Orange County, Florida

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Orange County
The Orange County Courthouse in Orlando
The Orange County Courthouse in Orlando
Flag of Orange County
Official seal of Orange County
Official logo of Orange County
Map of Florida highlighting Orange County
Location within the U.S. state of Florida
Map of the United States highlighting Florida
Florida's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 28°31′N 81°19′W / 28.51°N 81.32°W / 28.51; -81.32
Country United States
State Florida
FoundedDecember 29, 1824 (renamed January 30, 1845)[1]
Named forOrange fruit
Largest cityOrlando
 • MayorJerry Demings (D)
 • Total1,003 sq mi (2,600 km2)
 • Land903 sq mi (2,340 km2)
 • Water100 sq mi (300 km2)
 • Total1,429,908 Increase
 • Density1,494/sq mi (577/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional districts7th, 8th, 9th, 10th

Orange County is located in the central portion of the U.S. state of Florida. As of the 2020 census, its population was 1,429,908,[2] making it Florida's fifth most populous county. The county seat is Orlando.[3] Orange County is the central county of the Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area.


The land that is Orange County was part of the first land to come up from below the Early Oligocene sea 33.9–28.4 million years ago and is known as Orange Island. Orange County's Rock Spring location is a Pleistocene fossil-bearing area and has yielded a vast variety of birds and mammals including giant sloth, mammoth, camel, and the dire wolf dating around 1.1 million years ago.[4]

19th century to mid-20th century[edit]

Immediately following the transfer of Florida to the United States in 1821, Governor Andrew Jackson created two counties: Escambia to the west of the Suwannee River and St. Johns to the east.[5] In 1824, the area to the south of St. Johns County was organized as Mosquito County, and Enterprise was named its county seat. This large county took up much of central Florida. It was renamed as Orange County in 1845 when Florida became a state.[6] After population increased in the region, the legislature organized several counties, such as Osceola (1887), Seminole (1913), Lake (1887), and Volusia (1854), from its territory.

During the post-Reconstruction period, white people committed a high rate of racial violence against black people in Orange County; racial terrorism was used to re-establish and maintain white supremacy. Whites lynched 33 African Americans here from 1877 to 1950; most were killed in the decades around the turn of the 20th century. This was the highest total of any county in the state, and sixth highest of any county in the country.[7] Florida had the highest per-capita rate of lynchings of any state in the South, where the great majority of these extrajudicial murders took place.[8]

Among the terrorist lynchings was the death of Julius "July" Perry of Ocoee, whose body was found November 3, 1920, hanged from a lightpole in Orlando, near the house of a judge known to be sympathetic to black voting.[7] But this was part of a much larger story of KKK and other white attempts to suppress black voting in Ocoee and the state. African Americans had organized for a year to increase voter turnout for the 1920 presidential election, with organizations helping prepare residents for voter registration, paying for poll taxes, and similar actions. On Election Day in Ocoee, blacks were turned away from the polls. Perry, a prosperous farmer, was suspected of sheltering Mose Norman, an African-American man who had tried to vote.[9] After Norman was twice turned away, white violence broke out, resulting in a riot through the black community, leaving an estimated 50 to 60 African-Americans dead and all the properties destroyed. Many blacks fled from Ocoee to save their lives, and the town became all-white.[9][7] Voting efforts were suppressed for decades.

Later 20th century to present[edit]

Orange County was named for the fruit that constituted the county's main commodity crop. At its peak in the early 1970s, some 80,000 acres (320 km2) were planted in citrus in Orange County.[citation needed] The dark-green foliage of orange trees filled the county, as did the scent of the orange blossoms when in bloom. Fewer commercial orange groves remained by the end of the twentieth century. The majority of groves were destroyed by the freezing temperatures that occurred in December 1983, January 1985, and December 1989, the worst since 1899.[10]

The financial setbacks, not the first in the grove region's history, were too challenging for many growers. Economically destroyed, many walked away from the land. Others awaited other opportunities. One of the region's major land owners and growers was the Tropicana company. They withdrew rather than try to come back from these seemingly endless generational decimation. With no realistic avenues for agricultural use of this rural land, and Florida's continuing strong population growth and its attendant needs (aided and supported by the success of nearby Walt Disney World and Universal Studios Florida), these areas began to be developed for housing. However, several packing facilities and wholesalers still remain in Orange County.[citation needed]


