Doctor Strange

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Orb of Agamotto)
Jump to: navigation, search
Not to be confused with Doc Strange, Doctor Stranger, Doc Savage or Hugo Strange. For other uses, see Doctor Strange (disambiguation).
Doctor Strange
Cover of Doctor Strange vol. 4, #2
(January 2016); art by Alex Ross
Publication information
Publisher Marvel Comics
First appearance Strange Tales #110 (July 1963)
Created by Stan Lee (writer)
Steve Ditko (artist)
In-story information
Full name Stephen Vincent Strange
Team affiliations Avengers
New Avengers
Illuminati
Defenders
The Order
Midnight Sons
Partnerships Clea
Wong
Ancient One
Notable aliases Stephen Sanders, Vincent Stevens
Abilities

Dr. Stephen Vincent Strange, M.D. (known as Doctor Strange) is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Created by artist Steve Ditko and writer Stan Lee,[1] the character first appeared in Strange Tales #110 (cover-dated July 1963). Doctor Strange serves as the Sorcerer Supreme, the primary protector of Earth against magical and mystical threats. Inspired by stories of black magic and Chandu the Magician, Strange was created during the Silver Age of Comics to bring a different kind of character and themes of mysticism to Marvel Comics.

The character's origin story relates that he was once a brilliant but egotistical surgeon. After a car accident severely damages his hands and hinders his ability to perform surgery, he searches the globe for a way to repair them and encounters the Ancient One. After becoming one of the old Sorcerer Supreme's students, he becomes a practitioner of both the mystical arts as well as martial arts. Along with knowing many powerful spells, he has a costume with two mystical objects—the Cloak of Levitation and Eye of Agamotto—which give him added powers. Strange is aided along the way by his friend and valet, Wong, and a large assortment of mystical objects. He takes up residence in a mansion called the Sanctum Sanctorum, located in New York City. Later, Strange takes the title of Sorcerer Supreme.

In 2008, Doctor Strange was ranked 83rd in Wizard's "200 Greatest Comic Book Characters of All Time" list,[2] and in 2012 was ranked 33rd in IGN's list of "The Top 50 Avengers".[3] He was also ranked 34th on IGN's list of "Top 100 Comic Book Heroes".[citation needed] The character was first portrayed in live-action by Peter Hooten in the 1978 television film Dr. Strange. Benedict Cumberbatch stars as the character in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, first appearing in the role in the 2016 film Doctor Strange.

Publication history[edit]

Creation[edit]

Artist Steve Ditko and writer Stan Lee have described the character as having been originally the idea of Ditko, who wrote in 2008, "On my own, I brought in to Lee a five-page, penciled story with a page/panel script of my idea of a new, different kind of character for variety in Marvel Comics. My character wound up being named Dr. Strange because he would appear in Strange Tales."[4] In a 1963 letter to Jerry Bails, Lee called the character Ditko's idea, saying,

Well, we have a new character in the works for Strange Tales (just a 5-page filler named Dr. Strange) Steve Ditko is gonna draw him. It has sort of a black magic theme. The first story is nothing great, but perhaps we can make something of him-- 'twas Steve's idea and I figured we'd give it a chance, although again, we had to rush the first one too much. Little sidelight: Originally decided to call him Mr. Strange, but thought the "Mr." bit too similar to Mr. Fantastic -- now, however, I remember we had a villain called Dr. Strange just recently in one of our mags, hope it won't be too confusing![5]

Early years[edit]

Doctor Strange debuted in Strange Tales #110 (July 1963),[6] a split book shared with the feature "The Human Torch". Doctor Strange appeared in issues #110–111 and #114 before the character's eight-page origin story in #115 (December 1963). Scripter Lee's take on the character was inspired by the Chandu the Magician radio program that aired on the Mutual Broadcasting System in the 1930s.[7] He had Doctor Strange accompany spells with elaborate incantations, such as the "Eye of Agamotto", the "Wand of Watoomb", and "Hoary Hosts of Hoggoth";[1] though these often referenced established mythological figures, Lee has said he never had any idea what the incantations meant and used them simply because they sounded mystical and mysterious.[8] Ditko showcased surrealistic mystical landscapes and increasingly vivid visuals that helped make the feature a favorite of college students at the time. Comics historian Mike Benton wrote,

The Dr. Strange stories of the 1960s constructed a cohesive cosmology that would have thrilled any self-respecting theosophist. College students, minds freshly opened by psychedelic experiences and Eastern mysticism, read Ditko and Lee's Dr. Strange stories with the belief of a recent Hare Krishna convert. Meaning was everywhere, and readers analyzed the Dr. Strange stories for their relationship to Egyptian myths, Sumerian gods, and Jungian archetypes.[9]

Splash page, Strange Tales #110 (July 1963), the character's debut. Art by Steve Ditko

