational opportunities and abolition for young girls.[26][pages needed]

The first female agents and sisters of the American Anti-Slavery Society Angelina Grimké and Sarah Grimké created a platform for public lectures to women and conducted tours between 1837 and 1839. The sisters advocated that slavery relates to women's rights and that women need equality.[27] They came to a disagreement with churches that did not want the two speaking publicly due to them being women.[28]

Great Britain[edit]

The British political activist, Emmeline Pankhurst, founded the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) on October 10, 1903.[29] The organization was aimed towards fighting for a woman's right to a parliamentary vote, which only men were granted at the time.[30] Emmeline was known for being a powerful orator, who led many women to rebel through militant forms until the outbreak of World War I in 1914.[29]


Malala Yousafzai is a modern-day public speaker, who was born in the Swat Valley in Pakistan, and is an educational activist for women and girls.[31] After the Taliban restricted the educational rights of women in the Swat Valley, Yousafzai presented her first speech How Dare the Taliban Take Away My Basic Right to Education?, in which she protested the shutdowns of the schools.[32] She presented this speech to a press in Peshawar.[32] Through this, she was able to bring more awareness to the situation in Pakistan.[32] She is known for her "inspiring and passionate speech" about educational rights given at the United Nations.[31] She is the youngest person ever to receive the Nobel Peace Prize, at the age of 17, which was awarded to her in 2014.[31] Her public speaking has brought worldwide attention to the difficulties of young girls in Pakistan. She continues to advocate for educational rights for women and girls worldwide through the Malala Fund,[31] with the purpose of helping girls around the world receive 12 years of education.[32]


Kishida Toshiko (1861–1901) was a female speaker during the Japanese Meiji Period. In October 1883, she publicly delivered a speech entitled 'Hakoiri Musume' (Daughters Kept in Boxes) in front of approximately 600 people.[33] Performed in Yotsu no Miya Theater in Kyoto, she criticised the action of parents that shelter their daughters from the outside world. Despite her prompt arrest, Kishida demonstrates the ability for Japanese women to evoke women's issues, experience, and liberation in public spaces, through the use of public speaking.[34]


The fear of speaking in public, known as glossophobia[35] or public speaking anxiety, is often mentioned as one of the most common phobias.[35]

The reason is uncertain, but it has been speculated that this fear is primal, like how animals fear being seen by predators.[36]

However, the apprehension experienced when speaking in public can have a number of causes,[35] such as social anxiety disorder, or a prior experience of public humiliation.


Effective public speaking can be developed by joining a club such as Rostrum, Toastmasters International, Association of Speakers Clubs (ASC), or Speaking Circles, in which members are assigned exercises to improve their speaking skills. Members learn by observation and practice, and hone their skills by listening to constructive suggestions, followed by new public speaking exercises.

Toastmasters International[edit]

Toastmasters International is a public speaking organization with over 15,000 clubs worldwide, and more than 300,000 members.[37] This organization helps individuals with their public speaking skills, as well as other skills necessary for them to grow and become effective public speakers.[38] Members of the club meet and work together on their skills; each member practices giving speeches, while the other members evaluate and provide feedback.[38] There are also other small tasks that the members do, like practice impromptu speaking by talking about different topics without having anything planned.[38] Each member has a specific role, and all of these roles help with the process of gaining their skills as public speakers, and as leaders.[38] The number of roles lets each member be able to speak at least one time at the meetings.[37] Members are also able to participate in a variety of speech contests, in which the winners can compete in the World Championship of Public Speaking.[39]


Rostrum is another public speaking organization, founded in Australia, with more than 100 clubs all over the country.[40] This organization aims at helping people become better communicators, no matter the occasion.[40] At the meetings, speakers are able to gain skills by presenting speeches, while members provide feedback to those presenting.[41] Qualified speaking trainers attend these meetings as well, and provide professional feedback at the end of the meetings.[41] There are also competitions that are held for members to participate in.[40] An online club is also available for members, no matter where they live.[42]