2010 U.S. Census tract map of Orange County

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,003 square miles (2,600 km2), of which 903 square miles (2,340 km2) is land and 100 square miles (260 km2) (10.0%) is water.[11]

Adjacent counties[edit]



  • Orlando Apopka Airport, a privately owned uncontrolled, public-use airport in the City of Apopka which serves small private aircraft, there is no commercial service.
  • Orlando Executive Airport, a public airport owned by GOAA which serves private jets and small aircraft. It is a reliever airport for Orlando International Airport.
  • Orlando International Airport, the busiest airport in Florida by passenger traffic, is a public international airport owned by GOAA serving both commercial and private aircraft.

Major highways[edit]

Public transportation[edit]


Historical population
2022 (est.)1,452,7261.6%
U.S. Decennial Census[12]
1790-1960[13] 1900-1990[14] 1885-1945[15]
1990-2000[16] 2010-2019[17] 2022[18][19]
During early censuses, other counties were formed from Orange.
Orange County racial composition as of 2020
(NH = Non-Hispanic)[a]
Race Pop 2010[22] Pop 2020[23] % 2010 % 2020
White (NH) 526,754 531,362 45.97% 37.16%
Black or African American (NH) 223,200 263,624 19.48% 18.44%
Native American or Alaska Native (NH) 2,449 2,207 0.21% 0.15%
Asian (NH) 55,541 76,870 4.85% 5.38%
Pacific Islander (NH) 1,038 1,114 0.09% 0.08%
Some Other Race (NH) 6,278 16,015 0.55% 1.12%
Mixed/Multi-Racial (NH) 22,452 65,691 1.96% 4.59%
Hispanic or Latino 308,244 473,025 26.9% 33.08%
Total 1,145,956 1,429,908 100.00% 100.00%

As of the 2020 United States census, there were 1,429,908 people, 468,075 households, and 309,344 families residing in the county.


The 2010 U.S. Census reported the following ethnic and racial statistics:[24][25]

In 2010, 5.9% of the population considered themselves to be of only "American" ancestry (regardless of race or ethnicity.)[24]

There were 421,847 households, out of which 30.81% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.50% were married couples living together, 15.65% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.18% were non-families. 24.85% of all households were made up of individuals, and 6.08% (1.71% male and 4.37% female) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.19.[25][28]

In the county, the population was spread out, with 23.6% under the age of 18, 12.8% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 24.1% from 45 to 64, and 9.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33.7 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.9 males.[28]

The median income for a household in the county was $50,138, and the median income for a family was $57,473. Males had a median income of $40,619 versus $31,919 for females. The per capita income for the county was $25,490. About 10.0% of families and 13.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.2% of those under age 18 and 9.4% of those aged 65 or over.[29]

In 2010, 19.1% of the county's population was foreign born, with 43.8% being naturalized American citizens. Of foreign-born residents, 68.9% were born in Latin America, 17.8% born in Asia, 8.1% were born in Europe, 3.0% born in Africa, 2.0% in North America, and 0.2% were born in Oceania.[30]


As of 2010, 67.43% of all residents spoke only English at home, while 22.59% spoke Spanish, 2.44% French Creole (mostly Haitian Creole), 1.23% Portuguese, 0.88% Vietnamese, 0.78% Indian languages (including Gujarati and Hindi), 0.58% Tagalog, 0.53% Chinese, 0.50% French, and 0.45% Arabic.[31] In total, 32.57% of the population spoke languages other than English at home.[31]


The county functions under a charter form of government. The charter serves as a constitution, detailing the structure and operation of the local government. A Charter Review Commission has the power to consider and place amendments on the ballot. Voters then decide whether to accept or reject all amendments put forth. If voters approve an amendment, it is then inserted into the charter.

Federal representation[edit]

Four districts of the U.S. House of Representatives represent parts of Orange County.

