Orange, New Jersey
|Orange, New Jersey|
|City of Orange Township|
First Presbyterian Church
Map of City of Orange in Essex County. Inset: Location of Essex County highlighted in the State of New Jersey.
Census Bureau map of Orange, New Jersey
|Coordinates: Coordinates: |
|Incorporated||November 27, 1806 (as township)|
|Reincorporated||April 3, 1872 (as city)|
|• Type||Faulkner Act Mayor-Council|
|• Body||City Council|
|• Mayor||Dwayne D. Warren (term ends June 30, 2016)|
|• Clerk||Dwight Mitchell|
|• Total||2.201 sq mi (5.700 km2)|
|• Land||2.199 sq mi (5.694 km2)|
|• Water||0.002 sq mi (0.005 km2) 0.09%|
|Area rank||393rd of 566 in state
19th of 22 in county
|Elevation||197 ft (60 m)|
|Population (2010 Census)|
|• Estimate (2014)||30,934|
|• Rank||75th of 566 in state
8th of 22 in county
|• Density||13,705.7/sq mi (5,291.8/km2)|
|• Density rank||17th of 566 in state
3rd of 22 in county
|Time zone||Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||Eastern (EDT) (UTC-4)|
|GNIS feature ID||1729742|
The City of Orange is a township in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 30,134, reflecting a decline of 2,734 (-8.3%) from the 32,868 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 2,943 (+9.8%) from the 29,925 counted in the 1990 Census.
Orange was originally incorporated as a township by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on November 27, 1806, from portions of Newark Township. Portions of the township were taken on April 14, 1834, to form the now-defunct Clinton Township. On January 31, 1860, Orange was reincorporated as a town. Portions of the town were taken to form South Orange Township (April 1, 1861, now known as Maplewood), Fairmount (March 11, 1862, now part of West Orange), East Orange Township (March 4, 1863) and West Orange Township (April 10, 1863). On April 3, 1872, Orange was reincorporated as a city. In 1982, the city was one of four Essex County municipalities to pass a referendum to become a township, joining 11 municipalities that had already made the change, of what would ultimately be more than a dozen Essex County municipalities to reclassify themselves as townships in order take advantage of federal revenue sharing policies that allocated townships a greater share of government aid to municipalities on a per capita basis. The city derives its name from William III of England or William IV, Prince of Orange.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Government
- 5 Emergency services
- 6 Education
- 7 Commerce
- 8 Transportation
- 9 Notable people
- 10 Points of interest
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Orange had its origins in Connecticut's New Haven Colony. In 1666, a group of 30 of New Haven's families traveled by water to found "a town on the Passayak" River. They arrived on territory now encompassing Newark, the Oranges, and several other municipalities. The area was situated in the northeast portion of a land grant conveyed by King Charles II of England to his brother James, Duke of York. In 1664, James conveyed the land to two proprietors, Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. Since Carteret had been Royal Governor of the Isle of Jersey, the territory became known as "New Jersey."
Orange was initially a part of the city of Newark, but it was originally known as "Newark Mountains". On June 7, 1780, the townspeople of Newark Mountains officially voted to adopt the name Orange. At the time, there was a significant number of people in favor of secession from Newark. However, this would not occur until November 27, 1806, when the territory now encompassing all of the Oranges was finally detached. On April 13, 1807, the first government was elected, but not until March 13, 1860 was Orange officially incorporated as a city. Immediately, the new city began fragmenting into smaller communities, primarily because of local disputes about the costs of establishing paid police, fire, and street departments. South Orange was organized on January 26, 1861; Fairmount (later to become part of West Orange) on March 11, 1862; East Orange on March 4, 1863; and West Orange (including Fairmount) on March 14, 1863.