The new millennium has seen a notable increase in the number of training solutions, offered in the form of video and online courses. Videos can provide simulated examples of behaviours to emulate. Professional public speakers often engage in ongoing training and education to refine their craft. This may include seeking guidance to improve their speaking skills, such as learning better storytelling techniques, learning how to effectively use humour as a communication tool, and continuously researching in their topic area of focus.[43]

Professional speakers[edit]

Public speaking for business and commercial events is often done by professionals, whose expertise is well established. These speakers can be contracted independently, through representation by a speakers bureau, or by other means. Public speaking plays a large role in the professional world. In fact, it is believed that 70 percent of all jobs involve some form of public speaking.[44]



Ettus Ted Talk

New technology has also opened different forms of public speaking that are non-traditional such as TED Talks, which are conferences that are broadcast globally. This form of public speaking has created a wider audience base because public speaking can now reach both physical and virtual audiences.[45] These audiences can be watching from all around the world. YouTube is another platform that allows public speaking to reach a larger audience. On YouTube, people can post videos of themselves. Audiences are able to watch these videos for all types of purposes.[46]

Multimedia presentations can contain different video clips, sound effects, animation, laser pointers, remote control clickers, and endless bullet points.[47] All adding to the presentation and evolving our traditional views of public speaking.

Public speakers may use audience response systems. For large assemblies, the speaker will usually speak with the aid of a public address system or microphone and loudspeaker.


Telecommunication and videoconferencing are also forms of public speaking. David M. Fetterman of Stanford University wrote in his 1997 article Videoconferencing over the Internet: "Videoconferencing technology allows geographically disparate parties to hear and see each other usually through satellite or telephone communication systems." This technology is helpful for large conference meetings and face-to-face communication between parties without demanding the inconvenience of travel.

Notable modern theorists[edit]

  • Harold Lasswell developed Lasswell's model of communication. There are five basic elements of public speaking that are described in this theory: the communicator, message, medium, audience, and effect. In short, the speaker should be answering the question "who says what in which channel to whom with what effect?"

