Orange County, Florida
|Orange County, Florida|
Orange County Courthouse
Location in the state of Florida
Florida's location in the U.S.
|Named for||Orange fruit|
|• Total||1,003 sq mi (2,598 km2)|
|• Land||903 sq mi (2,339 km2)|
|• Water||100 sq mi (259 km2)|
|• Density||1,249.25/sq mi (482/km²)|
|Congressional districts||5th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th|
|Time zone||Eastern: UTC-5/-4|
Orange County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,145,956, making it the fifth-most populous county in Florida. The county seat is Orlando.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Transportation
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Government
- 6 Education
- 7 Libraries
- 8 Politics
- 9 Communities
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
The land that is Orange County was part of the first land to emerge from below the Early Oligocene sea 33.9–28.4 million years ago and is known as Orange Island. Orange County's Rock Spring location is a Pleistocene fossil bearing area and has yielded a vast variety of birds and mammals including giant sloth, mammoth, camel, and the dire wolf dating around 1.1 million years ago.
In 1821, there were two counties that formed Florida: Escambia to the west and St. Johns to the east. In 1824, the area to the south of St. Johns County became Mosquito County, and Enterprise was named the county seat. This massive county took up much of central Florida. Mosquito County was renamed Orange County in 1845 when Florida became a state. Several counties, such as Osceola, Seminole, Lake, and Volusia were carved out of Orange County.
Orange County was renamed from Mosquito County for the fruit that constituted the county's main product. At its peak in the early 1970s, some 80,000 acres (320 km2) were planted in citrus in Orange County. There was the dark green foliage of orange trees and the scent of the orange blossoms when in bloom. In 2015, fewer commercial orange groves remain. The majority of groves were destroyed by the freezing temperatures experienced in successive winters of 1985-6, followed by the coldest temperatures of the century in the January 1985 cold wave, the worst since 1899.
The financial setbacks, not the first in the history of the grove region, were just too challenging for many growers. Economically destroyed, many just walked away from the land and its obligations. Others awaited other opportunities. One of the major land owners and growers in the region was the Tropicana company. They, however, also withdrew rather than try to come back again from these seemingly endless generational decimation. With no realistic avenues for agricultural utilization of this rural land, and Florida's continuing strong population growth and its attendant needs (aided and supported by the great success of nearby Walt Disney World and Universal Studios Florida), these areas began and continue to be, swallowed up by growing housing developments. However, several packing facilities and wholesalers are still in Orange County.
- Seminole County - north
- Volusia County - northeast
- Brevard County - east
- Osceola County - south
- Polk County - southwest
- Lake County - west
|U.S. Decennial Census
1990-2000 2010-2014ref name="QF" />
- White (non-Hispanic) (63.6% when including White Hispanics): 46.0% (10.0% German, 8.5% Irish, 7.4% English, 5.6% Italian, 2.1% French, 1.8% Polish, 1.5% Scottish, 1.3% Scotch-Irish, 1.0% Dutch, 0.8% Swedish, 0.7% Russian, 0.6% Norwegian, 0.5% Welsh, 0.5% French Canadian)
- Black (non-Hispanic) (20.8% when including Black Hispanics): 19.5% (5.4% West Indian/Afro-Caribbean American [2.6% Haitian, 1.5% Jamaican, 0.4% Other and Unspecified West Indian, 0.3% Trinidadian and Tobagonian, 0.1% British West Indian, 0.1% U.S. Virgin Islander, 0.1% Bahamian,] 0.7% Subsaharan African)
- Hispanic or Latino of any race: 26.9% (13.0% Puerto Rican, 3.2% Mexican, 2.0% Colombian, 2.0% Cuban, 1.8% Dominican, 0.7% Venezuelan, 0.5% Ecuadoran, 0.5% Peruvian)
- Asian: 4.9% (1.4% Indian, 0.9% Vietnamese, 0.8% Filipino, 0.7% Chinese, 0.6% Other Asian, 0.3% Korean, 0.2% Japanese)
- Two or more races: 3.4%
- American Indian and Alaska Native: 0.4%
- Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander: 0.1%
- Other Races: 6.7% (0.8% Arab)
There were 421,847 households out of which 30.81% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.50% were married couples living together, 15.65% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.18% were non-families. 24.85% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.08% (1.71% male and 4.37% female) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.19.
In the county the population was spread out with 23.6% under the age of 18, 12.8% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 24.1% from 45 to 64, and 9.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33.7 years. For every 100 females there were 97.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.9 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $50,138, and the median income for a family was $57,473. Males had a median income of $40,619 versus $31,919 for females. The per capita income for the county was $25,490. About 10.0% of families and 13.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.2% of those under age 18 and 9.4% of those aged 65 or over.
