Hymenopus coronatus

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Hymenopus coronatus
Mantis Hymenopus coronatus 6 Luc Viatour.jpg
Sub-adult female
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Mantodea
Family: Hymenopodidae
Genus: Hymenopus
Species: H. coronatus
Binomial name
Hymenopus coronatus
Olivier, 1792
Synonyms

H. bicornis (Stoll)

Hymenopus coronatus, also called H. bicornis, is a mantis from the rain forests of Southeast Asia. It is known by various common names including walking flower mantis and (pink) orchid mantis. It is one of several species known as flower mantises from their resemblance and behaviour. In the wild, H. coronatus can be found in Malaysia. [1]

Description[edit]

This species is characterized by brilliant colouring and a structure finely adapted for camouflage, mimicking parts of the orchid flower. The four walking legs resemble flower petals,[2] the toothed front pair being used as in other mantises for grasping prey.

H. coronatus shows some of the most pronounced sexual dimorphism of any species of mantis; males can be less than half the size of females.[3]

First-stage nymphs mimic bugs of the family Reduviidae, which have a powerful bite and are foul tasting.[4]

The mantis can change its colour between pink and brown, according to the colour of the background.[5]

Distribution[edit]

Hymenopus coronatus is found in the rain forests of South-East Asia,[6] including Malaysia and Indonesia.

Diet[edit]

The species is carnivorous, mainly catching other insects. In the laboratory it prefers lepidopteran prey.[7] Their diet consists of eating small insects, including flying insects such as crickets, flies, fruit-flies, beetles and even bees or other dangerous insects. Some Mantis have even been known to be carnivorous, eating their own siblings when a smaller, slower brother or sister may wonder too closely. Mantis have even been known to eat comparably very large mammals such as lizards, birds, frogs, turtles, and even mice.

Ethology[edit]

An adult female H. coronatus on and mimicking a Phalaenopsis orchid

Hugh Cott quotes an account by Nelson Annandale of Hymenopus coronatus which he reports hunts on the flowers of the "Straits Rhododendron", Melastoma polyanthum. The nymph has what Cott calls "Special Alluring Coloration", where the animal itself is the "decoy". The insect is pink and white, with flattened limbs with "that semi-opalescent, semi-crystalline appearance that is caused in flower-petals by a purely structural arrangement of liquid globules or empty cells". The mantis climbs up and down the twigs of the plant until it finds one that has flowers. It holds on to these with the claws of its two rearmost pairs of legs. It then sways from side to side, and soon various small flies land on and around it, attracted by the small black spot on the end of its abdomen which resembles a fly. When a larger Dipteran fly, as big as a house fly, landed nearby, the mantis at once seized and ate it.[8][9]

Drawing of nymph of "Hymenopus bicornis in active pupa stage" by James Wood-Mason, who sent it to Alfred Russel Wallace, who in turn lent it to Edward Bagnall Poulton for his book The Colours of Animals.

Alfred Russel Wallace in his 1889 book Darwinism, calls the mantis rare:

A beautiful drawing of this rare insect, Hymenopus bicornis (in the nymph or active pupa state), was kindly sent me by Mr. Wood-Mason, Curator of the Indian Museum at Calcutta. A species, very similar to it, inhabits Java, where it is said to resemble a pink orchid. Other Mantidae, of the genus Gongylus, have the anterior part of the thorax dilated and coloured either white, pink, or purple; and they so closely resemble flowers that, according to Mr. Wood-Mason, one of them, having a bright violet-blue prothoracic shield, was found in Pegu by a botanist, and was for a moment mistaken by him for a flower. See Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. liii.

— Alfred Russel Wallace[10]

The drawing was published in Edward Bagnall Poulton's book The Colours of Animals. Poulton calls it an "Indian Mantis" which "feeds upon other insects which it attracts by its flower-like shape and pink colour. The apparent petals are the flattened legs of the insect."[11]

The species is reported by Costa, quoting Shelford's 1903 account, to show parental care by guarding the eggs. Costa asks rhetorically "Why has so little [research] been done on parental care in mantids, such an unexpected and intriguing aspect of their behavior?"[12][13]

The camouflage of the orchid mantis probably deceives potential predators, as well as serving as aggressive mimicry of the orchid to help catch insect prey.[14]

Growth, diet and mature cycles[edit]

The Orchid Mantis is favoured species of Mantis among insect breeders, but is extremely rare, and as a result, also extremely expensive. Some Mantis breeders charging as much as $75 - $150 USD for a single stage 3 (L3) nymph. [15] The nymphs are described as "very inactive", requiring only a small space to live as they mature to adulthood. Their diet consists of eating small insects, including flying insects such as crickets, flies, fruit-flies, beetles and even bees or other dangerous insects. Some Mantis have even been known to be carnivorous, eating their own siblings when a smaller, slower brother or sister may wonder too closely. Mantis have even been known to eat comparably very large mammals such as lizards, birds, frogs, turtles, and even mice. Mantis hunt by sitting in wait, sometimes for hours on end. They hunt by sitting in one spot, and moving back and forth like a leaf or flower moving in the breeze. Up to 100 all white nymphs may hatch from a single ootheca (egg sack). The males will mature to being more colorful tan the females, having deeper pinks, purples, blues and reds in their coloring, while the females will remain mostly white with only a little coloring. In nature, the Males will mature more rapidly than females, but it has been discovered that the males will mature more slowly when temperatures cool to 15–18 Celsius, while the Females grow more rapidly at temperatures between 30 and 55 Celsius, coupled with high humidity.[15]

Additional images[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ https://www.keepinginsects.com/praying-mantis/species/orchid-mantis/
  2. ^ Gullan, PJ; Cranston, PS (2010). The Insects: An Outline of Entomology. Wiley (4th edition). Page 370.
  3. ^ Prete, 1999. p.107.
  4. ^ Gurney (1951). "Praying Mantids". Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. The Smithsonian Institution. 105: 344–345. 
  5. ^ Prete, 1999. pp. 283–184.
  6. ^ DK Pocket Eyewitness Insects. Dorling Kindersley. 2012. p. 38. 
  7. ^ Prete, 1999. p.313.
  8. ^ Cott, 1940. pp 392–393.
  9. ^ Annandale, Nelson (1900). "Notes on the Habits and natural Surroundings of Insects made during the 'Skeat Expedition' to the Malay Peninsula, 1899-1900". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London: 837–868. 
  10. ^ Wallace, 1889. Note 80.
  11. ^ Poulton, 1890. pp 74–75.
  12. ^ Costa, James T (2006). The Other Insect Societies. Harvard University Press. pp. 138–139. 
  13. ^ Shelford, R (1903). "Bionomical notes on some Bornean mantids". Zoologist. 4: 298–304. 
  14. ^ Boucher, Douglas H (1988). The Biology of Mutualism: Ecology and Evolution. Oxford University Press. p. 207. 
  15. ^ a b "Hymenopus Coronatus (Orchid mantis) Caresheet". InsectStore. 25 January 2006. Retrieved 5 January 2013. 

Bibliography[edit]