Orange is located on the Newark and Mount-Pleasant Turnpike, the main road from Newark to Morristown, and ultimately to Easton, Pennsylvania. The town became a busy thoroughfare for travelers, and hotels abounded. Initially, the stagecoach was the primary method of transportation. Omnibuses of the Eclipse and the Morris & Newark Lines serviced Orange. The Morris and Essex Railroad arrived in Orange in November 1836, its first cars drawn by horses. On October 2, 1837, the first steam locomotive appeared, and the horses were, with minor exception, relegated to pasture. The "M&E" later became a part of the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad (DL&W), which exists today as New Jersey Transit's Morristown Line. Trolley cars appeared much later, with the Orange and Newark Horse Car Railroad Company running its first car up Main Street in May 1862. The Orange Crosstown Line, eventually extending from Morris Street, Orange, to Bloomfield, was started in June 1888. (The first electric trolley in the State of New Jersey operated over a section of this line.) Eventually, all of the trolleys, and the buses that replaced them, became part of the sprawling Public Service Coordinated Transport System.
Orange was an industrial city from the outset. Early settlers found a profuse growth of hemlock trees, an ideal supply of tannic acid for the tanning industry, and boot and shoemaking factories soon flourished.
Orange was once the hatmaking capital of the United States. The industry can be traced there to 1792. By 1892, 21 firms were engaged in that trade, employing over 3,700 people in plants that produced about 4.8 million hats, which had a combined value in excess of $1 million. Several brothers founded the "No-Name Hat Company" in Orange before one of them moved on to make fedoras in Philadelphia under the family name, "Stetson." By 1921, however, only five hatmaking firms were left, and by 1960, all had departed for places such as Norwalk and Danbury, Connecticut.
Beer was a major revenue producer in Orange beginning in the early 1900s, when the three Winter Brothers of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, arrived in the city and built the first brewery. The Orange Brewery was constructed in 1901 at a reported cost of $350,000. The production of beer ceased with prohibition in 1920, and after the repeal of the Volstead Act in 1933, the brewery was sold to John F. Trommers of Philadelphia. Trommers brewed beer under that label until 1950, when the concern was again sold to Liebmann Breweries, Incorporated, which bottled Rheingold Beer. Eventually, after several additional owners, the plant was closed permanently in 1977.
Other notable firms located in Orange were the Monroe Calculating Company, manufacturers of the patented adding machines of the same name, and the Bates Manufacturing Company, producers of office accessories such as staplers and stampers. The United States Radium Corporation was a notorious resident of Orange. This firm refined ore and extracted the radium used to make luminous paint for dials and hands of watches and other indicators. It was only years later that the terrible carcinogenic effects of this material became known, and the polluted site of the factory became a thorn in the side of the city.
Orange has produced such notables as baseball's Monte Irvin and heavyweight boxer Tony Galento. Actor William Bendix lived and worked here for a short while. Presidents, presidential candidates, and governors visited. Orange threw a grand party on its 100th anniversary, and another when it turned 150.
Once a multi-ethnic, economically diverse city, Orange suffered indirectly from the 1967 riots in Newark (even though Newark and Orange do not share a border) and directly from the construction of Interstate 280 through the heart of the downtown area, triggering middle-class "white flight" from aging industrial towns to the new automobile suburbs being built in western Essex County and elsewhere. By the end of the 1970s, Orange had many of the urban ills normally associated with larger cities.
In 1982, citizens voted overwhelmingly to change the designation of Orange from a city to a township, thereby making it eligible for federal Revenue Sharing funds. In 1985, the State of New Jersey named Orange as a State Urban Enterprise Zone, creating tax breaks and investment incentives.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 2.201 square miles (5.700 km2), including 2.199 square miles (5.694 km2) of land and 0.002 square miles (0.005 km2) of water (0.09%).
|Population sources: 1810-1920
1840-1900 1840 1850-1870
1850 1870 1880-1890
1930-1990 2000 2010
* = Lost territory in previous decade.
At the 2010 United States Census, there were 30,134 people, 11,202 households, and 6,878 families residing in the township. The population density was 13,705.7 per square mile (5,291.8/km2). There were 12,222 housing units at an average density of 5,558.9 per square mile (2,146.3/km2). The racial makeup of the township was 12.80% (3,857) White, 71.83% (21,645) Black or African American, 0.57% (173) Native American, 1.51% (455) Asian, 0.02% (6) Pacific Islander, 9.95% (2,999) from other races, and 3.32% (999) from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 21.67% (6,531) of the population.