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Pei-Ling, Lee (October 2020). "The Application of Chinese Rhetoric to Public Speaking". China Media Research. 16 (4).
  2. ^ "8.2: The Purposes of Public Speaking". Social Sci LibreTexts. 2020-12-13. Retrieved 2023-09-29.
  3. ^ Flintoff, John-Paul (2021). A Modest Book About How To Make An Adequate Speech. Short Books. p. 52. ISBN 978-1780724560. An audience is not a single entity, but a group of individuals who differ from one another perhaps as much as they may differ from you. If you forget that, the slip is unlikely to work in your favour.
  4. ^ "Objectives of speech". Retrieved 2023-09-29.
  5. ^ a b c d e Hassan Sallomi, Azhar (2018-01-01). "A Stylistic Study of Persuasive Techniques in Political Discourse". International Journal of Language Academy. 6 (23): 357–365. doi:10.18033/ijla.3912. ISSN 2342-0251.
  6. ^ "TED: Ideas Worth Spreading". Retrieved 2023-08-17.
  7. ^ "Public-Speaking Skills: Vital in the Personal and Professional Lives of Individuals".
  8. ^ "Public Speaking | Harvard University". 24 July 2023.
  9. ^ a b c d Opt, Susan K. (September 2019). ""To Intervene: A Transcending and Reorienting Goal for Public Speaking."". Atlantic Journal of Communication. 27 (4): 247–259. doi:10.1080/15456870.2019.1613657. S2CID 181424112.
  10. ^ Womack, Morris M.; Bernstein, Elinor (1990). Speech for Foreign Students. Springfield, IL: C.C. Thomas. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-398-05699-5. Retrieved June 12, 2017. Some of the earliest written records of training in public speaking may be traced to ancient Egypt. However, the most significant records are found among the ancient Greeks.
  11. ^ Murphy, James J. "Demosthenes – greatest Greek orator". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  12. ^ Heinrichs, Jay. (2008). Thank You For Arguing. Penguin. p. 39. ISBN 978-0593237380. Aristotle called them logos, ethos and pathos, and so will I, because the meanings of the Greek versions are richer than those of the English versions
  13. ^ "Sophists". Britannica Kids. Retrieved 2023-08-17.
  14. ^ Vogt, Katya, "Ancient Skepticism", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2022 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL =
  15. ^ a b May, James (2004). "Demosthenes". Salem Press. Great Lives from History: The Ancient World, Prehistory-476 c.e. Retrieved December 12, 2020.
  16. ^ a b "Demosthenes (Greek orator) | World History: A Comprehensive Reference Set - Credo Reference". Retrieved 2020-12-13.
  17. ^ a b c d "Gale Power Search - Document - Demosthenes & Cicero". Retrieved 2020-12-13.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Rapp, Christof. "Aristotle's Rhetoric". Retrieved 2021-08-06.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Roberts, W. Rhys. "The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 1 July 2021.
  20. ^ Higgins, Colin; Walker, Robyn (September 2012). "Ethos, logos, pathos : Strategies of persuasion in social/environmental reports". Accounting Forum. 36 (3): 194–208. doi:10.1016/j.accfor.2012.02.003. ISSN 0155-9982. S2CID 144894570.
  21. ^ German, Kathleen M. (2010). Principles of Public Speaking. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-205-65396-6.
  22. ^ "Archives of Women's Political Communication".
  23. ^ Rutledge, Martha, "Melicent Jane (Jean) Ellis (1887–1974)", Australian Dictionary of Biography, Canberra: National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, retrieved 2023-09-26
  24. ^ Broekhof, Shirl (2020-01-25). "Women Enriching the Lives of Other Women". Speaking Made Easy. Retrieved 2023-09-26.
  25. ^ a b Mankiller, Wilma Pearl (1998). The Reader's Companion to U.S. Women's History. ISBN 978-0585068473.
  26. ^ a b O'Dea, Suzanne (2013). From Suffrage to the Senate: America's Political Women. ISBN 978-1-61925-010-9.
  27. ^ Bizzell, Patricia (2010). "Chastity Warrants for Women Public Speakers in Nineteenth-Century American Fiction". Rhetoric Society Quarterly. 40 (4): 17. doi:10.1080/02773945.2010.501050. S2CID 143052545.
  28. ^ Bahdwar, Neera (November 2017). "Sarah Grimké and Angelina Grimké Weld: Abolitionists and Feminists". The Future of Freedom Foundation. FFF. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
  29. ^ a b "Gale eBooks - Document - Pankhurst, Emmeline, Christabel, and Sylvia". Retrieved 2020-12-13.
  30. ^ Purvis, June (2013), Gottlieb, Julie V.; Toye, Richard (eds.), "Emmeline Pankhurst in the Aftermath of Suffrage, 1918–1928", The Aftermath of Suffrage: Women, Gender, and Politics in Britain, 1918–1945, London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 19–36, doi:10.1057/9781137333001_2, ISBN 978-1-137-33300-1, retrieved 2020-12-13
  31. ^ a b c d "Yousafzai, Malala (1997–) | Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World - Credo Reference". Retrieved 2020-12-13.
  32. ^ a b c d "Gale Power Search - Document - Education Meant Risking Her Life A Young Girl's Deadly Struggle to Learn". Retrieved 2020-12-13.
  33. ^ Anderson, Marnie (2006-12-01). "Kishida Toshiko and the Rise of the Female Speaker in Meiji Japan". U.S.-Japan Women's Journal (31): 36–59.
  34. ^ Sievers, Sharon L. (1981). "Feminist Criticism in Japanese Politics in the 1880s: The Experience of Kishida Toshiko". Signs. 6 (4): 602–616. doi:10.1086/493837. ISSN 0097-9740. JSTOR 3173734. S2CID 143844577.
  35. ^ a b c Black, Rosemary (2018-06-04). "Glossophobia (Fear of Public Speaking): Are You Glossophobic?". Retrieved 2019-07-11.
  36. ^ Flintoff, John-Paul (2021-02-07). "Can I Have Your Attention? How I came to love public speaking". The fear is primal, because for most of history if you had lots of eyeballs on you, it meant you were about to be gobbled up. For thousands of years, hardly anyone knew what it felt like to be stared at, and listened to, by large groups of others.
  37. ^ a b Yasin, Burhanuddin; Champion, Ibrahim (November 12–13, 2016). "FROM A CLASS TO A CLUB". Proceedings of the 1st English Education International Conference (EEIC) in Conjunction with the 2nd Reciprocal Graduate Research Symposium (RGRS) of the Consortium of Asia-Pacific Education Universities (CAPEU) Between Sultan Idris Education University and Syiah Kuala University. ISSN 2527-8037.
  38. ^ a b c d "Toastmasters International -All About Toastmasters". Retrieved 2020-12-13.
  39. ^ "Toastmasters International -". Retrieved 2020-12-13.
  40. ^ a b c "Rostrum Australia - About Rostrum Public Speaking". Retrieved 2020-12-13.
  41. ^ a b "Rostrum Australia - FAQ". Retrieved 2020-12-13.
  42. ^ "Rostrum Australia - Rostrum Online". Retrieved 2020-12-13.
  43. ^ "Important Public Speaking Skills for Workplace Success". The Balance Careers. Retrieved 2022-06-01.
  44. ^ Schreiber, Lisa. Introduction to Public Speaking.[ISBN missing][1]
  45. ^ Gallo, Carmine (2014). Talk Like TED: The 9 Public-Speaking Secrets of the World's Top Minds. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-1466837270.
  46. ^ Anderson, Chris (2016). TED Talks: The Official TED Guide to Public Speaking. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  47. ^ Ridgley, Stanley K. (2012). The Complete Guide to Business School Presenting: What your professors don't tell you... What you absolutely must know. Anthem Press.

