Order of Isabella the Catholic
|Order of Isabella the Catholic|
Grand Cross Sash and Star of the Order
|Awarded by the Spanish Monarch|
|Motto||A LA LEALTAD ACRISOLADA
(To Proven Loyalty)
POR ISABEL LA CATÓLICA
(For Isabella the Catholic)
|Awarded for||Actions in benefit to Spain and the Crown|
|Grand Master||King Felipe VI|
|Grand Chancellor||Alfonso Dastis Quecedo, Minister of Foreign Affairs|
|Next (higher)||Order of Queen Maria Luisa|
|Next (lower)||Order of Civil Merit|
The Ribbons of the Order
The Order of Isabella the Catholic (Spanish: Orden de Isabel la Católica) is a Spanish civil order in which membership is granted in recognition of services that benefit the country. The Order is not open to Spaniards exclusively, and it has been used to award many foreigners.
The Order was created on 14 March 1815 by King Ferdinand VII in honor of Queen Isabella I with the name of "Royal and American Order of Isabella the Catholic" with the intent of "rewarding the firm allegiance to Spain and the merits of Spanish citizens and foreigners in good standing with the Nation and especially in those exceptional services provided in pursuit of territories in America and overseas." The Order was reorganized by royal decree on 26 July 1847, as the modern "Royal Order of Isabella the Catholic" with a broader focus than the Americas.
The Order of Isabel the Catholic was instituted by King Ferdinand VII on 14 March 1815 as the Royal American Order of Isabel the Catholic. The original statutes of the Order were approved by Royal Decree of 24 March, with membership made in three classes: Grand Cross, and Knights of First and Second Class. Ferdinand VII was declared the Order's Founder, Head, and Sovereign. On October 7, 1816, at the suggestion of the Chapter of the Order, the Knights of the first class were renamed Commanders and the second class were renamed Knights.
Under the reign of Isabel II, the four royal orders in existence in Spain at the time: the Order of the Golden Fleece, the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of the Languages of Aragon and Castile, the Order of Charles III, and the Order of Isabella the Catholic was reorganised by royal decree of 26 July 1847. The latter was reserved to reward exclusively the services rendered in the Overseas territories. The classes of the order became Knight, Commander, Commander by Number, and Grand Cross. The concession and tests of nobility was suppressed in all the Royal Orders. By royal decree of October 28, 1851, no concessions of Grand Cross of any orders were to be made without the proposal of the Council of Ministers and concessions for the lower classes with the proposal of the Secretary of State.
After the establishment of the First Republic, the Order was declared to be extinguished by Decree of 29 March 1873 as deemed to be incompatible with the Republican Government. Use of the various insignias was allowed to those who possessed them. When King Alfonso XII ascended to the throne, the Order was reestablished by Decree of 7 January 1875.
During the minority of Alfonso XIII, his mother and Regent, Maria Cristina, signed the royal decrees of 15 April 1889 and 25 October 1900. Among other things, they sought to impose entry into the Order by the category of Knight, to prohibit the use of decorations until the corresponding title was obtained, and to ratify the obligation that the Grand Cross be awarded with the agreement of the Council of Ministers and for conferees to be published in the Official Gazette. By Royal Decree of March 14, 1903, the Silver Cross of the Order was created, and by Royal Decree of April 15, 1907, the Silver and Bronze Medals.
In Royal Decree 1118, of 22 June 1927, the superior grade of Knights of the Collar was created, to be awarded to prominent personalities of extraordinary merit. It also provides that women can also be decorated with either the lazo or banda
The Provisional Government of the Republic, by decree of 24 July 1931, abolished all orders under the Ministry of State, except for the Order of Isabella the Catholic. The regulations approved by decree of 10 October 10 1931 introduced a new degree: Officer (Oficial). By decree of 8 August 1935, it was established that the first degree in the Order of Isabella the Catholic was that of the Grand Cross, the Collar being reserved exclusively for very exceptional cases.
In 1938, General Franco, by decree of 15 June, restored the Order in its traditional meaning: to reward meritorious services rendered to the country by nationals and foreigners. The order's regulations were approved by Decree of 29 September 1938. According to the 1938 regulations, the order consisted of the following grades: Knight of the Collar, Knight Grand Cross, Commander by Number, Commander, Knight, and Silver Cross. Decree 1353/1971, of June 5, re-incorporated the rank of Officer, placing it between the grades of Knight and Commander. Thus, the Order consisted of the following grades: Knight of the Collar, Knight of the Grand Cross, Banda de Dama (denomination of the Grand Cross when granted to ladies), Commander by Number, Commander, Officer, Knight, Lazo de Dama (the degree of Knight when it is granted to ladies), and Cruz de Plata.