"People who read Doctor Strange thought people at Marvel must be heads [i.e., drug users]," recalled then-associate editor and former Doctor Strange writer Roy Thomas in 1971, "because they had had similar experiences high on mushrooms. But I don't use hallucinogens, nor do I think any artists do."[10] Originating in the early 1960s, the character was a predictor of counter-cultural trends in art prior to them becoming more established in the later 1960s, according to comic historian Bradford W. Wright: "Dr. Strange remarkably predicted the youth counterculture's fascination with Eastern mysticism and psychedelia."[11]

As co-plotter and later sole plotter in the Marvel Method, Ditko took Strange into ever-more-abstract realms. In a 17-issue story arc in Strange Tales #130-146 (March 1965 – July 1966), Ditko introduced the cosmic character Eternity, who personified the universe and was depicted as a silhouette filled with the cosmos.[12] As historian Bradford W. Wright described,

Steve Ditko contributed some of his most surrealistic work to the comic book and gave it a disorienting, hallucinogenic quality. Dr. Strange's adventures take place in bizarre worlds and twisting dimensions that resembled Salvador Dalí paintings. Inspired by the pulp-fiction magicians of Stan Lee's childhood as well as by contemporary Beat culture, Dr. Strange remarkably predicted the youth counterculture's fascination with Eastern mysticism and psychedelia. Never among Marvel's more popular or accessible characters, Dr. Strange still found a niche among an audience seeking a challenging alternative to more conventional superhero fare.[11]

Golden Age artist/writer Bill Everett succeeded Ditko as artist with issues #147-152, followed by Marie Severin through #160 and Dan Adkins through #168, the final issue before the Nick Fury feature moved to its own title and Strange Tales was renamed Doctor Strange.[13] Expanded to 20 pages per issue, the Doctor Strange solo series ran 15 issues, #169-183 (June 1968 – November 1969), continuing the numbering of Strange Tales.[13][14] Thomas wrote the run of new stories, joined after the first three issues by the art team of penciler Gene Colan and inker Tom Palmer through the end.

After plans were announced for a never-realized split book series featuring Doctor Strange and Iceman, each in solo adventures,[15] Strange next appeared in the first three issues (December 1971 – June 1972) of the quarterly showcase title Marvel Feature. He appeared in both the main story detailing the formation of superhero "non-team" the Defenders,[16] and the related back-up story. The character then starred in a revival solo series in Marvel Premiere #3-14 (July 1972 – March 1974).[17] This arc marked the debut of another recurring foe, the entity Shuma-Gorath, created by writer Steve Englehart and artist Frank Brunner. In issues #8-10 (May – September 1973), Strange was forced to shut down the Ancient One's mind, causing his mentor's physical death. Strange then assumed the title of Sorcerer Supreme.[18] Englehart and Brunner created another multi-issue storyline featuring sorcerer Sise-Neg ("Genesis" spelled backward) going back through history, collecting all magical energies, until he reaches the beginning of the universe, becomes all-powerful and creates it anew, leaving Strange to wonder whether this was, paradoxically, the original creation. Stan Lee, seeing the issue after publication, ordered Englehart and Brunner to print a retraction saying this was not God but a god, to avoid offending religious readers. The writer and artist concocted a fake letter from a fictitious minister praising the story, and mailed it to Marvel from Texas. Marvel unwittingly printed the letter and dropped the retraction.[19]

Doctor Strange#177 (February 1969), the debut of Strange's short-lived new look. Cover art by Gene Colan and Tom Palmer

The Marvel Premiere series segued to the character's second ongoing title, Doctor Strange: Master of the Mystic Arts, also known as Doctor Strange vol. 2, which ran 81 issues (June 1974 – February 1987).[20] Doctor Strange #14 featured a crossover story with The Tomb of Dracula #44, another series which was being drawn by Gene Colan at the time.[21] In Englehart's final story, he sent Dr. Strange back in time to meet Benjamin Franklin.[22]

1980s[edit]

Strange met his allies Topaz in #75 (February 1986) and Rintrah in #80 (December 1986). The series ended with a cliffhanger as his home, the Sanctum Sanctorum, was heavily damaged during a battle. Among the losses was Doctor Strange's entire collection of mystic books and other important artifacts. As a consequence, Strange was now considerably weaker and several spells designed to protect humanity from vampires and the evil serpent god Set expired.

The title was discontinued so that the character's adventures could be transferred to another split book format series. Strange Tales vol. 2, #1-19 (April 1987 – October 1988) was shared with street heroes Cloak and Dagger. This new Doctor Strange series resolved Strange's quest to reclaim his power and missing artifacts, as well as resurrecting the Defenders, who had died in the last issue of that team's title.

