Order of battle at Jutland

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This is the complete order of battle for the Battle of Jutland fought between 31 May and 1 June 1916. The battle involved 249 warships of the British and German navies, and, in terms of combined tonnage of vessels engaged, was the largest naval battle in history.

Summary[edit]

Royal Navy German Navy
Dreadnoughts
(28 total)
4 × Queen Elizabeth class 3 × Iron Duke class
4 × Orion class 3 × King George V class
3 × Bellerophon class 2 × Revenge class
2 × Colossus class 3 × St. Vincent class
1 × HMS Neptune 1 × HMS Agincourt
1 × HMS Erin 1 × HMS Canada
(16 total)
4 × Kaiser class
4 × Helgoland class
4 × Nassau class
4 × König class
Pre-Dreadnought
Battleships
(6 total)
5 × Deutschland class
1 × Braunschweig class
Battlecruisers
(9 total)
3 × Invincible class
3 × Lion class
2 × Indefatigable class
1 × HMS Tiger
(5 total)
2 × Derfflinger class
1 × SMS Seydlitz
1 × SMS Moltke
1 × SMS Von der Tann
Armoured
Cruisers
(8 total)
3 × Minotaur class
2 × Duke of Edinburgh class
2 × Warrior class
1 × HMS Hampshire
Smaller Ships
26 × Light Cruisers
79 × Destroyers (one of them Destroyer-Minelayer)
11 × Light Cruisers
61 × Torpedo Boats [Note 1]
Weight of broadside[1]
332,360 lb (150,760 kg)
134,216 lb (60,879 kg)

Royal Navy Ensign British forces[edit]

The Grand Fleet[edit]

The Grand Fleet [2][3] was the main body of the British Home Fleets in 1916, based at Scapa Flow in the Orkney Islands and Invergordon on the Cromarty Firth in Scotland[a].

Commander-in-chief, Grand Fleet: Adm Sir John Rushworth Jellicoe, K.C.B., K.C.V.O. in HMS Iron Duke
Second in Command, Grand Fleet: VAdm Sir Cecil Burney, K.C.B., K.C.M.G. in HMS Marlborough.
Chief of Staff: VAdm Sir Charles Edward Madden, K.C.B., C.V.O.; Captain of the Fleet: Cdre Lionel Halsey, C.B., C.M.G., AdC.; Master of the Fleet: Capt Oliver Elles Leggett; flag lieutenants: Cdr the Hon. Matthew Robert Best, M.V.O., Cdr Charles Morton Forbes, Cdr Alexander Raill Wadham, Cdr Richard Lindsay Nicholson

Battleships[edit]

The Grand Fleet had a total of 32 Dreadnought and Super-Dreadnought battleships available to use by the time of Jutland. Of these, 28 took part, organized into four Battle Squadrons.[4] The 24 vessels of 2nd, 4th and 1st Battle Squadrons formed the main body of Fleet, and are listed below order from van to rear following their deployment to engage the German fleet, 6:30pm 31 May 1916. [b]

2nd Battle Squadron (Battleships) [c]: VAdm Thomas Henry Martyn Jerram, K.C.B.
1st Division: VAdm Jerram

2nd Division: RAdm Arthur Cavenagh Leveson, C.B.

Fleet Flagship (at head of 3rd Division but not part of 4th Battle Squadron)

4th Battle Squadron (Battleships): VAdm Sir Frederick Charles Doveton Sturdee, 1st Baronet, K.C.B., C.V.O., C.M.G.; flag commander: Cdr William Milbourne James
3rd Division[d]: RAdm Sir Alexander Ludovic Duff, K.C.B., C.V.O., C.M.G.

4th Division: VAdm Sturdee

1st Battle Squadron (Battleships)[e]: VAdm Sir Cecil Burney, K.C.B., K.C.M.G.; Chief of Staff : Cdre Edmund Percy Fenwick George Grant; flag lieutenant: Lt Cdr James Buller Kitson
Fifth Division: RAdm Ernest Frederick Augustus Gaunt, C.M.G.