In 2010, 19.1% of the county's population was foreign born, with 43.8% being naturalized American citizens. Of foreign-born residents, 68.9% were born in Latin America, 17.8% born in Asia, 8.1% were born in Europe, 3.0% born in Africa, 2.0% in North America, and 0.2% were born in Oceania.
As of 2010, 67.43% of all residents spoke English as their first language, while 22.59% spoke Spanish, 2.44% French Creole (mostly Haitian Creole,) 1.23% Portuguese, 0.88% Vietnamese, 0.78% Indian languages (including Gujarati and Hindi,) 0.58% Tagalog, 0.53% Chinese, 0.50% French, and 0.45% of the population spoke Arabic as their mother language. In total, 32.57% of the population spoke languages other than English as their primary language.
The county functions under a charter form of government. The charter serves as a constitution, detailing the structure and operation of the local government. A Charter Review Commission has the power to consider and place amendments on the ballot. Voters then decide whether to accept or reject all amendments put forth. If voters approve an amendment, it is then inserted into the charter.
Five districts of the US House of Representatives represent parts of Orange County.
|District||Incumbent||Hometown||% Orange County voters||Next election|
|7||John Mica||Winter Park||16.25||2014|
|10||Daniel Webster||Winter Garden||29.55||2014|
|District||Incumbent||Hometown||% Voters||Next election|
District 12 is wholly composed of Orange.
District 13 is largely composed of Orange, but includes portions of Brevard.
|District||Incumbent||Hometown||% Voters||Next election|
|30||Karen Castor Dentel||Maitland||4.87||2014|
|48||Victor Torres, Jr.||Orlando||12.76||2014|
District 30 is largely based in Seminole. One-third of voters are situated in Orange.
District 31 is largely based in Lake. Slightly more than one-third of voters are situated in Orange.
District 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, and 49 are wholly composed of Orange.
District 50 is predominantly composed of Orange and Brevard.
Orange County is served by a Board of Commissioners. The board consists of an elected mayor and six commissioners. The mayor is elected At-large, while commissioners are elected from single districts. The mayor and commissioners each serve staggered four year terms. Commissioners from Districts 1, 3, and 5 are elected in presidential election years, while the mayor and commissioners from Districts 2, 4, and 6 are elected in alternate years. The county is also served by a clerk of courts, sheriff, property appraiser, tax collector, supervisor of elections, state attorney, and public defender. All positions are four year terms, requiring direct election by voters in presidential election years.
|Orange County officials|
|District 1 Commissioner||Scott Boyd||2016|
|District 2 Commissioner||Fred Brummer||2018|
|District 3 Commissioner||Pete Clarke||2016|
|District 4 Commissioner||Jennifer Thompson||2018|
|District 5 Commissioner||Ted Edwards||2016|
|District 6 Commissioner||Tiffany Moore Russell||2018|
|Clerk of Courts||Eddie Fernandez||2018|
|Property Appraiser||Rick Singh||2016|
|Tax Collector||Scott Randolph||2016|
|Supervisor of Elections||Bill Cowles||2016|
|State Attorney||Jeff Ashton||2016|
|Public Defender||Bob Wesley||2016|
The Orange County Public Schools are responsible in delivering public education to students countywide. An elected school board composed of a chairman, elected At-large, and seven members, elected from single-member districts, oversees the functions and expenditures of the school system. Each member is elected to a staggered four-year term. Four are elected in presidential election years, while the chairman and three other members are elected in gubernatorial election years. The school system operates 182 schools (123 elementary, 3 K-8, 35 middle, 19 high, and 4 exceptional learning). In October 2012, the district had 183,562 students, making it the fourth largest school district statewide and eleventh in the nation.
|Orange County School Board|
|District 1||Joie Cadle||2014|
|District 2||Daryl Flynn||2014|
|District 3||Rick Roach||2014|
|District 4||Pam Gould||2016|
|District 5||Kathleen Butler-Gordon||2016|
|District 6||Nancy Robbinson||2016|
|District 7||Christine Moore||2016|
Colleges and universities
The University of Central Florida is the sole public university. A fall 2012 enrollment of 59,767, currently places it second in the nation amongst public colleges and universities for student enrollment. The university's massive campus is situated in northeast Orange County.
Nearby Winter Park is home to Rollins College, a private college situated only a few miles from Downtown Orlando. In 2012, it was ranked #1 by U.S. News & World Report amongst regional universities in the South.
With six campuses spread throughout the county, Valencia Community College offers two-year degree programs.