1990s[edit]

Strange was returned to his own series, this time titled Doctor Strange: Sorcerer Supreme, which ran 90 issues (November 1988 – June 1996).[23] The initial creative team was writer Peter B. Gillis and artists Richard Case and Randy Emberlin, with storylines often spanning multiple issues. Strange lost the title of "Sorcerer Supreme" in issues #48-49 (December 1992 – January 1993) when he refused to fight a war on behalf of the Vishanti, the mystical entities that empower his spells. During this time the series became part of the "Midnight Sons" group of Marvel's supernatural comics.[24][25] Doctor Strange found new sources of magical strength in the form of chaos magic,[26] as well as a magic construct he used as a proxy.[27] He would form the Secret Defenders with a rotating roster of heroes,[28] and reunite with the original Defenders. Strange regained his title in Doctor Strange: Sorcerer Supreme #80 (August 1995).

Strange appeared with the Human Torch and the Thing in the one-shot publication Strange Tales vol. 3, #1 (November 1994).[29]

The character was featured in several limited series. The first was Doctor Strange: The Flight of Bones #1-#4 (February – May 1999), with a series of spontaneous combustions by criminals instigated by old foe Dormammu. Strange was the catalyst for the creation of a trio of sorceresses in Witches #1-#4 (August – November 2004). The Strange limited series (November 2004 – July 2005) by writers J. Michael Straczynski and Samm Barnes updated the character's origin.[30] Another limited series, Doctor Strange: The Oath #1-5 (December 2006 – April 2007), written by Brian K. Vaughan and illustrated by Marcos Martin, focused on Strange's responsibilities as sorcerer and doctor.

Doctor Strange appeared in four graphic novels over the years: Doctor Strange: Into Shamballa (1986); Doctor Strange & Doctor Doom: Triumph and Torment (1989); Spider-Man/Dr. Strange: The Way to Dusty Death (1992); and Dr. Strange: What Is It That Disturbs You, Stephen? (1997).[citation needed]

2000s[edit]

Strange appeared as a supporting character for the bulk of the 2000s. He appeared regularly in The Amazing Spider-Man under J. Michael Straczynski, before being cast into a time loop by Baron Mordo. He later appeared on and off in The New Avengers, where he was stated as being part of the secret group known as the Illuminati to deal with future threats to Earth. Ultimately Strange joined the team and allowed them to use his home as a base after the events of Civil War, which he sat out. Doctor Strange was critical of the federal Superhuman Registration Act and aided the anti-registration Avengers team led by Luke Cage.[31]

During the Bendis run, Doctor Doom attacked the Avengers and manipulated the Scarlet Witch into decimating the mutant population; Doctor Strange's failure to stop the latter and his failure to realize Doom's hand in the former caused him to start to doubt his abilities.[volume & issue needed] After he was forced to use dark magic to confront an enraged Hulk,[32] followed by further use of dark spells to save the New Avengers from the Hood's supervillain army,[33] Strange renounced his status as Sorcerer Supreme, as he felt that he was no longer worthy of it. The Eye of Agamotto passing the mantle to Brother Voodoo.[34]

He was also featured in The Order, which spun out of the 2000 Defenders revival, and the Indefensible Defenders mini-series.[volume & issue needed]

2010s[edit]

Doctor Strange appeared as a regular character throughout the 2010-2013 The New Avengers series.[35] Brother Voodoo, now newly appointed Sorcerer Supreme Doctor Voodoo, sacrifices himself in order to stop the powerful mystical entity Agamotto from reclaiming the Eye.[36] A guilt-ridden Strange rejoins the New Avengers, and offers the team his valet Wong to act as their housekeeper.[37]

Strange eventually regains his position of Sorcerer Supreme,[38] but is possessed by a demon[volume & issue needed] and becomes leader of the Black Priests.[39]

After the various Marvel universes merge into one, Doctor Strange acts as righthand man of Doctor Doom, who has become the ruler of this world after erasing all recollection of the previous separate realities that existed. Circumstances force Strange to open a pod that releases the surviving heroes of the original Marvel continuity, knowns as Earth-616. Doom kills Doctor Strange.[40]

In 2015, Jason Aaron and Chris Bachalo team up for the fourth volume of Doctor Strange.[41] A new character, reluctant librarian Zelma Stanton, agrees to reorganize Strange's magical library.[42][full citation needed] Brother Voodoo returns, and the series and a spinoff, Dr. Strange: Last Days of Magic, sees such characters as Medico Mistico, Magik, Scarlet Witch, Mahatma Doom, Professor Xu, Monako, and Alice Gulliver.[43][full citation needed] With the laws of magic fundamentally altered, and with the loss of his former resources, Doctor Strange is forced to depend on his own physical skills and inventive use of his few functional spells. He eventually no longer has access to most of his former spells or his levitating cape.[44][full citation needed]

Fictional character biography[edit]

Dr. Stephen Strange is an egotistical doctor who only cares about wealth from his career. After a car accident shatters the bones in his hands, the damage prevents him from being able to conduct surgery when his hands begin to tremble uncontrollably. Too proud to take on a teaching job, Strange desperately searches for a way to restore his hands.