The order's current regulations date from 1998 as approved by Royal Decree 2395/1998, of 6 November. Among its provisions, the categories of Banda de Dama, Cruz de Caballero and Lazo de Dama were repealed to avoid possible interpretations of there being gender discrimination. Notwithstanding this, for aesthetic and functional reasons, the ladies who are decorated use reduced versions of the insignia of each degree of the Order.
Officials and grades
The King of Spain (currently Felipe VI) is Grand Master of the Order. The Grand Chancellor of the Order is the Minister of Foreign Affairs. All deeds granting decorations of the Order must bear the signatures of both. Members of the order at the knight and above enjoy personal nobility and have the privilege of adding a golden heraldic mantle to their coat of arms. Knights at the rank of Grand Cross and Knight of the Collar receive the official style of "His or Her most Excellent Lord". Knights at the rank of commander and commander by number receive the style of "His or Her Most Illustrious Lord". Beneath these two officials of the Order, there are currently several grades:
- First Class
- Second Class
- Third Class
- Fourth Class
- Fifth Class
- Sixth Class
- Silver Medal (Medalla de Plata)
- Bronze Medal (Medalla de Bronce)
The original statutes of the order of 24 March 1815 established the order in three classes. The structure of the order has varied several times since then. The following is a summary of the history of the various grades and medals of the order:
- Knights of the Collar (Caballeros del Collar) – Established 22 June 1927.
- Knights Grand Cross (Caballeros Gran Cruz) – Established 24 March 1815.
- Knight First Class (Caballeros de Primera Clase) – Established 24 March 1815, retitled Commander (Comdador) on 24 July 1815.
- Officer (Oficial) – Established 10 October 1931, abolished 15 June 1938 and restored 5 June 1971.
- Knight Second Class (Caballeros de Segunda Clase) – Established 24 March 1815, retiled Knight (Caballeros) on 24 July 1815.
- Silver Cross (Cruz de Plata) – Established 16 March 1903 to reward civil and palace officials.
- Gold Medal with Laureate (Medal de Oro pero Laureada) – Established on 24 July 1815 for award to European sergeants and enlisted men. Subsequently abolished.
- Gold Medal (Medal de Oro) – Established on 24 July 1815 for award to non-European 'natives'. Subsequently abolished.
- Silver Medal (Medal de Plata) – Established 15 April 1907 to reward non-commissioned officers and junior civil officials.
- Bronze Medal (Medal de Bronce) – Established 15 April 1907 to reward non-commissioned officers and junior civil officials.
Women appointed to an applicable grade are not called Knights (Caballeros). Women are instead appointed as Dames of the Collar (Damas del Collar), Dames Grand Cross (Damas Gran Cruz) or Dame's Cross (Cruz de Damas).
The decoration is a red-enameled cross, with a golden frame. The outer peaks are fitted with small gold balls. The center of the medallion contains the inscription "A La Lealtad Acrisolada" (To Proven Loyalty) and "Por Isabel la Católica" (For Isabella the Catholic) on white enamel. Above the cross is a green enameled laurel wreath with the band ring.
The ribbon is yellow with a white central stripe, except the "Collar", the wearing of which can be replaced by a gold-yellow sash with white stripes on the edges.
