|Capital One Orange Bowl|
|Stadium||Hard Rock Stadium|
|Location||Miami Gardens, Florida (Dec. 1996–1998, 2000–present)|
|Previous stadiums||Miami Field (1935–1937)|
Miami Orange Bowl (1938–Jan. 1996, 1999)
|Previous locations||Miami, Florida (1935–Jan. 1996, 1999)|
|Conference tie-ins||ACC (1999–present)|
SEC/Big Ten/Notre Dame (Dec. 2014–present)
|Previous conference tie-ins||Big Eight (1976–Jan. 1996)|
Big East (1999–2006)
|Payout||US$35 million/conference (As of 2009[update])|
Orange Bowl (1935–1988)
Federal Express/FedEx Orange Bowl (1989–2010)
Discover Orange Bowl (2011–Jan. 2014)
|Virginia vs. Florida (Florida 36–28)|
|2020 season matchup|
|Texas A&M vs. North Carolina|
(Texas A&M 41–27)
The Orange Bowl is an annual American college football bowl game played in the Miami metropolitan area. It has been played annually since January 1, 1935, making it, along with the Sugar Bowl and the Sun Bowl, the second-oldest bowl game in the country, behind the Rose Bowl (first played 1902, played annually since 1916). The Orange Bowl is one of the New Year's Six, the top bowl games for the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision.
The Orange Bowl was originally held in the city of Miami at Miami Field before moving to the Miami Orange Bowl stadium in 1938. In 1996, it moved to Hard Rock Stadium in Miami Gardens, Florida. Since December 2014, the game has been sponsored by Capital One and officially known as the Capital One Orange Bowl. Previous sponsors include Discover Financial (2011–January 2014) and Federal Express/FedEx (1989–2010).
In its early years, the Orange Bowl had no defined conference tie-ins; it often pitted a team from the southeastern part of the country against a team from the central or northeastern states. From the 1950s until the mid-1990s, the Orange Bowl had a strong relationship with the Big Eight Conference. The champion (or runner-up in years in which the “no-repeat” rule was invoked) was invited to the bowl game in most years during this time; the 1979 Orange Bowl even had two representatives from the Big Eight. Opponents of the Big Eight varied; but were often major independents, runners-up in the Southeastern Conference (SEC), or champions of the Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC). Since 2007, the Orange Bowl has hosted the ACC champion—unless they are involved in the national championship playoff, in which case another high-ranking ACC team takes their place)—and has used the brand Home of the ACC Champion.
In the 1990s, the Orange Bowl was a member of the Bowl Coalition, but kept its Big Eight tie-in. It was later a member of the Bowl Alliance. From 1998 to 2013, The Orange Bowl was a member of the now-defunct Bowl Championship Series (BCS). The Orange Bowl served as the BCS National Championship Game in 2001 and 2005. However, beginning with the 2006 season, the BCS National Championship Game became a stand-alone event, hosted by the local bowl organization about one week following the New Year's Day bowl games (including the Orange Bowl). Under that format, the Orange Bowl Committee hosted two separate games in both 2009 (the 2009 Orange Bowl on January 1 and the 2009 BCS National Championship Game on January 8) and in 2013 (the 2013 Orange Bowl on January 1 and the 2013 BCS National Championship Game on January 7) at all the same venue. The BCS ended after the 2013 season, being replaced by the current College Football Playoff (CFP). The Orange Bowl has served as one of six bowls in the CFP since the 2014 season. In the years that it is not a national semifinal, the Orange Bowl is hosted by the ACC champion if that team is not one of the four top seeds for the CFP. The Orange Bowl hosted a national semifinal following the 2015 and 2018 seasons.
In 1890, Pasadena, California held its first Tournament of Roses Parade to showcase the city's mild weather compared to the harsh winters in northern cities. As one of the organizers said: "In New York, people are buried in snow. Here, our flowers are blooming and our oranges are about to bear. Let's hold a festival to tell the world about our paradise." In 1902, the annual festival was enhanced by adding an American football game.