After he exhausts his funds, he becomes a derelict. Depressed and still searching, Strange, while walking near the docks, overhears two sailors talking about a hermit called the Ancient One (who is actually the Earth's Sorcerer Supreme) in the Himalayas, who can cure any ailment. Strange uses the last of his funds to travel to the Himalayas to seek out the aged mystic. The Ancient One refuses to help Strange because of his selfishness, but senses a good side that he attempts to bring to the surface. He fails, but Strange's goodness appears when he discovers the Ancient One's disciple, Baron Mordo, attempting to kill the old man. After a confrontation with Mordo leads to his being shackled with restraining spells preventing him from either attacking Mordo or warning the Ancient One, Strange desperately and selflessly accepts the Ancient One's offer to become his apprentice to have some hope of helping the old man. The Ancient One, pleased at Strange's profound change of heart, accepts the westerner and promptly frees him from the restraining spells while explaining he was aware of Mordo's treachery all along. Strange soon becomes Mordo's most enduring enemy,[45] as the Ancient One teaches the doctor the mystic arts.[46] After completing his training, Strange returns to New York and takes up residence within the Sanctum Sanctorum, a townhouse located in Greenwich Village, and is soon assisted by his personal servant Wong.[47]

As the Ancient One's disciple, Strange encounters the entity Nightmare,[47] and other mystical foes before meeting Dormammu, a warlord from an alternate dimension called the "Dark Dimension". Strange is aided by a nameless girl, later called Clea,[48] who is eventually revealed to be Dormammu's niece.[49] When Strange helps a weakened Dormammu drive off the rampaging Mindless Ones and return them to their prison, he is allowed to leave unchallenged.[50]

Powers and abilities[edit]

Strange is a practicing magician who draws his powers from mystical entities such as Agamotto, Cyttorak, Ikonn, Oshtur, Raggadorr, and Watoomb, who lend their energies for spells.[51] Strange also wields mystical artifacts including the Cloak of Levitation which enables him to fly;[note 1] the Eye of Agamotto, an amulet whose light is used to negate evil magic;[46] the Book of the Vishanti, a grimoire which contains knowledge of white magic;[52][53]:26–27 and the Orb of Agamotto, a crystal ball which is used for clairvoyance.[53]:24–27[54]

In addition to his magical abilities, Strange is trained in several martial arts disciplines,[55] and has shown proficiency with numerous magically conjured weapons including swords and axes.[56] Strange was a skilled neurosurgeon before nerve damage impaired his hands.[46]

Doctor Strange is described as "the mightiest magician in the cosmos"[57] and "more powerful by far than any of your fellow humanoids" by Eternity, the sentience of the Marvel Universe.[58] He holds the title of Sorcerer Supreme from 1973 (with the death of the Ancient One)[18] to the present, except during an interruption from 1992[59] to 1995.[60] He relinquishes the title once again in 2009,[34] but reclaims it in 2012 when he proves himself willing to protect the world even without the title.[38]

Book of the Vishanti[edit]

The Book of the Vishanti is portrayed as being written by unknown authors, is closely associated with Doctor Strange, and is the greatest known source of white magical knowledge on Earth. The Book of the Vishanti contains spells of defensive magic and is indestructible. Its counterpart, the Darkhold, contains all the knowledge of black magic in the Marvel Universe, and is likewise indestructible. It is possible to destroy single pages of either book, but the balancing spell in the other book is destroyed as well to maintain a mystical balance. A collective of the three powerful magical beings - Agamotto, Oshtur and Hoggoth, known as the Vishanti - must allow the spell to be destroyed.

Even though the book is a tome of benevolent magic, the spells within can still be dangerous when used improperly. This is proven when a young, inexperienced Strange tried to use the Book of the Vishanti to resurrect his dead brother Victor, but the spell, known as the Vampiric Verses, caused Victor to become the vampire Baron Blood years later.

Apart from spells and mystical knowledge, the book also contains information about persons and events. It is unknown how the book is able to contain up to date and recent information even though it was written thousands of years ago.

The first known owner of the book was the Atlantean sorcerer Varnae from around 18,500 BC. The next known owner was the Babylonian god Marduk Kurios. Marduk set a griffin to guard the Book. The sorcerer known as the Ancient One traveled back in time to c. 4000 BC and defeated the griffin and returned to the 20th century. The Ancient One would remain the book's owner, despite a brief loss when the dark wizard Kaluu returned the Book to the Griffin, until he deemed his student, Doctor Strange, worthy of taking it.

Doctor Strange keeps the book in his town house library in New York City's Greenwich Village. He briefly lost the book when he destroyed his home to prevent the alien wizard Urthona from taking his magical artifacts, but the book was saved by Agamotto, who transported it to his realm and returned it to Strange some time later.

