Order of Saint Lazarus

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For the modern Order of Saint Lazarus, see Order of Saint Lazarus (Modern Associations).
Insignia of the Order

The Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem was a Roman Catholic military order founded at a leper hospital around 1119 by crusaders of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem to treat persons suffering from leprosy.[1] The Titular seat of the Military and Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem has been successively at Jerusalem, St. Jean d’Acre and the Château de Boigny in France.[2]

After several centuries, the order went into decline and ceased to perform its original function of caring for lepers and managing leprosaria. Starting with Pope Innocent VIII in the 1489, attempts were made to merge the order and its land holdings with the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. This was resisted by the order in most countries where it still retained its houses. In 1572 the Order of St. Lazarus in Italy was merged with the Order of St. Maurice under the Royal House of Savoy to form the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus. In 1609 Henry IV of France joined it to the Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel to form the Royal, Military, and Hospitaller Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel and St. Lazarus of Jerusalem".[3]

The Savoyan Order still exists as the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus.

An international Christian ecumenical lay religious order of, traditionally, a military, chivalrous and noble nature, called the "Military and Hospitaller Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem", purports to be a continuation of the French order.

Symbol[edit]

Cross of the Order

The original symbol of the order was a green cross. This was in later centuries changed to a green eight-pointed Maltese Cross. The word lazarette, in some languages being synonymous with leprosarum, is believed to also be derived from the hospitaller Order of St Lazarus, these edifices being adopted into quarantine stations in the fifteenth century when leprosy was no longer the scourge it had been in earlier centuries.[4] The use of the green cross as a universal symbol of pharmacies worldwide also is believed to have originated with the Order of St. Lazarus, though there is no documentation to substantiate this.[citation needed]

History[edit]

Flag of the Order

The military order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem originated in a leper hospital founded in the twelfth century by crusaders of the Latin Kingdom. There had been earlier leper hospitals in the East, of which the Knights of St. Lazarus claimed to be the continuation, in order to have the appearance of remote antiquity and to pass as the oldest of all orders. According to Charles Moeller, "this pretension is apocryphal".[3]

The Order of St. Lazarus was purely an order of hospitallers in the beginning, and adopted the hospital Rule of St. Augustine in use in the West. It is unclear when the Order assumed a military role.

Hospitals dependent on the Jerusalem hospital were eventually established in other towns in the Holy Land, notably in Acre, and in various countries in Europe particularly in Southern Italy Capua, Hungary, Switzerland, France [Boigny], and England (Burton Lazars).[5] Louis VII of France, on his return from the Second Crusade, gave it the Château of Broigny, near Orléans in 1154. This example was followed by Henry II of England, and by Emperor Frederick II.[3]

The Order remained primarily a hospitaller order but did take part in a number of battles. After the fall of Jerusalem in July 1244 and the subsequent Battle of La Forbie the following October, the Order of St. Lazarus, although still called "of Jerusalem", transferred to Acre, where it had been ceded territory by the Templars in 1240. The Ordinis Fratrum & Militum Hospitalis Leprosorum S. Lazari Hierosolymitani under Augustinian Rule was confirmed by Papal Bull Cum a nobis petitur of Pope Alexander IV in April 1255. In 1262 Pope Urban IV assured it the same immunities as were granted to the monastic orders.

The order quickly abandoned their military activities after the fall of Acre in 1291.[5] As a result of this catastrophe the leper hospital of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem disappeared; however, its commanderies in Europe, together with their revenues, continued to exist, but hospitality was no longer practised. The order ceased to be an order of hospitallers and became purely military, although the knights who resided in these commanderies had no specific tasks.[3]

In 1490, Pope Innocent VIII suppressed the order and transferred its possessions to the Knights of St. John. Although this was confirmed in 1505 by Pope Julius II, the Order of St. John never came into possession of this property except in Germany. In France, Francis I, evaded the Bull of suppression by conferring the commanderies of St. Lazarus on Knights of the Order of St. John. The latter claimed the possession of these goods but their claim was rejected in 1547 by the Parliament of Paris.