Federal representation
District Incumbent Hometown % Orange County
Next election
7 Stephanie Murphy Winter Park 24.8 2022
8 Bill Posey Rockledge 1.3 2022
9 Darren Soto Kissimmee 15.66 2022
10 Val Demings Orlando 58.24 2022

District 7 encompasses all of Seminole County and portions of northern Orange County

Places include: Sanford, Lake Mary, Altamonte Springs, Maitland, Winter Park and parts of Orlando

District 8 encompasses all of Brevard and Indian River Counties and far eastern Orange County

District 9 encompasses all of Osceola County, eastern Polk County and eastern and south central Orange County

Places include: Kissimmee, Winter Haven and most of Orlando

District 10 encompasses western Orange County

Places include: Eatonville, Apopka, Ocoee, Winter Garden, Windermere and part of western Orlando

State representation[edit]

Orange County residents are represented in Tallahassee with 3 Senate seats.

State senators
District Incumbent Hometown % Voters[33] Next election
11 Randolph Bracy Orlando 37.44 2020
13 Linda Stewart Orlando 42.55 2020
15 Victor Torres Orlando 20 2020

District 11 encompasses northwestern Orange County

District 13 encompasses north central and northeastern Orange County

District 15 encompasses all of Osceola County and the southern third of Orange County

Orange County residents are represented in Tallahassee with 9 House seats.

State representatives
District Incumbent Hometown % Voters[34] Next election
30 Joy Goff-Marcil Winter Park 4.56 2020
31 Jennifer Sullivan Mount Dora 5.08 2020
44 Geraldine Thompson Orlando 15.22 2020
45 Kamia Brown Orlando 12.46 2020
46 Bruce Antone Orlando 10.47 2020
47 Anna Eskamani Orlando 15.64 2020
48 Amy Mercado Orlando 13.01 2020
49 Carlos Guillermo Smith Orlando 13.81 2020
50 Rene Plasencia Orlando 9.74 2020

District 30 encompasses southern Seminole and portions of northern Orange County

District 31 encompasses northern Lake County and northwest Orange County

District 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, and 49 are wholly composed of Orange.

District 50 encompasses northern Brevard County and eastern Orange County

County representation[edit]

Orange County is served by a board of commissioners. The board consists of an elected mayor and six commissioners. The mayor is elected At-large, while commissioners are elected from single-member districts. The mayor and commissioners each serve staggered four-year terms. Commissioners from Districts 1, 3, and 5 are elected in presidential election years, while the mayor and commissioners from Districts 2, 4, and 6 are elected in alternate years. The county is also served by a clerk of courts, sheriff, property appraiser, tax collector, supervisor of elections, state attorney, and public defender. All positions are four-year terms, requiring direct election by voters in presidential election years.

Orange County officials
Position Incumbent Next election
Mayor Jerry Demings 2022
District 1 Commissioner Nicole Wilson 2024
District 2 Commissioner Christine Moore 2022
District 3 Commissioner Mayra Uribe 2020
District 4 Commissioner Maribel Gomez Cordero 2022
District 5 Commissioner Emily Bonilla 2020
District 6 Commissioner Mike Scott 2025
Clerk of Courts Tiffany Moore Russell 2020
Sheriff John Mina 2020
Comptroller Phil Diamond 2020
Property Appraiser Amy Mercado 2024
Tax Collector Scott Randolph 2020
Supervisor of Elections Bill Cowles 2020
State Attorney Monique Worrell 2020
Public Defender Robert Wesley 2020

Voter Registration[edit]

Party Registered voters %
Democratic Party 337,276
Independent 234,366
Republican Party 215,667
Independence Party 2,508
Libertarian Party 2,013
Green Party 474
Reform Party 47
Constitution Party 47
America's Party 18
Party for Socialism and Liberation 12
Ecology Party of Florida 9



Public education[edit]

The Orange County Public Schools deliver public education to students countywide.[36] Its functions and expenditures are overseen by an elected school board composed of a chairman, elected at-large; and seven members, elected from single-member districts. Each member is elected to a four-year term: the chairman and three other members are elected in gubernatorial election years, while the other four are elected in presidential election years. As of the 2021–2022 school year, the school system operated 205 schools (127 elementary, 9 K-8, 39 middle, 22 high, and 8 exceptional learning), with 206,246 students.[37] It is the fourth-largest school district statewide and ninth in the nation.[citation needed]