Orb of Agamotto[edit]

The Orb of Agamotto is a fictional magical item in the Marvel Comics universe. It is a powerful scrying crystal ball owned and used by Doctor Strange. It can also be used to detect magic in use anywhere in the world and provide Strange with a location and visual. The orb rests in Doctor Strange's Sanctum Sanctorum in a room called the Chamber of Shadows. It usually is inside a display case with three curved legs. When summoned, the glass covering rises and the ball levitates. While powerful, the Orb has been blocked by exceptionally powerful mystic forces (such as Umar) who do not want their exact location known. On at least one occasion, it has been used to open a dimensional portal to the realm of Agamotto.

Other versions[edit]

The character has starred in several alternate universe titles. In the miniseries Marvel 1602 #1-#8 (November 2003 – June 2004), Sir Stephen Strange is both the court physician and magician to Queen Elizabeth I. The title Spider-Man 2099 introduced a female version of Strange who shares her body with a demon in issue #33 (1995). The miniseries Strange #1-#6 (November 2004 – April 2005), written by J. Michael Straczynski and Samm Barnes, with artwork by Brandon Peterson, reimagined the character's origin, allies and enemies in a contemporary setting.

In the miniseries Marvel Zombies #1-#5 (February – June 2006), Strange is infected with a zombie virus along with many other heroes. He reappears in the second sequel, Marvel Zombies 3 #1-#4 (December 2008 – March 2009)

In the alternate future universe of the Marvel imprint MC2, Doctor Strange is no longer the Sorcerer Supreme, the title there held by Doc Magnus. Doctor Strange uses his remaining power to reform the superhero team the Defenders in A-Next #3 (1998) and to fight the Norse god of mischief, Loki, Last Hero Standing #4 (Feb. 2005).

The Ultimate Marvel title Ultimate Marvel Team-Up introduced a version of the character called "Stephen Strange, Jr.", the son of the original Doctor Strange, in Ultimate Marvel Team-Up #12 (July 2002). The character was killed in battle by the Ultimate Marvel version of Dormammu in the miniseries Ultimatum #1-#5 (January – September 2009).

Two months before the debut of the sorcerer-hero Doctor Strange, Stan Lee (editor and story-plotter), Robert Bernstein (scripter, under the pseudonym "R. Berns"), and Jack Kirby (artist) introduced a criminal scientist and Ph.D. with the same surname (called "Carl Strange"). Making his sole appearance in the Iron Man story "The Stronghold of Dr. Strange" in Tales of Suspense #41 (1963), the character gained mental powers in a freak lightning strike.[61]

In other media[edit]

Television[edit]

Doctor Strange as seen in Spider-Man: The Animated Series (1994).

Film[edit]

Benedict Cumberbatch as Doctor Strange from the 2016 film Doctor Strange

Video games[edit]

Novels[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The blue "student" version first appeared in Strange Tales #110 (July 1963), with the red "master" version first appearing in Strange Tales #127 (December 1964).

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Reisman, Abraham (November 16, 2016). "The Creator of Doctor Strange Will Not See You Now". New York. Archived from the original on November 17, 2016. Creeping conflict became apparent a few months after Spider-Man’s debut, when Lee first announced the impending debut of their next co-creation, a magician named Doctor Strange. 
  2. ^ "Wizard's 200 Greatest Comic Characters of All Time". Razorfine.com. Archived from the original on May 30, 2008. Retrieved May 8, 2008. 
  3. ^ "The Top 50 Avengers". IGN. April 30, 2012. Archived from the original on March 17, 2015. Retrieved July 28, 2015. 
  4. ^ Ditko, Steve (w). ""Toyland": "Martin Goodman/Stan Lee"" The Avenging Mind (April 2008), Robin Snyder and Steve Ditko
  5. ^ "The Marvel Age of Comics, A letter written by Stan Lee to super-fan Dr". 2014-04-09. Archived from the original on 2014-04-09. Retrieved 2017-01-23. 
  6. ^ Brevoort, Tom; DeFalco, Tom; Manning, Matthew, eds. (2008). Marvel Chronicle: A Year by Year History. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 978-0-7566-4123-8.  DeFalco in "1960s" Brevoort, DeFalco & Manning 2008, p. 93

    "When Dr. Strange first appeared in Strange Tales #110, it was only clear that he dabbled in black magic and had the ability to project his consciousness into an astral form that could leave his physical body."