In 1926, leaders in Miami, Florida, decided to do the same with a "Fiesta of the American Tropics" that was centered around a New Year's Day football game. Although a second "Fiesta" was never held, Miami leaders, including Earnest E. Seiler, later revived the idea with the "Palm Festival" (with the slogan "Have a Green Christmas in Miami").
Palm Festival Game
In 1932, George E. Hussey, official greeter of Miami, organized the first Festival of Palms Bowl, a predecessor of the Orange Bowl. With Miami suffering from both the Great Depression and the preceding Florida land bust, Hussey and other Miamians sought to help its economy by organizing a game similar to Pasadena's Rose Bowl.
Two games were played in this series at Moore Park in Miami, both pitting an invited opponent against a local team, the University of Miami. In the first game, played on January 2, 1933, Miami defeated Manhattan College 7–0. In the second game, played on New Year's Day 1934, Duquesne defeated Miami 33–7. Duquesne was coached by Elmer Layden, one of the Four Horsemen of Notre Dame.
These games are not recognized as bowl games by the NCAA because one team was guaranteed a berth regardless of record. However, following the success of these games, backers organized another game for New Year's Day 1935 under the Orange Bowl name. This game, unlike the Palm Festival Games, did not automatically grant a berth to one team, although the University of Miami was again a participant. For this reason, the 1935 Orange Bowl was later recognized by the NCAA as an official bowl game.
The Orange Bowl was played at Miami Field (located where Miami Orange Bowl was later built) from 1935 to 1937, the Miami Orange Bowl from 1938 to 1996, and again in 1999, and was moved to its current site, Hard Rock Stadium in Miami Gardens, Florida, in December 1996. The game was played back at the namesake stadium in 1999 (which would be the final bowl game ever in the Miami Orange Bowl) because the game was played on the same day the Miami Dolphins hosted an NFL Wild Card Playoff game. Coincidentally, both of those games were aired on ABC.
On January 1, 1965, the Texas vs. Alabama Orange Bowl was the first college bowl game to be televised live in prime time.
From 1968, the game usually featured the champion of the former Big Eight Conference. When the Big Eight Conference absorbed four members of the defunct Southwest Conference in 1996, the newly formed Big 12 Conference moved its conference champion tie-in to the Fiesta Bowl. Since 1998, however, with the creation of the Bowl Championship Series system, team selection for the Orange Bowl is now tied into the other three BCS Bowls.
From 1998 to 2005, the game hosted the champion of either the ACC or Big East conferences, unless they were invited to the National Championship game, or if the Orange Bowl itself was hosting the national championship matchup.
Starting with the 2006 season, the Orange Bowl has been exclusively tied with the ACC and has used the brand Home of the ACC Champion. As one of the Bowl Championship Series (BCS) bowl games, the site of the Orange Bowl also hosted the national championship game one week after the Orange Bowl game; it did so on a four-year rotating basis with the other three BCS games (the others being the Sugar, Fiesta, and Rose Bowls). The tie-in with the ACC continued with the inception of the College Football Playoff after the 2014 season. It hosts the ACC champion in the years that it is not a national semifinal, unless the ACC champion is selected for the College Football Playoff.
King Orange Jamboree Parade
From 1936 to 2001 (except for the World War II years), the Orange Bowl Committee also sponsored a parade. In its heyday, the parade was a nighttime New Year's Eve tradition, televised nationally with lighted floats and displays going down part of Biscayne Boulevard in downtown Miami to crowds as high as 500,000 people in the 1970s. However ratings dropped and the national television contract was lost in 1997, causing the parade to quickly become a shell of its former self since there were no sponsors for the elaborate floats. Attendance dwindled as well; by the turn of the millennium, the parade was lucky to draw 20,000 people. As a result, the committee chose to bring this tradition to an end in early 2002.
The very first King Orange Jamboree Parade was held the day before the 1936 game with 30 floats at an expense of $40,000 ($653,933 in 2012 dollars). Babs Beckwith was chosen as the first Orange Bowl queen.
The Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC) is locked into a 12-year deal (2014–2025) with the Orange Bowl, so if the ACC champion qualifies for the playoffs in a year when the Orange Bowl is not a semifinal host, the next-highest ranked ACC team will play in the Orange Bowl. For the secondary tie-ins, the Southeastern Conference (SEC) and the Big Ten Conference are guaranteed three appearances each, and the University of Notre Dame can play in a maximum of two games, but is not guaranteed any appearances. The ACC team's opponent in a given year will be the highest-ranked available team from the SEC, Big Ten, and Notre Dame, subject to several constraints: the SEC and Big Ten champions are always excluded, and when an SEC and/or Big Ten team qualifies for the College Football Playoff, the next available team would also be excluded from participating in the Orange Bowl due to contractual obligations with the Sugar Bowl and Rose Bowl, respectively. Also, should a highest-ranked team create a rematch with the ACC team, the Orange Bowl has the option of passing over that team for the next-highest ranked team among the Big Ten, SEC, and Notre Dame, again subject to the noted constraints. Rankings are based on the College Football Playoff committee's rankings. ESPN holds the television rights for 12 years as well.
Rankings are based on the AP Poll prior to the game being played.
|Date played||Winning team||Losing team||Venue||Attendance||Notes|
|January 1, 1935||Bucknell||26||Miami (Florida)||0||Miami Field||5,134||notes|
|January 1, 1936||Catholic||20||Mississippi||19||6,568||notes|
|January 1, 1937||#14 Duquesne||13||Mississippi State||12||9,210||notes|
|January 1, 1938||Auburn||6||Michigan State||0||Miami Orange Bowl||18,972||notes|
|January 2, 1939||#2 Tennessee||17||#4 Oklahoma||0||32,191||notes|
|January 1, 1940||#16 Georgia Tech||21||#6 Missouri||7||29,278||notes|
|January 1, 1941||#9 Mississippi State||14||#13 Georgetown||7||29,554||notes|
|January 1, 1942||#14 Georgia||40||TCU||26||35,786||notes|
|January 1, 1943||#10 Alabama||37||#8 Boston College||21||25,166||notes|
|January 1, 1944||LSU||19||Texas A&M||14||25,203||notes|
|January 1, 1945||Tulsa||26||#13 Georgia Tech||12||23,279||notes|
|January 1, 1946||Miami (Florida)||13||#16 Holy Cross||6||35,709||notes|
|January 1, 1947||#10 Rice||8||#7 Tennessee||0||36,152||notes|
|January 1, 1948||#10 Georgia Tech||20||#12 Kansas||14||59,578||notes|
|January 1, 1949||Texas||41||#8 Georgia||28||60,523||notes|
|January 2, 1950||#15 Santa Clara||21||#11 Kentucky||13||64,816||notes|
|January 1, 1951||#10 Clemson||15||#15 Miami (Florida)||14||65,181||notes|
|January 1, 1952||#6 Georgia Tech||17||#9 Baylor||14||65,839||notes|
|January 1, 1953||#9 Alabama||61||#14 Syracuse||6||66,280||notes|
|January 1, 1954||#4 Oklahoma||7||#1 Maryland||0||68,640||notes|
|January 1, 1955||#14 Duke||34||Nebraska||7||68,750||notes|
|January 2, 1956||#1 Oklahoma||20||#3 Maryland||6||76,561||notes|
|January 1, 1957||#20 Colorado||27||#19 Clemson||21||73,280||notes|
|January 1, 1958||#4 Oklahoma||48||#16 Duke||21||76,561||notes|
|January 1, 1959||#5 Oklahoma||21||#9 Syracuse||6||75,281||notes|