There were 11,202 households, of which 31.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 28.6% were married couples living together, 24.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 38.6% were non-families. 32.7% of all households were made up of individuals, and 11.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.38.
In the township, 25.0% of the population were under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 30.5% from 25 to 44, 23.6% from 45 to 64, and 11.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34.4 years. For every 100 females there were 89.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.1 males.
The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $40,818 (with a margin of error of +/- $1,616) and the median family income was $44,645 (+/- $4,033). Males had a median income of $34,986 (+/- $3,168) versus $36,210 (+/- $2,706) for females. The per capita income for the borough was $19,816 (+/- $1,027). About 16.2% of families and 18.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.6% of those under age 18 and 20.6% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2000 United States Census there were 32,868 people, 11,885 households, and 7,642 families residing in the township. The population density was 14,903.7 people per square mile (5,742.3/km2). There were 12,665 housing units at an average density of 5,742.8 per square mile (2,212.7/km2). The racial makeup of the township was 13.20% White, 75.10% Black or African American, 0.34% Native American, 1.26% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 5.21% from other races, and 4.79% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 12.47% of the population.
There were 11,885 households out of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 30.7% were married couples living together, 26.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.7% were non-families. 30.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.38.
In the township the population was spread out with 27.7% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 32.2% from 25 to 44, 19.3% from 45 to 64, and 10.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 86.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.1 males.
The median income for a household in the township was $35,759, and the median income for a family was $40,852. Males had a median income of $33,442 versus $29,520 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $16,861. About 15.4% of families and 18.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.6% of those under age 18 and 16.7% of those age 65 or over.
As part of the 2000 Census, 75.10% of Orange's residents identified themselves as being African American, one of the highest percentages of African American people in the United States, and the fourth-highest in New Jersey (behind Lawnside at 93.60%, East Orange at 89.46%, and Irvington at 81.66%) of all places with 1,000 or more residents identifying their ancestry.
Orange has a large Haitian American population, with 11.4% of residents identifying themselves as being of Haitian ancestry, the highest of any municipality in New Jersey and the eighth-highest in the United States.
Although still a small percentage of total residents, Orange and East Orange have the largest concentrations of Guyanese Americans in the country. In the 2000 Census, 2.9% of Orange residents identified as being of Guyanese ancestry. While Queens and Brooklyn had larger populations in terms of raw numbers, Orange and East Orange (with 2.5%) had the highest percentages of people of Guyanese ancestry as a portion of the total population of all places in the United States.
Orange is governed within the Faulkner Act, formally known as the Optional Municipal Charter Law, under the Mayor-Council form of municipal government, with a directly elected mayor and a City Council consisting of four ward representatives and three at-large representatives. Councilmembers are elected to serve four-year terms of office in non-partisan elections on a staggered basis with the four ward seats and the three at-large seats coming up for election on an alternating cycle every two years.
As of 2015[update], the Mayor of Orange is Dwayne D. Warren, whose term of office ends June 30, 2016. Members of the City Council are Council President Donna K. Williams (At-Large, 2016), Kerry Coley (East Ward, 2018), Elroy A. Corbitt (At-Large, 2016), Tency A. Eason (North Ward, 2018), April Gaunt-Butler (At-Large, 2016), Harold L. Johnson (West Ward, 2018), Jamie Summers-Johnson (South Ward, 2018).
Federal, state and county representation
The City of Orange Township is located in the 10th Congressional District and is part of New Jersey's 34th state legislative district. Prior to the 2011 reapportionment following the 2010 Census, Orange had been in the 27th state legislative district.
New Jersey's Tenth Congressional District is represented by Donald Payne, Jr. (D, Newark). New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Cory Booker (D, Newark, term ends 2021) and Bob Menendez (D, Paramus, 2019).
The 34th District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Nia Gill (D, Montclair) and in the General Assembly by Thomas P. Giblin (D, Montclair) and Sheila Y. Oliver (D, East Orange). The Governor of New Jersey is Chris Christie (R, Mendham Township). The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Kim Guadagno (R, Monmouth Beach).