Orange County School Board
Position Incumbent Next election
Chairman Teresa Jacobs 2022
District 1 Angie Gallo 2022
District 2 Johanna López 2022
District 3 Linda Kobert 2024
District 4 Pam Gould 2024
District 5 Vicki-Elaine Felder 2024
District 6 Karen Castor-Dentel 2024
District 7 Melissa Byrd 2022

Colleges and universities[edit]

The University of Central Florida is the sole 4-year public university. As of the Fall 2020 semester, a total of 71,948 students attended the university, making it the largest university in the nation by enrollment.[38] The university's 1,415 acre main campus is situated in northeast Orange County.[38]

Nearby Winter Park is home to Rollins College, a private college situated only a few miles from Downtown Orlando. In 2012, it was ranked #1 by U.S. News & World Report amongst regional universities in the South.[39]

With six campuses spread throughout the county, Valencia College offers two-year degree programs, as well three baccalaureate programs.

The law schools for Barry University and Florida A&M are also conveniently located in Downtown Orlando.

Full Sail University is a for-profit university in Winter Park, Florida. Full Sail is not regionally accredited, but is nationally accredited by the Accrediting Commission of Career Schools and Colleges (ACCSC) to award associate's, bachelor's degrees, and master's degrees in audio, film, design, computer animation, business, and other fields.[10] The school offers 35 degree programs and 2 graduate certificates and has a student population of more than 16,800.


Walt Before Mickey, a feature film about Walt Disney creating Mickey Mouse, was shot locally.


Orange County is served by the Orange County Library System, which was established in 1923. Before the opening of the Albertson Public Library in 1923, a circulating library maintained by the Sorosis Club of Orlando offered book lending services to patrons on a subscription basis. The Albertson Public Library was established with the collection of Captain Charles L. Albertson and the library was named in his honor. In 1924, the Booker T. Washington Branch of the Albertson Library was established to service the African American community of Orlando. In 1966, the current Orlando Public Library building was completed on the grounds of the Albertson Public Library.[40] Currently there are 16 libraries within the Orange County Library system.[41] The library systems offers a diverse selection of materials, free programs and free access to various databases. In addition, the library offers free delivery of most items through its MAYL service.[42]

One exception exists in the cities of Maitland and Winter Park which are each part of a separate library taxing districts and as a result residents of these cities are not entitled to receive resident borrowing privileges at OCLS branches even though they are technically and legally residents of Orange County, instead an agreement was reached between Maitland, Winter Park and the OCLS whereas a resident of those cities can go to any OCLS branch and request a "Reciprocal borrower card" which is provided free of charge. The Reciprocal borrower cards is valid for one year and can be used at any OCLS branch with the exception of the Melrose Center at the Orlando Public Library which requires a separate Melrose Center specific card which is issued after the user applies for the card and goes through a mandatory orientation class. Access to the OCLS Internet on library owned PCs requires a Reciprocal borrower to pay small session access fee. The OCLS Wi-Fi network which is available at all branches remains free of charge to all users including Reciprocal borrowers and visitors who use their own iPad, Mac, PC, Smartphone or tablet devices. Maitland and Winter Park Library do not provide reciprocal privileges to OCLS patrons and charge non-residents a yearly user fee.


Orange County is located along the pivotal Interstate 4 corridor, a powerful swing region in one of the country's most critical swing states. Many close elections are won or lost depending on the voting outcome along the corridor. Voters are considered independent, traditionally splitting their votes, electing Democrats and Republicans on the same ballot. As a result of such independence, voters are inundated with non-stop television and radio ads months preceding a general election.

Orange County was one of the first areas of Florida to turn Republican. It swung from a 15-point victory for Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1944 to a seven-point victory for Thomas E. Dewey in 1948. It eventually became one of the stronger Republican bastions in Florida, as evidenced when it gave Barry Goldwater 56 percent of its vote in 1964. For most of the second half of the 20th century, it was one of the more conservative urban counties in Florida and the nation. From 1948 to 1988, Democrats only cracked the 40 percent barrier twice, in 1964 and 1976. However, the Republican edge narrowed considerably in the 1990s. George H. W. Bush fell from 67 percent of the vote in 1988 to only 45.9 percent in 1992. In 1996, Bob Dole only won the county by 520 votes.