Sixth Division: VAdm Burney

Cruisers[edit]

Two squadrons of Armoured Cruisers and one squadron of Light Cruisers were attached to the main body of the Grand Fleet to act as a scouting force. [f]
1st Cruiser Squadron[g] (Armoured Cruisers): RAdm Sir Robert Keith Arbuthnot, 4th Baronet, K.C.B., M.V.O. 

2nd Cruiser Squadron (Armoured Cruisers)[h]: RAdm Herbert Leopold Heath, M.V.O.

4th Light Cruiser Squadron: Cdre Charles Edward Le Mesurier

Light cruisers attached for repeating visual signals

Other ships under direct command of the Commander-in-Chief[j]

Destroyers[edit]

The main body of the Grand Fleet was escorted by 46 destroyers and flotilla leaders organized into three flotillas.[k]

Commodore, Destroyer Flotillas, Grand Fleet: Cdre James Rose Price Hawksley, M.V.O. in HMS Castor (11th Destroyer Flotilla)

4th Destroyer Flotilla [l]: Capt Charles John Wintour 

first half-flotilla/4th D.F.

Group 8 /4th D.F.[m]

  • HMS Owl: Cdr Robert Gerald Hamond
  • HMS Hardy: Cdr Richard Anthony Aston Plowden
  • HMS Mischief: Lt Cdr the Hon. Cyril Augustus Ward, M.V.O. (from 12th D.F.)
  • HMS Midge: Lt Cdr James Robert Carnegie Cavendish

second half-flotilla/4th D.F.

  • HMS Broke (flotilla leader): Cdr Walter Lingen Allen

3rd Division/4th D.F.

4th Division/4th D.F.

11th Destroyer Flotilla[n]

first half-flotilla/11th D.F. 1st Division/11th D.F.

2nd Division/11th D.F.

second half-flotilla/11th D.F.

3rd Division/11th D.F.

4th Division/11th D.F.

12th Destroyer Flotilla[o]: Capt Anselan John Buchanan Stirling

first half-flotilla/12th D.F.
1st Division/12th D.F.[7]

2nd Division/12th D.F.

second half-flotilla/12th D.F.: Cdr Norton Allen Sulivan

3rd Battle Cruiser Squadron[edit]

This squadron, temporarily attached to the Grand Fleet from the Battle Cruiser Fleet, was stationed ahead of the main body, with the intention that it join Beatty when the action began. The commander of the 3rd Battle Cruiser Squadron was RAdm the Hon. Horace Lambert Alexander Hood K.C.B., D.S.O., M.V.O. 

accompanying cruisers

attached destroyers [r]

Battle Cruiser Fleet[edit]

This force of high-speed ships was subordinate to the Commander in Chief of the Grand Fleet, but operated independently as an advanced guard, intended to reconnoiter aggressively the enemy fleet and to engage enemy scouting forces. At its core were six battlecruisers, accompanied by 13 light cruisers, and escorted by 18 destroyers and an early aircraft carrier. [s]

Commander, Battle Cruiser Fleet: VAdm Sir David Richard Beatty, K.C.B., M.V.O., D.S.O. in HMS Lion
Chief of Staff: Capt Rudolf Walter Bentinck; flag lieutenants: Cdr the Hon. Reginald Aylmer Ranfurly Plunkett, Lt Cdr Ralph Frederick Seymour

Battlecruisers[edit]

Battlecruiser Fleet Flagship

1st Battlecruiser Squadron : RAdm Osmond de Beauvior Brock, C.B.

2nd Battlecruiser Squadron [t]: RAdm. William Christoper Pakenham, C.B., M.V.O.

Battlecruiser Fleet Light Cruisers[edit]

1st Light Cruiser Squadron: Cdre Edwyn Sinclair Alexander-Sinclair, M.V.O.

2nd Light Cruiser Squadron: Cdre William Edmund Goodenough, M.V.O., AdC.

3rd Light Cruiser Squadron: RAdm Trevylyan Dacres Willes Napier, M.V.O.

Attached vessel

aircraft: 4 Short Type 184 seaplanes

Battle Cruiser Fleet Destroyers[edit]

13th Destroyer Flotilla [u]: Capt James Uchtred Farie

1st division/13th D.F.

2nd division /13th D.F.[8]

3rd division/13th D.F.[9]

Attached Harwich Destroyers (9th Destroyer Flotilla) : Cdr Malcolm Lennon Goldsmith [v]

1st division/9th D.F.