Essex County is governed by a directly-elected County Executive, with legislative functions performed by the Board of Chosen Freeholders. As of 2014[update], the County Executive is Joseph N. DiVincenzo, Jr. The county's Board of Chosen Freeholders consists of nine members, four elected on an at-large basis and one from each of five wards, who serve three-year terms of office on a concurrent basis, all of which end December 31, 2014. Essex County's Freeholders are Freeholder President Blonnie R. Watson (at large; Newark), Freeholder Vice President Patricia Sebold (at large; Livingston), Rufus I. Johnson (at large; Newark), Gerald W. Owens (At large; South Orange, filling the vacant seat after the resignation of Donald Payne, Jr.) Rolando Bobadilla (District 1 - Newark's North and East Wards, parts of Central and West Wards; Newark), D. Bilal Beasley (District 2 - Irvington, Maplewood and Newark's South Ward and parts of West Ward; Irvington), Carol Y. Clark (District 3 - East Orange, Newark's West and Central Wards, Orange and South Orange; East Orange) and Leonard M. Luciano (District 4 - Caldwell, Cedar Grove, Essex Fells, Fairfield, Livingston, Millburn, North Caldwell, Roseland, Verona, West Caldwell and West Orange; West Caldwell), and Brendan W. Gill (District 5 - Belleville, Bloomfield, Glen Ridge, Montclair and Nutley; Montclair). Constitutional elected countywide are County Clerk Christopher J. Durkin (West Caldwell, 2015), Sheriff Armando B. Fontoura (2015) and Surrogate Theodore N. Stephens, II (2016).
As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 14,943 registered voters in Orange, of which 8,490 (56.8%) were registered as Democrats, 302 (2.0%) were registered as Republicans and 6,147 (41.1%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were no voters registered to other parties.
In the 2012 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 96.7% of the vote (9,828 cast), ahead of Republican Mitt Romney with 2.9% (291 votes), and other candidates with 0.4% (42 votes), among the 10,230 ballots cast by the township's 16,243 registered voters (69 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 63.0%. In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 95.5% of the vote (10,001 cast), ahead of Republican John McCain with 3.8% (397 votes) and other candidates with 0.3% (27 votes), among the 10,476 ballots cast by the city's 15,388 registered voters, for a turnout of 68.1%. In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 89.6% of the vote (8,000 ballots cast), outpolling Republican George W. Bush with 9.1% (811 votes) and other candidates with 0.5% (67 votes), among the 8,931 ballots cast by the city's 14,409 registered voters, for a turnout percentage of 62.0.
In the 2013 gubernatorial election, Democrat Barbara Buono received 85.0% of the vote (3,809 cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 14.4% (643 votes), and other candidates with 0.6% (27 votes), among the 4,560 ballots cast by the township's 16,607 registered voters (81 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 27.5%. In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 91.7% of the vote (4,993 ballots cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 5.5% (302 votes), Independent Chris Daggett with 1.4% (74 votes) and other candidates with 0.6% (31 votes), among the 5,442 ballots cast by the city's 14,891 registered voters, yielding a 36.5% turnout.
The City of Orange is served by the professional firefighters of the city of Orange Fire Department (OFD). Founded in 1872, the OFD operates out of two Fire Stations, located at 419 Central Avenue, and 257 Washington Street. The fire apparatus fleet consist of three engines, one ladder, and numerous other special, support, and reserve units. The current Director of the Department is Kenneth Douglas.
The Orange Board of Education serves public school students in pre-Kindergarten through twelfth grade. The district is one of 31 former Abbott districts statewide, which are now referred to as "SDA Districts" based on the requirement for the state to cover all costs for school building and renovation projects in these districts under the supervision of the New Jersey Schools Development Authority.
As of the 2011-12 school year, the district's 11 schools had an enrollment of 4,618 students and 436.5 classroom teachers (on an FTE basis), for a student–teacher ratio of 10.58:1. Schools in the district (with 2011-12 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics) are Orange Early Childhood Center, eight elementary schools — Central School (defunct, had 249 students in grades K-2), Cleveland Street School (296; K-7), Forest Street School (356; PreK-7), Heywood Avenue School (422; PreK-7), Lincoln Avenue School (599; K-7), Oakwood Avenue School (274; PreK-7), Park Avenue School (437; K-7), Rosa Parks School (618; 2-7, formerly Main Street School) — Orange Preparatory Academy for grades 8-9 (571, formerly Orange Middle School), Orange High School for grades 10–12 (796) and Career and Innovation Academy of Orange.