In September 2000,[43] Democrats overtook Republicans in voter registration. This was a factor in Al Gore becoming the first Democratic presidential candidate to carry the county since 1944. John Kerry narrowly carried the county in 2004. In 2008, however, Orange County swung hard to Barack Obama, who won it by the largest margin for a Democrat since Roosevelt. In the years since, it has become one of the strongest Democratic bastions in Florida.

Since 2000, Republicans have yet to retake the advantage they once enjoyed. In the twelve years that followed, Democrats experienced a modest increase in their voter registration percentage from 41.40% to 42.73% of the electorate. Minor party voters also had modest growth, increasing from 2.17% to 2.37%. In contrast, Republicans experienced a sharp decrease in registered voters, sliding from 40.95% in 2000 down to 29.85% in 2012. The beneficiary of the Republican losses have been unaffiliated voters. The percentage of the electorate identifying as an unaffiliated voter increased from 15.47% to 25.06% during this same period. Orange County is one of two different counties in the entire nation to have voted for Al Gore in 2000 after voting for Dole in 1996, a distinction it shares with Charles County, Maryland.[44]

United States presidential election results for Orange County, Florida[45]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 245,398 37.80% 395,014 60.85% 8,745 1.35%
2016 195,216 35.37% 329,894 59.77% 26,792 4.85%
2012 188,589 40.36% 273,665 58.56% 5,049 1.08%
2008 186,832 40.35% 273,009 58.96% 3,198 0.69%
2004 192,539 49.62% 193,354 49.83% 2,151 0.55%
2000 134,531 48.02% 140,236 50.06% 5,388 1.92%
1996 106,059 45.89% 105,539 45.66% 19,528 8.45%
1992 108,788 45.90% 82,683 34.89% 45,540 19.21%
1988 117,237 67.86% 54,023 31.27% 1,510 0.87%
1984 122,068 71.39% 48,752 28.51% 165 0.10%
1980 87,454 61.06% 48,767 34.05% 6,998 4.89%
1976 70,451 54.01% 58,442 44.80% 1,544 1.18%
1972 94,516 79.57% 23,840 20.07% 421 0.35%
1968 50,874 50.54% 22,548 22.40% 27,247 27.07%
1964 48,884 56.10% 38,248 43.90% 0 0.00%
1960 48,244 70.98% 19,729 29.02% 0 0.00%
1956 37,482 72.06% 14,532 27.94% 0 0.00%
1952 29,813 71.06% 12,141 28.94% 0 0.00%
1948 11,971 46.67% 10,063 39.23% 3,618 14.10%
1944 8,826 42.36% 12,008 57.64% 0 0.00%
1940 8,198 39.00% 12,821 61.00% 0 0.00%
1936 4,394 37.53% 7,314 62.47% 0 0.00%
1932 3,522 41.93% 4,877 58.07% 0 0.00%
1928 6,524 70.04% 2,616 28.08% 175 1.88%
1924 1,653 40.24% 1,883 45.84% 572 13.92%
1920 1,447 39.45% 2,035 55.48% 186 5.07%
1916 415 23.62% 1,261 71.77% 81 4.61%
1912 228 12.37% 1,256 68.15% 359 19.48%
1908 485 30.14% 952 59.17% 172 10.69%
1904 315 25.26% 874 70.09% 58 4.65%
1900 402 29.03% 857 61.88% 126 9.10%
1896 565 32.47% 1,086 62.41% 89 5.11%
1892 0 0.00% 1,142 92.10% 98 7.90%

Voter registration[edit]

Voter registration by party as of November 15, 2020[46]
Party Total Percentage
Democratic 380,693 43.29%
Republican 225,429 25.64%
Minor parties 13,602 1.55%
Unaffiliated 259,602 29.52%
Total 879,326 100.00%




Census-designated places[edit]

Other unincorporated communities[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.[20][21]