2nd division/9th D.F.

5th Battle Squadron[edit]

This was a special unit of fast Queen Elizabeth-class battleships, intended to act as the vanguard of the main battle line. At the Battle of Jutland, it operated with the Battlecruiser Fleet, and was escorted by the 1st Destroyer Flotilla.[w] The commander of the 5th Battle Squadron was RAdm Hugh Evan-Thomas, M.V.O.

1st Destroyer Flotilla [x] [11][12]

1st Division/1st D.F.

2nd Division/1st D.F.

KLM EnsignGerman forces[edit]

High Seas Fleet (Hochseeflotte)[edit]

The High Seas Fleet was the main body of the German surface navy, principally based at Wilhelmshaven, on the Jade River in North-West Germany.[13][14]

Commander-in-Chief (Chef der Hochseeflotte): VAdm Reinhard Scheer in SMS Friedrich der Grosse
Chief of Staff: Capt Adolf von Trotha; Chief of Operations: Capt Magnus von Levetzow(GE)

Battleships[edit]

3rd Battle Squadron (III. Geschwader) (Battleships) [A]: RAdm Paul Behncke; flag lieutenant: Lt Cdr Frhr Ernst von Gagern

5th Division: RAdm Behncke

6th Division: RAdm Hermann Nordmann

Fleet Flagship (Flaggschiff der Hochseeflotte) [B]

1st Battle Squadron (I. Geschwader) (Battleships) [C]: VAdm Ehrhard Schmidt; flag lieutenant: Lt Cdr Wolfgang Wegener

1st Division: VAdm Schmidt

2nd Division: RAdm Walter Engelhardt

2nd Battle Squadron (II. Geschwader) (Battleships) [D]: RAdm Franz Mauve(GE); flag lieutenant: Lt Cdr Willy Kahlert

3rd Division: RAdm Mauve

4th Division: RAdm Frhr Gottfried von Dalwigk zu Lichtenfels

Light Cruisers[edit]

4th Scouting Group (IV. Aufklärungsgruppe) (light cruisers) [E]: Kom Ludwig von Reuter; flag lieutenant: Lt Cdr Heinrich Weber

Torpedo Boats[edit]

German torpedo boats (Große Torpedoboote) were the equivalent of British destroyers [G].
First Leader of Torpedo-Boats: Cdre Andreas Michelsen

  • SMS Rostock* (light cruiser; flagship 1st Leader of Torpedo-Boats): Cdr Otto Feldmann [H]

1st Torpedo-Boat Flotilla (I. Torpedoboots-Flottille) [I]
1st Half-Flotilla (1. Halbflottille)[J]: Lt Conrad Albrecht

3rd Torpedo-Boat Flotilla (III. Torpedoboots-Flottille): Lt Cdr Wilhelm Hollmann

  • SMS S53 (lead boat, flotilla): Lt Friedrich Götting

5th Half-Flotilla (5. Halbflottille) [K]: Lt Theophil Gautier

6th Half-Flotilla (6. Halbflottille)[L]: Lt Cdr Theodor Riedel  [M]

5th Torpedo-Boat Flotilla (V. Torpedoboots-Flottille): Lt Cdr Oskar Heinecke

  • SMS G11 (lead boat, flotilla): Lt Adolf Müller

9th Half-Flotilla (9. Halbflottille): Lt Gerhard Hoefer

10th Half-Flotilla (10. Halbflottille): Lt Friedrich Klein

7th Torpedo-Boat Flotilla (VII. Torpedoboots-Flottille): Lt Cdr Gottlieb von Koch

  • SMS S24 (lead boat, flotilla): Lt Max Fink

13th Half-Flotilla (13. Halbflottille): Lt Georg von Zitzewitz

14th Half-Flotilla (14. Halbflottille) [N]: Lt Cdr Hermann Cordes

Scouting Force[edit]

Commander, Scouting Forces (Befehlshaber die Aufklärungsstreitkräfte): VAdm Franz Hipper; flag lieutenant: Lt Cdr Erich Raeder

Battle Cruisers[edit]