The Orange Public Library collection contains 150,000 volumes and circulates 56,000 items annually. Built as the Stickler Memorial Library, the imposing structure designed by McKim, Mead, and White opened in 1901.
Portions of Orange are part of an Urban Enterprise Zone. In addition to other benefits to encourage employment within the Zone, shoppers can take advantage of a reduced 3½% sales tax rate (versus the 7% rate charged statewide) at eligible merchants.
Roads and highways
As of May 2010[update], the city had a total of 44.64 miles (71.84 km) of roadways, of which 39.14 miles (62.99 km) were maintained by the municipality, 4.43 miles (7.13 km) by Essex County and 1.07 miles (1.72 km) by the New Jersey Department of Transportation.
The Orange and Highland Avenue stations provide New Jersey Transit train service along the Morris & Essex Lines (formerly Erie Lackawanna Railway). Service is available via the Kearny Connection to Secaucus Junction and Penn Station in Midtown Manhattan and to Hoboken Terminal. Passengers can transfer at Newark Broad Street or Summit to reach the other destination if necessary.
People who were born in, residents of, or otherwise closely associated with Orange include:
- Anthony Accetturo (born 1938), former caporegime and leader of the New Jersey faction of the Lucchese crime family, The Jersey Crew.
- Robert Adams (born 1937), photographer who has focused on the changing landscape of the American West.
- Walter G. Alexander (1880–1953), first African American member of the New Jersey Legislature.
- Jay Alford (born 1983), defensive tackle for the Oakland Raiders drafted in the 3rd Round of the 2007 NFL Draft (81st overall).
- Peter F. Allgeier, served as U.S. Deputy Trade Representative from May 2001 until August 2009.
- George Armstrong (1924-1993), catcher who played eight MLB games in 1946 with the Philadelphia Athletics.
- John L. Blake (1831–1899), represented New Jersey's 6th congressional district from 1879 to 1881.
- Cory Boyd (born 1985), former starting tailback for the University of South Carolina. and drafted by the Tampa Bay Buccaneers in the 7th round (238th pick overall) of the 2008 NFL Draft.
- Samuel P. Bush (1863–1948), industrialist and patriarch of the Bush political family.
- John Condit (1755–1834), United States Representative and a United States Senator from New Jersey.
- Silas Condit (1778–1861), represented New Jersey in the United States House of Representatives from 1831 to 1833.
- John Crotty (born 1969), former NBA basketball player.
- Bobby Czyz (born 1962), champion prizefighter.
- Brian E. Daley (born 1940), professor of theology who received the Ratzinger Prize in 2012.
- Pete D'Alonzo (1929–2001), American football player
- Constance Adams DeMille (1874-1960), actress and wife of director Cecil B. DeMille.
- Gail Fisher (1935-2000), actress best known for her role on Mannix.
- Charles N. Fowler (1852–1932), represented 5th congressional district in the United States House of Representatives from 1895 to 1911.
- Tony Galento (1910–1979), heavyweight boxer.
- Al Harrington (born 1980), professional basketball player currently playing for the NBA's Denver Nuggets.
- George Huntington Hartford (1833-1917), Mayor from 1878 to 1890 and owned the Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company, the country's largest food retailer at the time of his death.
- Beatrice Hicks (1919–1979), founder of the Society of Women Engineers in 1950.
- Dulé Hill (born 1975), actor.
- Mark Kelly (born 1964), astronaut who first went into space as the pilot for STS-108 Endeavour (December 5–17, 2001), and returned to space with STS-121 in 2006 as the pilot; His twin brother, Scott Kelly, is also in the Astronaut Corps.
- John B. Mason (1858–1919), stage actor.
- Elmer Matthews (1927-2015), lawyer and politician who served three terms in the New Jersey General Assembly.
- George McClellan (1826–1885), American Civil War general and later Governor of New Jersey, died here.