|January 1, 1960||#5 Georgia||14||#18 Missouri||0||72,186||notes|
|January 2, 1961||#5 Missouri||21||#4 Navy||14||72,212||notes|
|January 1, 1962||#4 LSU||25||#7 Colorado||7||68,150||notes|
|January 1, 1963||#5 Alabama||17||#8 Oklahoma||0||72,880||notes|
|January 1, 1964||#6 Nebraska||13||#5 Auburn||7||72,647||notes|
|January 1, 1965||#5 Texas||21||#1 Alabama||17||72,647||notes|
|January 1, 1966||#4 Alabama||39||#3 Nebraska||28||72,214||notes|
|January 2, 1967||Florida||27||#8 Georgia Tech||12||72,426||notes|
|January 1, 1968||#3 Oklahoma||26||#2 Tennessee||24||77,993||notes|
|January 1, 1969||#3 Penn State||15||#6 Kansas||14||77,719||notes|
|January 1, 1970||#2 Penn State||10||#6 Missouri||3||77,282||notes|
|January 1, 1971||#3 Nebraska||17||#5 LSU||12||80,699||notes|
|January 1, 1972||#1 Nebraska||38||#2 Alabama||6||78,151||notes|
|January 1, 1973||#9 Nebraska||40||#12 Notre Dame||6||80,010||notes|
|January 1, 1974||#6 Penn State||16||#13 LSU||9||60,477||notes|
|January 1, 1975||#9 Notre Dame||13||#2 Alabama||11||71,801||notes|
|January 1, 1976||#3 Oklahoma||14||#5 Michigan||6||76,799||notes|
|January 1, 1977||#11 Ohio State||27||#12 Colorado||10||65,537||notes|
|January 2, 1978||#6 Arkansas||31||#2 Oklahoma||6||60,987||notes|
|January 1, 1979||#4 Oklahoma||31||#6 Nebraska||24||66,365||notes|
|January 1, 1980||#5 Oklahoma||24||#4 Florida State||7||66,714||notes|
|January 1, 1981||#4 Oklahoma||18||#2 Florida State||17||71,043||notes|
|January 1, 1982||#1 Clemson||22||#4 Nebraska||15||72,748||notes|
|January 1, 1983||#3 Nebraska||21||#13 LSU||20||68,713||notes|
|January 2, 1984||#5 Miami (Florida)||31||#1 Nebraska||30||72,549||notes|
|January 1, 1985||#4 Washington||28||#2 Oklahoma||17||56,294||notes|
|January 1, 1986||#3 Oklahoma||25||#1 Penn State||10||74,178||notes|
|January 1, 1987||#3 Oklahoma||42||#9 Arkansas||8||52,717||notes|
|January 1, 1988||#2 Miami (Florida)||20||#1 Oklahoma||14||74,760||notes|
|January 2, 1989||#2 Miami (Florida)||23||#6 Nebraska||3||79,480||notes|
|January 1, 1990||#4 Notre Dame||21||#1 Colorado||6||81,190||notes|
|January 1, 1991||#1 Colorado||10||#5 Notre Dame||9||77,062||notes|
|January 1, 1992||#1 Miami (Florida)||22||#11 Nebraska||0||77,747||notes|
|January 1, 1993||#3 Florida State||27||#11 Nebraska||14||57,324||notes|
|January 1, 1994BC||#1 Florida State||18||#2 Nebraska||16||81,536||notes|
|January 1, 1995BC||#1 Nebraska||24||#3 Miami (Florida)||17||81,753||notes|
|January 1, 1996||#6 Florida State||31||#8 Notre Dame||26||72,198||notes|
|December 31, 1996||#6 Nebraska||41||#10 Virginia Tech||21||Pro Player Stadium@||63,297||notes|
|January 2, 1998BA||#2 Nebraska||42||#3 Tennessee||17||74,002||notes|
|January 2, 1999||#7 Florida||31||#18 Syracuse||10||Miami Orange Bowl||67,919||notes|
|January 1, 2000||#8 Michigan||35||#5 Alabama||34||Pro Player Stadium@||70,461||notes|
|January 3, 2001BCS||#1 Oklahoma||13||#3 Florida State||2||76,835||notes|
|January 2, 2002||#5 Florida||56||#6 Maryland||23||73,640||notes|
|January 2, 2003||#5 USC||38||#3 Iowa||17||75,971||notes|
|January 1, 2004||#10 Miami (Florida)||16||#9 Florida State||14||76,739||notes|