  7. ^ Daniels, Les (1991). Marvel: Five Fabulous Decades of the World's Greatest Comics. New York, New York: Harry N. Abrams. p. 114. ISBN 9780810938212. Inspired by the Mutual Network radio show Chandu the Magician, which [Stan] Lee had enjoyed during his childhood, Dr. Strange was in fact a more impressive character than Chandu. 
  8. ^ Thomas, Roy (August 2011). "Stan Lee's Amazing Marvel Interview!". Alter Ego. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing (104): 7–8. 
  9. ^ Benton, Mike (1991). Superhero Comics of the Silver Age: The Illustrated History. Dallas, Texas: Taylor Publishing Company. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-87833-746-0. 
  10. ^ Green, Robin (September 16, 1971). "Face Front! Clap Your Hands, You're on the Winning Team!". Rolling Stone. No. 91. via fan site Green Skin's Grab-Bag. p. 31. Archived from the original on October 7, 2010. Retrieved September 14, 2011. 
  11. ^ a b Wright, Bradford (September 18, 2003). Comic Book Nation: The Transformation of Youth Culture in America. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 213. ISBN 978-0801874505. 
  12. ^ "Strange Tales #134". Grand Comics Database.  "Indexer notes: Part 5 of 17. First mention of Eternity. Strange would finally find it in Strange Tales #138 (Nov. 1965)."
  13. ^ a b DeFalco in Brevoort, DeFalco & Manning 2008, p. 128

    "Hailing 1968 as the beginning of the 'Second Age of Marvel Comics,' and with more titles to play with, editor Stan Lee discarded his split books and gave more characters their own titles…Strange Tales #168 [was followed] by Dr. Strange #169."

  14. ^ Doctor Strange at the Grand Comics Database
  15. ^ "Marvel News". Marvelmania Magazine. No. 5. 1970. p. 30. 
  16. ^ Sanderson, Peter in Brevoort, DeFalco & Manning 2008, p. 151

    "[Roy] Thomas and artist Ross Andru reunited [Doctor] Strange, the Hulk, and Namor as a brand new Marvel superhero team—the Defenders."

  17. ^ Sanderson "1970s" Brevoort, DeFalco & Manning 2008, p. 156

    "Dr. Strange began a new series of solo adventures. He got off to an impressive start with [a] story scripted by Stan Lee and illustrated by Barry Windsor-Smith."

  18. ^ a b Englehart, Steve (w), Brunner, Frank (p), Crusty Bunkers (i). "Finally, Shuma-Gorath!" Marvel Premiere 10 (September 1973)
  19. ^ Cronin, Brian (December 22, 2005). "Comic Book Urban Legends Revealed #30". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on February 4, 2012. Retrieved December 26, 2008. We cooked up this plot—we wrote a letter from a Reverend Billingsley in Texas, a fictional person, saying that one of the children in his parish brought him the comic book, and he was astounded and thrilled by it, and he said, 'Wow, this is the best comic book I've ever read.' And we signed it 'Reverend so-and-so, Austin Texas'—and when Steve was in Texas, he mailed the letter so it had the proper postmark. Then, we got a phone call from Roy, and he said, 'Hey, about that retraction, I'm going to send you a letter, and instead of the retraction, I want you to print this letter.' And it was our letter! We printed our letter! 
  20. ^ Doctor Strange vol. 2 at the Grand Comics Database
  21. ^ Wolfman, Marv (w), Colan, Gene (p), Palmer, Tom (i). "His Name Is Doctor Strange" The Tomb of Dracula 44 (May 1976)
    Englehart, Steve (w), Colan, Gene (p), Palmer, Tom (i). "The Tomb of Dr. Strange!" Doctor Strange v2, 14 (May 1976)
    Sanderson "1970s" in Brevoort, DeFalco & Manning 2008, p. 175

    "The great Marvel artist Gene Colan was doing superb work illustrating both Doctor Strange and The Tomb of Dracula. So it made sense for Strange writer Steve Englehart and Tomb author Marv Wolfman to devise a crossover story."

  22. ^ Sanderson "1970s" in Brevoort, DeFalco & Manning 2008, p. 174

    "The year 1976 was the 200th anniversary of the United States' Declaration of Independence. So it was appropriate that several of the major events in Marvel history that year dealt with political themes… In September, just before departing from Marvel for DC Comics, writer Steve Englehart sent Dr. Strange back through time to meet one of the men responsible for the Declaration of Independence, Benjamin Franklin.

  23. ^ Doctor Strange, Sorcerer Supreme at the Grand Comics Database
  24. ^ Doctor Strange: Sorcerer Supreme #60 (December 1993) to #68 (August 1994)
  25. ^ Christiansen, Jeff (August 27, 2015). "Midnight Sons". The Appendix to the Handbook of the Marvel Universe. Archived from the original on October 25, 2015. 
  26. ^ Doctor Strange: Sorcerer Supreme #80-90 (August 1995 – June 1996)
  27. ^ Doctor Strange: Sorcerer Supreme #60 (December 1993) to #75 (March 1995)
  28. ^ Manning, Matthew K. "1990s" in Brevoort, DeFalco & Manning 2008, p. 262

    "Writer Roy Thomas and penciller Andre Coates created this new series that ran until 1995.