|Collar||Collar Grade Star||Grand Cross Star||Commander by Number||Commander|
|Officer's Cross||Dame-Officer's Bow
|Knight's Cross||Dame Bow
|Silver Cross||Dame's Silver Cross Bow
|Silver Medal||Dame's Silver Medal Bow
|Dame's Bronze Medal Bow
Royal houses and Nobility
- Knights Grand Cross
- Alfonso, Duke of Anjou and Cádiz
- Prince Carlos of Bourbon-Two Sicilies
- Prince Ali bin Hussein
- Princess Astrid, Mrs. Ferner
- Juan Álvarez de Lorenzana, 10th Viscount of Barrantes
- Prince Ferdinand of Bavaria
- Prince Guillaume of Luxembourg
- Gyanendra of Nepal
- Prince Jean of Luxembourg
- Princess Lalla Asma of Morocco
- Princess Lalla Hasna of Morocco
- Princess Margriet of the Netherlands
- Infanta María de la Paz of Spain
- Infanta Maria Teresa of Spain
- Archduchess Marie Astrid of Austria
- King Philippe of Belgium
- Emperor Pedro I of Brazil
- Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma
- Cayetana Fitz-James Stuart (1964), Duchess of Alba
- Basma bint Talal (1977), Princess of Jordan
- Farah Pahlavi (1969), Empress of Iran
- Richard, 6th Prince of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg
- Joaquín de Roncali, 1st Marquis of Roncali
- The Duke of Suárez
- Hugh Thomas, Baron Thomas of Swynnerton
- Valerian Wellesley, 8th Duke of Wellington
- Yusef of Morocco
- Prince Harry of Wales (2017)
- Anne, Princess Royal (2017)
- Prince Andrew, The Duke of York (2017) 
- Arts and culture
- Fernando Botero (2007), Colombian artist
- Samuel Morse (1859), American inventor and painter
- Mstislav Rostropovich
- Alexander Kircher (1909), Austro-German marine and landscape painter, illustrator 
- Ramón Xirau (1979), Spanish poet and philosopher
- John Griffiths (musician) (1993), Australian vihuelist and musicologist
- Celin, Pepe, and Ángel Romero (2000), Spanish/American classical guitarists
- Chavela Vargas (2000), Mexican singer
- Carlos Luis de Ribera y Fieve (1870), Spanish painter
- Encarnación López Júlvez (La Argentinita), Argentinian dancer
- Dulce María Loynaz (1993), Cuban poet
- Alicia Alonso (1993), Cuban dancer
- Diego Forlán (2011), Uruguayan football player
- Jorge Drexler (2010), Uruguayan singer-songwriter.
- business, industry and Economy
- Jacob Aaron Westervelt (1859), American shipbuilder
- Antonio López y López (1878), Spanish businessman.
- Gustavo Cisneros, Venezuelan businessman
- Pedro Duro, Spanish industrialist
- Domingo de Monteverde, Spanish governor of Venezuela
- Xavier Cortés Rocha
- Joseph W. Revere (1851), American brigadier general
- Ignacio Mariscal, Mexican diplomat
- John Owen Dominis, Hawaiian prince consort
- Emilio Arrieta (1871)
- Henry Wikoff (1871), American writer, reporter and diplomatic agent
- João Henrique Ulrich Junior (1880)
- Fredrik Pacius (1882)
- Pedro Paterno (1893), Filipino politician:412
- Jan Szczepanik, Polish inventor of ballistic vest
- Primitivo González del Alba (1906)
- Ludovic Lazarus Zamenhof (1909)
- Esteban de Bilbao Eguía, Cortes speaker 1943-1965
- Eva Duarte de Perón (1947), First Lady of Argentina
- Gaspar Rivera Cestero (1959), Puerto Rican politician
- Antonio Iturmendi Bañales, Cortes speaker 1965-1969
- Saddam Hussein (1974), Vice President of Iraq (later President)
- Imelda Marcos (1974), First Lady of Philippines
- José López Portillo (1977), President of Mexico
- Alfredo Pareja Diezcanseco (1979), Ecuadorian diplomat
- Joseph Perez, French historian of Spain
- Hugo Gutiérrez Vega (1983), Mexican poet and diplomat
- Doris Yankelewitz Berger (1984), First Lady of Costa Rica
- Fidel Villarroel (1985), Spanish historian and theologian
- Qaboos bin Said al Said (1985), Sultan of Oman
- Sila María Calderón (1987), 7th Governor of Puerto Rico
- Fidel V. Ramos (1995), President of the Philippines
- Jan G.F. Veldhuis (2001), Dutch University President
- Estanislao Rodríguez-Ponga (2004), Spanish economist
- Juan Soriano (2006), Mexican painter
- Ferenc Gyurcsány (2007), Prime Minister of Hungary
- Traian Băsescu and Maria Băsescu (2007), President and First Lady of Romania
- Rafael Arráiz Lucca (2007), Venezuelan writer
- Les Luthiers (2007), Argentine comedians/musicians
- María Luisa Elío Bernal (2007), Spanish writer and actress, exiled in Mexico
- Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (2007), President of the Philippines 
- Felipe Calderón (2008), President of Mexico
- Carlos Fuentes (2008), Mexican author
- Enrique Krauze (2008), Mexican historian
- Brad Owen (2008), Lieutenant Governor of Washington State, USA
- José Woldenberg (2008), Mexican political scientist
- Luis Fortuño (2009), Governor of Puerto Rico
- Anne Hidalgo (2010), Mayor of Paris
- René Chamussy (2012), French-Lebanese Jesuit priest, rector of the Saint Joseph University.
- Dilma Rousseff (2012), President of Brazil
- Shinzo Abe, Prime Minister of Japan,
- Mario Molina (2008), Mexican chemist
- Iris Engstrand, historian of California and Spanish exploration during the 1700s
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