- Donald W. McGowan, United States Army Major General and Chief of the National Guard Bureau.
- John Milnor (born 1931), mathematician known for his work in differential topology, K-theory and dynamical systems and recipient of the Fields Medal, Wolf Prize, and Abel Prize.
- Daniel F. Minahan (1877–1947), served as mayor of Orange from May 1914 until August 1919, and represented New Jersey's 6th congressional district from 1919 to 1921 and again from 1923 to 1925.
- Gordon Allen Newkirk, Jr. (1928-1985), astrophysicist best known for his research on the solar corona.
- Col. Henry Steel Olcott (1832–1907), founder and first president of the Theosophical Society, first well-known person of European ancestry to make a formal conversion to Buddhism, helped create a Buddhist renaissance, assisted in designing the Buddhist flag, a national hero of Sri Lanka.
- Daniel Quillen (1940–2011), mathematician known for being the "prime architect" of higher algebraic K-theory and recipient of the Fields Medal.
- Jim Ringo (1931–2007), NFL player for the Green Bay Packers and Philadelphia Eagles, member of the Pro Football Hall of Fame.
- Dick Savitt (born 1927), tennis player who reached a ranking of # 2 in the world.
- Roy Scheider (1932–2008), actor.
- George Tully (1904-1980), former NFL player.
- Terrell Willis, running back who played in the NFL with the New York Jets.
Points of interest
- Radium Girls, the name given to a group of women who were harmed, and ultimately died, from radiation exposure at a factory in Orange.
- 2010 Census Gazetteer Files: New Jersey County Subdivisions, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 21, 2015.
- US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
- 2015 New Jersey Mayors Directory, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs, as of October 20, 2015. Accessed November 13, 2015.
- Lee, Eunice. "Montclair, Orange swear in new mayors", The Star-Ledger, July 2, 2012. Accessed July 5, 2012. "Orange and Montclair swore in new mayors Sunday as both towns ushered in new leadership. In Orange, Dwayne D. Warren took office as mayor, switching roles from a different position in city hall. "
- Departments, City of Orange Township. Accessed September 18, 2012.
- 2012 New Jersey Legislative District Data Book, Rutgers University Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, March 2013, p. 125.
- U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Township of City of Orange, Geographic Names Information System. Accessed March 8, 2013.
- DP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 for City of Orange township, Essex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed December 14, 2011.
- Municipalities Grouped by 2011-2020 Legislative Districts, New Jersey Department of State, p. 14. Accessed January 6, 2013.
- Table DP-1. Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2010 for City of Orange township, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed December 14, 2011.
- "2010 Census Populations: Essex County", Asbury Park Press. Accessed October 6, 2011.
- PEPANNRES - Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014 - 2014 Population Estimates for New Jersey municipalities, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 21, 2015.
- GCT-PH1 Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - State -- County Subdivision from the 2010 Census Summary File 1 for New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed August 6, 2013.
- Look Up a ZIP Code, United States Postal Service. Accessed October 6, 2011.
- [ Area Code Lookup - NPA NXX for Jersey City, NJ], Area-Codes.com. Accessed April 1, 2015.
- American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
- A Cure for the Common Codes: New Jersey, Missouri Census Data Center. Accessed July 5, 2012.
- US Board on Geographic Names, United States Geological Survey. Accessed April 8, 2015.
- Table 7. Population for the Counties and Municipalities in New Jersey: 1990, 2000 and 2010, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development, February 2011. Accessed July 5, 2012.
- Snyder, John P. The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606-1968, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. pp. 130-131. Accessed July 6, 2012.
- "Chapter VI: Municipal Names and Municipal Classification", p. 73. New Jersey State Commission on County and Municipal Government, 1992. Accessed September 24, 2015.