|January 4, 2005BCS||#1 USC||55||#2 Oklahoma||19||77,912||notes|
|January 3, 2006||#3 Penn State||26||#22 Florida State||23||Dolphins Stadium@||77,773||notes|
|January 2, 2007||#5 Louisville||24||#15 Wake Forest||13||Dolphin Stadium@||74,470||notes|
|January 3, 2008||#8 Kansas||24||#5 Virginia Tech||21||74,111||notes|
|January 1, 2009||#21 Virginia Tech||20||#12 Cincinnati||7||73,602||notes|
|January 5, 2010||#10 Iowa||24||#9 Georgia Tech||14||Land Shark Stadium@||66,131||notes|
|January 3, 2011||#5 Stanford||40||#12 Virginia Tech||12||Sun Life Stadium@||65,453||notes|
|January 4, 2012||#17 West Virginia||70||#22 Clemson||33||67,563||notes|
|January 1, 2013||#13 Florida State||31||#16 Northern Illinois||10||72,073||notes|
|January 3, 2014||#12 Clemson||40||#7 Ohio State||35||72,080||notes|
|December 31, 2014||#10 Georgia Tech||49||#8 Mississippi State||34||58,211||notes|
|December 31, 2015CFP||#1 Clemson||37||#4 Oklahoma||17||67,615||notes|
|December 30, 2016||#10 Florida State||33||#6 Michigan||32||Hard Rock Stadium||67,432||notes|
|December 30, 2017||#6 Wisconsin||34||#11 Miami (Florida)||24||65,326||notes|
|December 29, 2018CFP||#1 Alabama||45||#4 Oklahoma||34||66,203||notes|
|December 30, 2019||#6 Florida||36||Virginia||28||65,157||notes|
|January 2, 2021||#5 Texas A&M||41||#14 North Carolina||27||13,737||notes|
- ^BC Denotes Bowl Coalition Championship Game
- ^BA Denotes Bowl Alliance Championship Game
- ^BCS Denotes BCS National Championship Game
- ^CFP Denotes College Football Playoff semifinal game
- ^@ Denotes a historical name for what is now Hard Rock Stadium
- Due to an NFL scheduling conflict, the 1999 game was played at the Miami Orange Bowl
- USC vacated their 2005 victory due to NCAA sanctions
|2021||December 31, 2021||Friday|
|2022||December 30, 2022||Friday|
|2023||December 30, 2023||Saturday|
|2024||December 28, 2024||Saturday|
|2025||December 30, 2025||Tuesday|
denotes game is a College Football Playoff semifinal
The bowl first named an MVP in 1965. From 1970 through 1998, two MVPs were named for each game. Since 1999, only a single MVP is named, except when the game is part of the College Football Playoff (such as 2015 and 2018), in which case both an offensive and defensive MVP are named.:20–22
Updated through the January 2021 edition (87 games, 174 total appearances).
- Teams with multiple appearances
- Teams with a single appearance
Won (11): Bucknell, Catholic, Duquesne, Louisville, Rice, Santa Clara, Stanford, Tulsa, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin
Lost (14): Baylor, Boston College, Cincinnati, Georgetown, Holy Cross, Kentucky, Michigan State, Navy, North Carolina, Northern Illinois, Ole Miss, TCU, Virginia, Wake Forest
Appearances by conference
Updated through the January 2021 edition (87 games, 174 total appearances).
|Rank||Conference||Appearances||Record||Win %||# of
|6 (tie)||Big East||8||4–4||.500||6|
|10 (tie)||SoCon||1||1–0||1.000||1||Clemson (1–0)[A 10]|
|10 (tie)||MVC||1||1–0||1.000||1||Tulsa (1–0)|
|10 (tie)||MAC||1||0–1||.000||1||Northern Illinois (0–1)|
|10 (tie)||SIAA||1||0–1||.000||1||Miami (FL) (0–1)[A 6]|
Conferences that are defunct or not currently active in FBS appear in italics.