  1. ^ "History of Orange County, Florida".
  2. ^ "Explore Census Data". Retrieved January 11, 2022.
  3. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 3, 2015. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  4. ^ Petuch, Edward J., Roberts, Charles; The geology of the Everglades and adjacent areas, 2007, ISBN 1-4200-4558-X.
  5. ^ Tebeau, Charlton W. (1980). A History of Florida (Revised ed.). Coral Gables, Florida: University of Miami Press. p. 119.
  6. ^ "Florida Maps - Mosquito County". Retrieved March 28, 2021.
  7. ^ a b c Jeff Kunerth, "Report: Orange County ranks 6th in lynchings from 1877-1950", Orlando Sentinel, February 11, 2015; accessed March 21, 2018
  8. ^ [permanent dead link] Lynching in America/ Supplement: Lynchings by County, 3rd Edition, 2015, p.2[permanent dead link]
  9. ^ a b Ortiz, Paul (May 14, 2010). "Ocoee, Florida: Remembering the 'single bloodiest day in modern U.S. political history'", Facing South, The Institute for Southern Studies; University of Mississippi. Retrieved on March 21, 2018
  10. ^ Bouffard, Kevin (December 25, 2009). "1989 Christmas Freeze: Florida's Citrus Industry was Changed Forever". The Ledger. Archived from the original on August 6, 2021. Retrieved August 6, 2021.
  11. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  12. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 16, 2014.
  13. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved June 16, 2014.
  14. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 16, 2014.
  15. ^ Florida Department of Agriculture (1906). Census of the State of Florida. Urbana, I.L.
  16. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 16, 2014.
  17. ^ "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 28, 2011. Retrieved June 16, 2014.
  18. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 29, 2021. Retrieved August 29, 2021.
  19. ^ "County Population Totals and Components of Change: 2020-2022". County Population Totals: 2020-2022. U.S. Census Bureau. March 30, 2023. Retrieved March 30, 2023.
  20. ^[not specific enough to verify]
  21. ^ "About the Hispanic Population and its Origin". Retrieved May 18, 2022.
  22. ^ "Explore Census Data". Retrieved May 26, 2022.
  23. ^ "Explore Census Data". Retrieved May 26, 2022.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h "Orange County: SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 20, 2015.
  25. ^ a b c d "Orange County Demographic Characteristics". Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved October 20, 2015.
  26. ^ "Orange County, Florida FIRST ANCESTRY REPORTED Universe: Total population - 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
  27. ^ "Hispanic or Latino by Type: 2010 -- 2010 Census Summary File 1". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 20, 2015.
  28. ^ a b "Orange County: Age Groups and Sex: 2010 - 2010 Census Summary File 1". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 20, 2015.
  29. ^ "Orange County, Florida: SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS - 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 18, 2015.
  30. ^ "Palm Beach County: SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 19, 2015.
  31. ^ a b "Modern Language Association Data Center Results of Orange County, Florida". Modern Language Association. Retrieved October 20, 2015.
  32. ^ "Voter Statistic - Congressional District" (PDF). Orange County Supervisor of Elections. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 11, 2015. Retrieved May 1, 2013.
  33. ^ "Voter Statistic - Florida State Senate" (PDF). Orange County Supervisor of Elections. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 11, 2015. Retrieved May 1, 2013.
  34. ^ "Voter Statistic - Florida State House" (PDF). Orange County Supervisor of Elections. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 25, 2014. Retrieved May 1, 2013.
  35. ^ "March, 2017 party totals" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 6, 2017. Retrieved April 5, 2017.
  36. ^ "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: Orange County, FL" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved August 1, 2022. - Text list
  37. ^ "Pocket Guide 2021-2022". Orange County Public Schools. Retrieved April 19, 2021.
  38. ^ a b "UCF Facts 2020-2021 | University of Central Florida - Orlando, FL". University of Central Florida. Retrieved May 30, 2021.
  39. ^ "Best Colleges". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 4, 2015. Retrieved October 1, 2012.
  40. ^ "Library History". Orange County Library System. September 18, 2015. Retrieved November 22, 2016.
  41. ^ "Location & Hours". Orange County Library System. September 8, 2015. Retrieved November 22, 2016.
  42. ^ "What is Request Home Delivery (MAYL)?". Orange County Library System. September 23, 2015. Retrieved September 5, 2017.
  43. ^ "Registration and Party Enrollment Statistics as of September 30, 2000" (PDF). Florida Department of State. October 2000.
  44. ^ "The 2016 Streak Breakers". Sabato Crystal Ball. Retrieved September 15, 2017.
  45. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". Retrieved November 13, 2020.
  46. ^ "Registration and Party Enrollment Statistics as of March 31, 2015". Orange County Supervisor of Elections. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 24, 2015. Retrieved April 14, 2014.

External links[edit]