Royal House of Savoy[edit]

In 1565 Pope Pius IV annulled the Bulls of his predecessors and restored its possessions to the order so that he might give the mastership to a favorite, Giovanni de Castiglione. But the latter did not succeed in securing the devolution of the commanderies in France. With the death of Castiglione in 1572, the grand mastership of the order was rendered vacant and Pope Gregory XIII united it in perpetuity with the Crown of Savoy. Duke Philibert III, fused it with the Savoyan Order of St. Maurice, and thenceforth the title of Grand Master of the Order of Sts. Maurice and Lazarus was hereditary in that house.

By the time of Pope Clement VIII the order had two houses, one at Turin, was to contribute to combats on land, while the other, at Nice, had to provide galleys to fight the Turks at sea. But when thus reduced to the states of the Duke of Savoy, the order merely vegetated until the French Revolution, which suppressed it. In 1816 the King of Sardinia, Victor Emmanuel I, re-established the titles of Knight and Commander of Sts. Maurice and Lazarus, as simple decorations, accessible without conditions of birth to both civilians and military men.[3]

This became a national order of chivalry on the unification of Italy in 1861, but has been suppressed by law since the foundation of the Republic in 1946. Since 1951 the Order has not been recognised officially by the Italian state. The House of Savoy in exile continued to bestow the Order. Today it is granted to persons eminent in the public service, science, art, letters, trade, and charitable works.

By the mid-16th century, the order had retained a significant presence only in France and in Italy.

Louis XVIII (1755–1824) with the Order of Saint Lazarus grand cross

Royal House of France[edit]

Peter Ludwig von der Pahlen (1745–1826) with the Order of Saint Lazarus knight cross
Russian General Alexander Suvorov (1730-1800) with the Order of Saint Lazarus knight cross

In 1154, King Louis VII of France gave the Order of Saint Lazarus a property at Boigny near Orléans which was to become the headquarters of the order outside of the Holy Land. Later, after the fall of Acre in 1291 the Knights of St. Lazarus left the Holy Land and moved first to Cyprus, then Sicily and finally back to Boigny, which had been raised to a barony in 1288. In 1308 King Philip IV of France gave the order his temporal protection.

When Pope Innocent VIII suppressed the order in 1490, Francis I, evaded the Bull of suppression by conferring the commanderies of St. Lazarus on Knights of the Order of St. John. In 1572, the houses of the Order of Saint Lazarus in Italy were merged with the Savoyan Order of St. Maurice to become The Order of Sts. Maurice and Lazarus. According to Michael Foster, "the Pope determined not to allow, two Orders of Lazarus to continue, founded by Papal Bull the Order of our Lady of Mount Carmel, which was to absorb the French Order of St. Lazarus."[6]

In 1604 Henry IV of France re-declared the French branch of the order a protectorate of the French Crown. King Henry IV, having founded in 1608, with the approbation of Pope Paul V, the Order of Notre-Dame du Mont-Carmel, in turn united to it the vacant possessions of St. Lazarus in France, and such is the origin of the title Ordres Royaux, Militaires & Hospitaliers de Saint Lazare de Jérusalem & de Notre-Dame du Mont-Carmel réunis ("Royal, Military, and Hospitaller Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel and St. Lazarus of Jerusalem united"). This amalgamation eventually received canonical acceptance on 5 June 1668 by a bull issued by Cardinal Legate de Vendôme under Papal authority of Clement IX.