  29. ^ Strange Tales one-shot at the Grand Comics Database
  30. ^ Manning "2000s" Brevoort, DeFalco & Manning 2008, p. 323

    "Scribes J. Michael Straczynski and Samm Barnes, with artist Brandon Peterson, retold Dr. Strange's mystical origin for a new generation of fans in this six-issue limited series.

  31. ^ Bendis, Brian Michael (w), Yu, Leinil Francis (p), Yu, Leinil Francis (i). "Revolution Part One" The New Avengers 27 (April 2007)
  32. ^ Pak, Greg (w), Romita Jr., John (p), Janson, Klaus (i). World War Hulk 3 (October 2007)
  33. ^ Bendis, Brian Michael (w), Pagulayan, Carlo (p), Huet, Jeff (i). New Avengers Annual 2 (2008)
  34. ^ a b Bendis, Brian Michael (w), Tan, Billy (p), Banning, Matt (i). "You shouldn't be here, Jericho" The New Avengers 54 (August 2009)
  35. ^ "New Avengers (2013 - Present)". Marvel Comics. 2013. Archived from the original on October 31, 2016. 
  36. ^ Bendis, Brian Michael (w), Immonen, Stuart (p), Von Grawbadger, Wade (i). "Um… Sshh! We are ready" The New Avengers v2, 6 (January 2011)
  37. ^ Bendis, Brian Michael (w), Adams, Neal (p), Pamer, Tom (i). "Look at me, Norman" The New Avengers v2, 16.1 (November 2011)
  38. ^ a b Bendis, Brian Michael (w), Deodato, Mike (p), Deodato, Mike (i). The New Avengers v2, 34 (January 2013)
  39. ^ Hickman, Jonathan (w), Kudranski, Szymon (p), Kudranski, Szymon (i). "Triage" The New Avengers v3, 27 (January 2015)
  40. ^ Hickman, Jonathan (w), Ribić, Esad (p), Ribić, Esad (i). "The Eye of Doom" Secret Wars 3 (August 2015)
  41. ^ Stroz, Casey. "Doctor Strange - Last Days of Magic Conjures Up New Characters!". BadCoyoteFunky. Retrieved 2017-01-07. 
  42. ^ Doctor Strange vol. 4, #1
  43. ^ Dr. Strange: Last Days of Magic #1
  44. ^ Doctor Strange vol. 4, #10
  45. ^ DeFalco "1960s" in Brevoort, DeFalco & Manning 2008, p. 93

    "Dr. Strange's archenemy, Baron Mordo, was introduced in Strange Tales #111.

  46. ^ a b c Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (p), Ditko, Steve (i). "The Origin of Dr. Strange" Strange Tales 115 (December 1963)
  47. ^ a b Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (p), Ditko, Steve (i). "Dr. Strange Master of Black Magic!" Strange Tales 110 (July 1963)
  48. ^ DeFalco "1960s" in Brevoort, DeFalco & Manning 2008, p. 103

    "Clea, Dr. Strange's longtime girlfriend from the Dark Dimension, debuted in Strange Tales #126.