Big Eight records include results when the conference was known as the Big Six and Big Seven.
Pac-12 records include results when the conference was known as the Pacific-10.
Multiple teams have played in the bowl as members of different conferences at different times:
- Oklahoma: Big Eight and Big 12
- Nebraska: Big Eight and Big 12
- Kansas: Big Eight and Big 12
- Georgia Tech: SEC, independent, and ACC
- Texas A&M: SWC and SEC
- Miami (FL): SIAA, independent, Big East, and ACC
- Penn State: independent and Big Ten
- Florida State: independent and ACC
- Syracuse: independent and Big East
- Clemson: SoCon and ACC
- Virginia Tech: Big East and ACC
|Team||Record, Team vs. Opponent||Year|
|Most points scored (one team)||70, West Virginia vs. Clemson||2012|
|Most points scored (losing team)||35, Ohio State vs. Clemson||Jan. 2014|
|Most points scored (both teams)||103, West Virginia (70) vs. Clemson (33)||2012|
|Fewest points allowed||0, 8 times, most recent:
Miami (FL) vs. Nebraska
|Largest margin of victory||55, Alabama (61) vs. Syracuse (6)||1953|
|Total yards||605, Mississippi State vs. Georgia Tech||2014|
|Rushing yards||452, Georgia Tech vs. Mississippi State||2014|
|Passing yards||456, Florida vs. Maryland||2002|
|First downs||33, Mississippi State vs. Georgia Tech||2014|
|Fewest yards allowed||28, Bucknell vs. Miami||1935|
|Fewest rushing yards allowed||–8, Missouri vs. Navy||1961|
|Fewest passing yards allowed||0, shared by:
Holy Cross vs. Miami
Tennessee vs. Rice
|Individual||Record, Player, Team vs. Opponent||Year|
|All-purpose yards||280, Tavon Austin, West Virginia vs. Clemson
(123 receiving, 117 return, 40 rush)
|Touchdowns (all-purpose)||4, shared by:
Tavon Austin, West Virginia vs. Clemson
Johnny Rodgers, Nebraska vs. Notre Dame
|Rushing yards||206, Ahman Green, Nebraska vs. Tennessee||1998|
|Rushing touchdowns||3, most recent:
Synjyn Days, Georgia Tech vs. Mississippi State
Justin Thomas, Georgia Tech vs. Mississippi State
|Passing yards||453, Dak Prescott, Mississippi State vs. Georgia Tech||2014|
|Passing touchdowns||6, Geno Smith, West Virginia vs. Clemson||2012|
|Receiving yards||227, Sammy Watkins, Clemson vs. Ohio State||2014|
|Receiving touchdowns||4, Tavon Austin, West Virginia vs. Clemson||2012|
|Tackles||31 (total), Lee Roy Jordan, Alabama vs. Oklahoma
13 (solo), most recently:
Brian Bosworth, Oklahoma vs. Penn State
|Sacks||4, Rusty Medearis, Miami vs. Nebraska||1992|
|Interceptions||3, Bud Hebert, Oklahoma vs. Florida State||1980|
|Long Plays||Record, Player, Team vs. Opponent||Year|
|Touchdown run||94, Larry Smith, Florida vs. Georgia Tech||1967|
|Touchdown pass||92, Nyqwan Murray from Deondre Francois, Florida State vs. Michigan||2016|
|Kickoff return||100, C. J. Jones, Iowa vs. USC||2003|
|Punt return||87, Willie Reid, Florida State vs. Penn State||2006|
|Interception return||94, David Baker, Oklahoma vs. Duke||1958|
|Fumble return||99, Darwin Cook, West Virginia vs. Clemson||2012|
|Punt||82, Ike Pickle, Mississippi State vs. Duquesne||1937|
|Field goal||56, Greg Cox, Miami vs. Oklahoma||1988|
The game was previously officially known as the Discover Orange Bowl, since Discover Financial was announced as title sponsor on August 26, 2010 as part of a new four-year agreement. The game had been called the FedEx Orange Bowl from 1989 to 2010, as FedEx sponsored the event during that period. Starting with the 2010–11 season, ESPN carried the Orange Bowl, replacing Fox after four seasons. ABC aired the game from 1999 to 2006, with CBS (1995–1998) and NBC (1964–1994) previously carrying the game.