Full Sail University is a for-profit university in Winter Park, Florida. Full Sail is not regionally accredited, but is nationally accredited by the Accrediting Commission of Career Schools and Colleges (ACCSC) to award associate's, bachelor's degrees, and master's degrees in audio, film, design, computer animation, business, and other fields. The school offers 35 degree programs and 2 graduate certificates and has a student population of more than 16,800.
Orange County is served by the Orange County Library System.
Orange County is located along the pivotal Interstate 4 corridor, the swing part of the state. Many close elections are won or lost depending on the voting outcome along the corridor. Voters are considered independent, traditionally splitting their votes, electing Democrats and Republicans on the same ballot. As a result of such independence, voters are inundated with non-stop television and radio ads months preceding a general election.
In September 2000, Democrats overtook Republicans in voter registration. This was a factor in Al Gore becoming the first Democratic presidential candidate to carry the county since 1948. In the years since, Republicans have yet to retake the advantage they once enjoyed. In the twelve years that followed, Democrats experienced a modest increase in their voter registration percentage from 41.40% to 42.73% of the electorate. Minor party voters also had modest growth, increasing from 2.17% to 2.37%. In contrast, Republicans experienced a sharp decrease in registered voters, sliding from 40.95% in 2000 down to 29.85% in 2012. The beneficiary of the Republican losses have been unaffiliated voters. The percentage of the electorate identifying as an unaffiliated voter increased from 15.47% to 25.06% during this same period.
|Voter registration and party enrollment as of April 14, 2015|
|Orange County, Florida: presidential results (1980–2012)|
- Azalea Park
- Bay Hill
- Dr. Phillips
- Fairview Shores
- Four Corners
- Holden Heights
- Horizon West
- Hunter's Creek
- Lake Butler
- Lake Hart
- Lake Mary Jane
- Meadow Woods
- Oak Ridge
- Orlo Vista
- Paradise Heights
- Pine Castle
- Pine Hills
- Rio Pinar
- Sky Lake
- South Apopka
- Tangelo Park
- Union Park
- List of amusement parks in Greater Orlando
- Innovation Way
- Teresa Jacobs
- Mayor of Orange County
- Board of County Commissioners
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Orange County, Florida
- "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 16, 2014.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- Petuch, Edward J., Roberts, Charles; The geology of the Everglades and adjacent areas, 2007, ISBN 1-4200-4558-X.
- Publications of the Florida Historical Society. Florida Historical Society. 1908. p. 33.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014". Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 16, 2014.
- "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved June 16, 2014.
- "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 16, 2014.
- "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 16, 2014.
- "Orange County: SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved October 20, 2015.
- "Orange County Demographic Characteristics". ocala.com. Retrieved October 20, 2015.
- "Orange County, Florida FIRST ANCESTRY REPORTED Universe: Total population - 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
- "Hispanic or Latino by Type: 2010 -- 2010 Census Summary File 1". factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved October 20, 2015.
- "Orange County: Age Groups and Sex: 2010 - 2010 Census Summary File 1". factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved October 20, 2015.
- "Orange County, Florida: SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS - 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved November 18, 2015.
- "Palm Beach County: SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved October 19, 2015.
- "Modern Language Association Data Center Results of Orange County, Florida". Modern Language Association. Retrieved October 20, 2015.
- "Voter Statistic - Congressional District" (PDF). Orange County Supervisor of Elections. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-12. Retrieved 2013-05-01.
- "Voter Statistic - Florida State Senate" (PDF). Orange County Supervisor of Elections. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-10. Retrieved 2013-05-01.
- "Voter Statistic - Florida State House" (PDF). Orange County Supervisor of Elections. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-10. Retrieved 2013-05-01.
- "Pocket Guide 2012-2013" (PDF). Orange County Public Schools. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-10. Retrieved 2013-05-01.
- "University Student Profile". University of Central Florida. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-10. Retrieved 2012-10-01.
- "Best Colleges". US News & World Report. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-10. Retrieved 2012-10-01.
- "Registration and Party Enrollment Statistics as of September 30, 2000" (PDF). Florida Department of State. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-10. Retrieved 2000-10-30. Check date values in:
- "Registration and Party Enrollment Statistics as of March 31, 2015" (PDF). Orange County Supervisor of Elections. Retrieved 2014-04-14.
- "Presidential Results". Florida Department of State. Retrieved 2013-05-10.
- Photographs From the State Archives of Florida.
- Central Florida Memory is a unique digital collection where visitors can discover the history of Orange County and surrounding areas of Central Florida.
- Orange County Regional History Center
- The West Orange Times newspaper that serves Orange County, Florida available in full-text with images in Florida Digital Newspaper Library
- Orange County Health Department
- Orange County Collection on RICHES Mosaic Interface
||Seminole County||Volusia County|
|Lake County||Brevard County|
|Polk County||Osceola County|