Unlike the situation with the Savoyian Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus where a complete merger took place creating one order, the French branch was not completely merged with the Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel and individuals were still be admitted to the latter order but not to the Order of Saint Lazarus [7]

During the French Revolution a decree of 30 July 1791 suppressed all royal and knightly orders. Another decree the following year confiscated all the order's properties. The Holy See, which had originally created the order, on the other hand did not suppress the order.[citation needed] Louis, Count of Provence, then Grand Master of the order, who later became Louis XVIII, continued to function in exile and continued admitting various dignitaries to the order.[8]

Scholars differ in their views regarding the extent to which the order remained active during and after the French Revolution. There is however no doubt of its continuing existence during this time. In different museums, there are preserved a number of paintings of Russian and Baltic nobles, admitted to the order after 1791. In this list are general John Lamb, Prince Suvorov, count Pahlen, count Sievers etc. Some of the new knights are listed in Almanach Royal from 1814 to 1830. King Louis XVIII, the order's protector, and the duc de Châtre, the order's lieutenant-general, both died in 1824. In 1830, a royal decree caused the order to lose its royal protection. Charles Savona-Ventura, Grand Prior of the Grand Priory of the Maltese Islands, holds that it remained under apostolic authority since the Holy See did not promulgate any contrarius actus in respect to either of the two orders during the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.[9] However, Charles Moeller and Michael Foster maintain that the order was extinct after 1824.[10][11][6]

After 1830[edit]

The current Military and Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem maintains that after 1830 the French foundation of the Order of Saint Lazarus continued under the governance of a council of officers.[12] Documentation to the subsequent decades is unavailable, but the order is documented to have been active philanthropically in Haifa, while contemporary biographies do mention late 19th-century individuals as having been members of the Order of St. Lazarus.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Savona-Ventura, Charles (October 2008). "The Order of St Lazarus in the Kingdom of Jerusalem". Journal of the Monastic Military Orders 1: 55–64. 
  2. ^ "Constitution of The Order". The Military and Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem. 2015. Retrieved 25 May 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Moeller, Charles. "Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 9. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 22 Jun. 2015
  4. ^ Takeda, Junko Thérese (2011). Between Crown and Commerce - Marseille and the Early Modern Mediterranean. Maryland, USA: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 118. 
  5. ^ a b Marcombe, D. (2003). Leper Knights: The Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem in England, 1150-1544. Woodridge: Boydell Press. ISBN 1-84383-067-1. 
  6. ^ a b Foster, Michael. "Orders Connected to he Order of S. John of Jerusalem", The Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, Knights Hospitaller
  7. ^ Grouvel, Robert. L'Ordre de Notre-Dame du Mont-Carmel et l'École Royale Militaire (1779-1787). Carney de La Sabretache, 1967, p.352-356.
  8. ^ Sainty, Guy Stair, ed. (2006) World Orders of Knighthood and Merit, p. 1862
  9. ^ C. Savona-Ventura. The French Revolution's mark on the annals of the Order of St Lazarus of Jerusalem. Journal of the Monastic Military Orders, 2010, 3:51-70
  10. ^ Moeller, Charles. "The Military Orders." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 10. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 22 Jun. 2015
  11. ^ The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, 1906
  12. ^ Bander van Duren, Peter (1995) Orders of Knighthood and of Merit-The Pontifical, Religious and Secularised Catholic-founded Orders and their relationship to the Apostolic See, Buckinghamshire, ss. 495-513, XLV-XLVII

Bibliography[edit]

  • Bander van Duren, Peter (1995) Orders of Knighthood and of Merit-The Pontifical, Religious and Secularised Catholic-founded Orders and their relationship to the Apostolic See, Buckinghamshire, ss. 495-513, XLV-XLVII
  • Burgtorf, Jochen (2006). "Acre, Siege of (1291)". i Alan V. Murray. The Crusades: An Encyclopedia. 1. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. ss. 13–14. OCLC 70122512.
  • Coutant de Saisseval, Guy, Les Chevaliers de Saint Lazare de 1789 à 1930, Drukkerij Weimar by the Hague, undated
  • Environ (1295), Constitution, règlements et nécrologie de Seedorf (Suisse).
  • Marcombe, David (2003). Leper Knights. Boydell Press. ISBN 1-84383-067-1.
  • Morris of Balgonie, Stuart H., Ygr., The Insignia and Decorations of the Military and Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem, Perthshire, 1986
  • Sainty, Guy Stair, ed. (2006) World Orders of Knighthood and Merit.

External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]