Discover stated that they would not renew their sponsorship of the game further on June 9, 2014; the game will be a part of the College Football Playoff in the future, and CFP rightsholder ESPN has asked for higher sponsorship fees, in return. On September 22, 2014, Capital One was announced as the new title sponsor of the Orange Bowl, transferring their bowl game sponsorship from the Citrus Bowl. Subsequently, the company's "Capital One Mascot Challenge" winner naming ceremony also moved to the Orange Bowl.
ESPN is the current rightsholder of the Orange Bowl, a relationship that began in 2011 as part of the contract to broadcast the Bowl Championship Series games. In anticipation of the transition to the College Football Playoff in the 2014–15 season, ESPN reached a new deal with the game's organizers in November 2012 to extend its rights through 2026, paying $55 million yearly. The game is also broadcast nationally by ESPN Radio.
Prior to that, Fox held the rights to the event (along with the other BCS bowls) since 2007, preceded by ABC (1999–2006 and 1962–64), CBS (1996–98 and 1953–61), and NBC (1965–95). This game, along with the Fiesta Bowl, is one of only two bowl games ever to air on all the "big 4" U.S. television networks. ESPN Deportes added a Spanish language telecast of the game in 2013.
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- "Tournament of Roses History". Pasadena Tournament of Roses. Archived from the original on December 2, 2006. Retrieved 5 December 2006.
- "History of the Orange Bowl". FedEx Orange Bowl. Archived from the original on 3 November 2006. Retrieved 5 December 2006.
- Ours, Robert (2004). Bowl Games: College Football's Greatest Tradition, pg. 28
- History of the Orange Bowl[dead link]
- "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Archived from the original on 10 March 2012. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
-  Archived March 25, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
- "The Inflation Calculator". WestEgg. Retrieved 2013-10-10.
- "1936 Orange Bowl". The Catholic University of America. Retrieved 2013-10-10.
- "She's Orange Bowl Queen". The Milwaukee Journal. 1935-12-31. Retrieved 2013-10-10.
- Daily Press (15 November 2012). "Teel Time: ACC, Orange Bowl announce ties with SEC, Big Ten, Notre Dame, ESPN". dailypress.com. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
- "Capital One Orange Bowl" (PDF). Bowl/All Star Game Records. NCAA. 2020. p. 4. Retrieved January 3, 2021 – via NCAA.org.
- "Dates Announced for College Football Playoff Games Through 2026". collegefootballplayoff.com (Press release). August 30, 2018. Retrieved April 13, 2019.
- "86th Capital One Orange Bowl now Scheduled for Primetime". orangebowl.org (Press release). May 13, 2019. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
- "Capital One Orange Bowl Media Guide" (PDF). orangebowl.org. 2019. Retrieved December 30, 2019.
- "Discover to sponsor Orange Bowl title slot". ESPN. 2010-08-26.
- Fox pulls out of bidding for next round of BCS games, ESPN.com
- Michael Smith; John Ourand; Terry Lefton (9 June 2014). "Discover, Tostitos to end bowl title deals". Sports Business Journal. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
- "CAPITAL ONE BECOMES TITLE SPONSOR OF THE ORANGE BOWL". Orange Bowl Committee. 22 September 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "Capital One Becomes Title Sponsor of the Orange Bowl". Atlantic Coast Conference. 22 September 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "ESPN Reaches 12-Year College Football Agreement With Orange Bowl". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- "BCS National Championship and Bowl Games on ESPN Deportes". ESPN. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
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