- "Removing Tiering From The Revenue Sharing Formula Would Eliminate Payment Inequities To Local Governments", Government Accountability Office, April 15, 1982. Accessed September 24, 2015. "In 1978, South Orange Village was the first municipality to change its name to the 'township' of South Orange Village effective beginning in entitlement period 10 (October 1978 to September 1979). The Borough of Fairfield in 1978 changed its designation by a majority vote of the electorate and became the 'Township of Fairfield' effective beginning entitlement period 11 (October 1979 to September 1980).... However, the Revenue Sharing Act was not changed and the actions taken by South Orange and Fairfield prompted the Town of Montclair and West Orange to change their designation by referendum in the November 4, 1980, election. The municipalities of Belleville, Verona, Bloomfield, Nutley, Essex Fells, Caldwell, and West Caldwell have since changed their classification from municipality to a township."
- Narvaez, Alfonso A. "New Jersey Journal", The New York Times, December 27, 1981. Accessed September 24, 2015. "Under the Federal system, New Jersey's portion of the revenue sharing funds is disbursed among the 21 counties to create three 'money pools.' One is for county governments, one for 'places' and a third for townships. By making the change, a community can use the 'township advantage' to get away from the category containing areas with low per capita incomes."
- Karcher, Alan J. New Jersey's Multiple Municipal Madness, pp. 119-120. Rutgers University Press, 1998. ISBN 9780813525662. Accessed September 24, 2015.
- Historical Overview, City of Orange Township. Accessed December 18, 2011.
- Hutchinson, Viola L. The Origin of New Jersey Place Names, New Jersey Public Library Commission, May 1945. Accessed September 16, 2015.
- Gannett, Henry. The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States, p. 23. United States Government Printing Office, 1905. Accessed September 16, 2015.
- Pierson, David Lawrence. History of the Oranges to 1921: Reviewing the Rise, Development and Progress of an Influential Community – Volume 1. Lewis Historical Publishing Company, New York, 1922. OCLC 3884577. See Chapter XXIX – The Name Orange Adopted, Page 155. Available via Google Books
- Frame, Paul. Radioluminescent Paint, Oak Ridge Associated Universities. Accessed September 17, 2007.
- Census Estimates for New Jersey April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 21, 2015.
- Compendium of censuses 1726-1905: together with the tabulated returns of 1905, New Jersey Department of State, 1906. Accessed July 17, 2013.
- Dugan, Daniel A. The Revised Charter, With Supplements Thereto of the City of Orange, N. J., p. 509. The Chronicle Press, 1900. Accessed November 5, 2012.
- Bowen, Francis. American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge for the Year 1843, p. 231, David H. Williams, 1842. Accessed July 17, 2013. Population for 1840 is listed as 3,269, which is five more than the value listed in the table.
- Raum, John O. The History of New Jersey: From Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time, Volume 1, p. 245, J. E. Potter and company, 1877. Accessed July 17, 2013. "The city of Orange is divided into three wards. It was incorporated as a town January 31st, 1860. The present charter creating it into three wards was approved March 3d, 1869, and on the 3d of April, 1872, a supplement was approved by which it was changed to a city. Its population in 1850 was 4,385; in 1860, 8,877; and in 1870, 9,348."
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- "Beer Punch", Time (magazine), May 23, 1938. Accessed August 14, 2007. "In the Stone Age a fight was simply a fight. A throwback to Stone-Age man is potbellied Tony Galento, Orange, N. J. bartender, who shrugs his chubby shoulders at the fancy art of boxing, scoffs at the modern mode of training."
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- Litsky, Frank. "Jim Ringo, Pro Football Hall of Fame Center, Dies at 75", The New York Times, November 21, 2007. Accessed April 3, 2011. "James Stephen Ringo was born Nov. 21, 1931, in Orange, N.J., and played high school football in Phillipsburg, N.J."
- Staff. "Savitt Rallies to Beat Flam", Los Angeles Times, July 5, 1951. Accessed April 3, 2011. "Dick Savitt of Orange, N.J., who is seeking a sweep of the world's major amateur tennis titles, rallied from what looked like certain defeat today to vanquish Herbie Flam of Beverly Hills, 1–6, 15–13, 6–3, 6–2, and storm into the finals of the All-England..."
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Orange, New Jersey.|
- City of Orange Township website
- Orange Board of Education
- Orange Board of Education's 2012–13 School Report Card from the New Jersey Department of Education
- School Data for the Orange Board of Education, National Center for Education Statistics
- Citizens for Responsible Government website