Further reading[edit]

  • Collins, Philip. "The Art of Speeches and Presentations" (John Wiley & Sons, 2012).
  • Fairlie, Henry. "Oratory in Political Life," History Today (Jan 1960) 10#1 pp 3–13. A survey of political oratory in Great Britain from 1730 to 1960.
  • Flintoff, John-Paul. "A Modest Book About How To Make An Adequate Speech" (Short Books, 2021). excerpt
  • Gold, David, and Catherine L. Hobbs, eds. Rhetoric, History, and Women's Oratorical Education: American Women Learn to Speak (Routledge, 2013).
  • Heinrichs, Jay. "Thank You For Arguing" (Penguin, 2008).
  • Lucas, Stephen E. The Art of Public Speaking (13th ed. McGraw Hill, 2019).
  • Noonan, Peggy. "Simply Speaking" (Regan Books, 1998).
  • Parry-Giles, Shawn J., and J. Michael Hogan, eds. The Handbook of Rhetoric and Public Address (2010) excerpt
  • Sproule, J. Michael. "Inventing public speaking: Rhetoric and the speech book, 1730–1930." Rhetoric & Public Affairs 15.4 (2012): 563–608. excerpt
  • Turner, Kathleen J., Randall Osborn, et al. Public speaking (11th ed. Houghton Mifflin, 2017). excerpt
  • Dale Carnegie· Arthur R. Pell. Public Speaking for Success. 2006
  • Dale Carnegie. Public Speaking and Influencing Men in Business. 2003
  • Dale Carnegie. How to Develop Self-Confidence & nfluence People by Public Speaking. New York: Pocket Books,1926
  • Chris Anderson. The Official TED Guide to Public Speaking. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston, 2016.

External links[edit]