  49. ^ Stern, Roger (w), Smith, Paul (p), Smith, Paul (i). "Secret Origin" Doctor Strange v2, 72 (August 1985)
  50. ^ Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (p), Ditko, Steve (i). "The Domain of the Dread Dormammu!" Strange Tales 126 (November 1964)
  51. ^ Thomas, Roy & Dann (December 1991). Doctor Strange (Issue 36 ed.). Marvel Comics. pp. 12, 13, 16, and 17. 
  52. ^ Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (p), Ditko, Steve (i). "Return to the Nightmare World!" Strange Tales 116 (January 1964)
  53. ^ a b Sanderson, Peter (2007). The Marvel Comics Guide to New York City (1st Pocket Books trade pbk ed.). New York, New York: Pocket Books. ISBN 1-4165-3141-6. 
  54. ^ Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (p), Ditko, Steve (i). "The Possessed!" Strange Tales 118 (March 1964)
  55. ^ Stern, Roger (2011). This Old House (Marvel Vault One Shot: Doctor Strange ed.). Marvel Comics. p. 15. 
  56. ^ Gillis, Peter B. (October 1986). Doctor Strange (Issue 79 ed.). Marvel Comics. p. 11. 
  57. ^ Englehart, Steve (w), Buscema, Sal (p), Bolle, Frank (i). The Defenders 11 (Dec, 1973)
  58. ^ Simonson, Walt (w), Gibbons, Dave (p), Gibbons, Dave (i). "…Perchance to Dream" Marvel Fanfare 41 (December 1988)
  59. ^ Kaminski, Len (w), Isherwood, Geof (p), Petrecca, Bob; Hudson, Don (i). "To Serve in Heaven" Doctor Strange, Sorcerer Supreme 48 (December 1992)
  60. ^ Ellis, Warren (w), Buckingham, Mark (p), Sutherland, Kev F. (i). "Earthquake Logic" Doctor Strange, Sorcerer Supreme 80 (August 1995)
  61. ^ Christiansen, Jeff (May 11, 2002). "Doctor Strange". The Appendix to the Handbook of the Marvel Universe. Archived from the original on March 3, 2013. Retrieved March 3, 2013. 
  62. ^ "Comics Continuum". Comics Continuum. July 28, 2009. Archived from the original on March 3, 2013. Retrieved September 13, 2010. 
  63. ^ "Listings - Marvel's Hulk And The Agents Of S.M.A.S.H. On Disney Xd". The Futon Critic. n.d. Archived from the original on November 30, 2014. Retrieved March 10, 2014. 
  64. ^ Fausett, Dan (director); Auman, Brandon (writer) (March 30, 2014). "Stranger in a Strange Land". Hulk and the Agents of S.M.A.S.H. Season 1. Episode 20. Disney XD. 
  65. ^ "Miles From Home". Ultimate Spider-Man. Season 4. Episode 3. February 28, 2016. Disney XD. 
  66. ^ Ryan, Mike (June 4, 2014). "The Bizarre Case of the 1978 Doctor Strange Movie". ScreenCrush. Archived from the original on October 5, 2015. 
  67. ^ a b Pauls, J. B. "The Rewind: Doctor Mordrid". Living Myth Magazine. Archived from the original on July 17, 2014. Retrieved May 9, 2014. 
  68. ^ Fischer, Dennis (2011). Science Fiction Film Directors, 1895-1998. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company. p. 88. ISBN 9780786485055. 
  69. ^ "The Doctor is In: Doctor Strange DVD and Blu-Ray in Stores Now". Marvel Comics. August 14, 2007. Archived from the original on March 3, 2013. Retrieved March 3, 2013. 
  70. ^ Strom, Marc (December 4, 2014). "Benedict Cumberbatch to play Doctor Strange". Marvel.com. Archived from the original on December 30, 2016. Retrieved December 4, 2014. 
  71. ^ Breznican, Anthony (November 5, 2016). "Doctor Strange revelations: Secrets and Easter eggs from the new Marvel movie". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on November 5, 2016. Retrieved November 5, 2016. 
  72. ^ Simpson, George (September 26, 2016). "Benedict Cumberbatch's Doctor Strange CONFIRMED for Avengers: Infinity War". Daily Express. London, United Kingdom. Archived from the original on September 26, 2016. Retrieved September 26, 2016. 
  73. ^ Collis, Clark (October 13, 2016). "Doctor Strange will play a 'very, very important' role in the MCU, Marvel Studios president says". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on October 14, 2016. Retrieved October 14, 2016. 
  74. ^ Wickline, Dan (October 7, 2016). "Where Monsters Dwell – Hulk Gets New Animated Feature With Dr Strange And The Howling Commandos". Bleeding Cool. Archived from the original on October 31, 2016. 
  75. ^ Denick, Thom (2006). Marvel Ultimate Alliance: Signature Series Guide. Indianapolis, Indiana: Brady Games. pp. 44–45. ISBN 0-7440-0844-1. 
  76. ^ Sinclair, Brendan (July 20, 2011). "Ultimate Marvel vs. Capcom 3 roster leaked". Gamespot.com. Archived from the original on March 3, 2013. Retrieved March 3, 2013. 
  77. ^ Baker, Chris (October 31, 2011). "Doctor Strange is voiced by Rick Pasqualone". Twitter. Archived from the original on November 30, 2014. 
  78. ^ "Dr. Strange has joined Marvel Heroes". MarvelHeroes.com. Gazillion Entertainment. March 28, 2014. Archived from the original on May 10, 2014. Retrieved October 30, 2016. 
  79. ^ "Voice Of Doctor Strange - Marvel Heroes". Behind The Voice Actors. Archived from the original on October 31, 2016. Retrieved October 30, 2016. 
  80. ^ "LEGO Marvel Super Heroes: Stan Lee sera jouable…" (in French). Brick Heroes. July 20, 2013. Archived from the original on July 9, 2014. Retrieved August 13, 2013. 
  81. ^ "News | Marvel.com". News.marvel.com. 2016-10-28. Retrieved 2017-02-06. 
  82. ^ Weiner, Robert G. (2008). Marvel Graphic Novels and Related Publications: An Annotated Guide to Comics, Prose Novels, Children's Books, Articles, Criticism and Reference Works, 1965-2005. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company. p. 280. ISBN 978-0786425006. 
  83. ^ Christiansen, Jeff (n.d.). "Marvel Novels". The Appendix to the Handbook of the Marvel Universe. Archived from the original on May 18, 2015. 
  84. ^ Duncan, Randy; Smith, Matthew J. (2009). Power of Comics: History, Form and Culture. London, United Kingdom: Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 52. ISBN 978-0826429353. 

External links[edit]