1st Scouting Group (I. Aufklärungsgruppe): VAdm Hipper

Scouting Force Light Cruisers[edit]

2nd Scouting Group (II. Aufklärungsgruppe) [O] : RAdm Friedrich Boedicker

Scouting Force Torpedo Boats[edit]

Second Leader of Torpedo-Boats: Cdre Paul Heinrich

  • SMS Regensburg (light cruiser; flagship Second Leader of Torpedo-Boats): Cdr Bruno Heuberer[P]

2nd Torpedo-Boat Flotilla (II. Torpedoboots-Flottille): Cdr Heinrich Schuur

  • SMS B98 (lead boat, flotilla): Lt Theodor Hengstenberg

3rd Half-Flotilla (3. Halbflottille): Lt Cdr Heinrich Boest

4th Half-Flotilla (4. Halbflottille): Lt Cdr Adolf Dithmar

6th Torpedo-Boat Flotilla (VI. Torpedoboots-Flottille): Lt Cdr Max Schultz

11th Half-Flotilla (11. Halbflottille) [Q]: Lt Wilhelm Rüman

12th Half-Flotilla (12. Halbflottille): Lt Rudolf Lahs

9th Torpedo-Boat Flotilla (IX. Torpedoboots-Flottille): Lt Cdr Herbert Goehle

  • SMS V28 (lead boat, flotilla): Lt Otto Lenssen

17th Half-Flotilla (17. Halbflottille): Lt Hermann Ehrhardt

18th Half-Flotilla (17. Halbflottille): Lt Cdr Werner Tillessen (GE)

Submarines[edit]

Leader of Submarines (Führer der Unterseeboote) : Capt Hermann Bauer in SMS Hamburg

The following submarines were deployed to attack the Grand Fleet in the North Sea during the period of the Battle of Jutland
Off Terschelling:

  • U-46: Lt Leo Hillebrand
  • U-67: Lt Hans Nieland

Off the Humber estuary:

  • UB-21: Lt Ernst Hashagen

Off Flamborough Head, Yorkshire:

  • UB-22: SLt Bernhard Putzier

Off the Firth of Forth, Scotland:

Off Peterhead, Scotland:

  • U-47: Lt Heinrich Metzger

Off the Pentland Firth (between the Orkneys and the Scottish mainland):

  • U-44: Lt Paul Wagenführ
  • U-43: Lt Helmuth Jürst

Airships[edit]

During the battle the Germans used the Zeppelin airships of the Naval Airship Section (Marine Luftschiff Abteilung) for scouting, although in the prevailing overcast conditions they were not particularly successful. The commander of the Naval Airship Section was Lt Cdr Peter Strasser, and they flew from bases at Nordholz and Hage in north-west Germany and Tondern (then part of Schleswig; the town became part of Denmark in 1920).

Sortied on 31 May

  • L.9: Capt August Stelling (Army Officer, on the inactive list)
  • L.14: Lt Alois Böcker
  • L.16: Lt Erich Sommerfeldt
  • L.21: Lt Max Dietrich
  • L.23: Lt Otto von Schubert

Sortied on 1 June

  • L.11: Lt Victor Schultze
  • L.17: Lt Herbert Ehrlich
  • L.22: Lt Martin Dietrich
  • L.24: Lt Robert Koch

Did not sortie during the Battle of Jutland

Abbreviations[edit]

Abbreviations for Officers’ Ranks (German ranks translated according to current NATO practice)[R]:

Adm: Admiral
VAdm: Vice-Admiral/Vizeadmiral (VAdm)
RAdm: Rear-Admiral/Konteradmiral (KAdm)
Cdre: Commodore/Kommodore (Kom)
Capt: Captain/Kapitän zur See (KptzS)
Cdr: Commander/Fregattenkapitän (FKpt)
Lt Cdr: Lieutenant-Commander/Korvettenkapitän (KKpt)
Lt: Lieutenant/Kapitänleutnant (KptLt)
SLt: Sub-Lieutenant/Oberleutnant zur See (OLtzS)

Other abbreviations

AdC.: Aide-de-camp to The King
C.B.: Companion of The Most Honourable Order of the Bath
C.M.G.: Companion of The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George
C.V.O.: Commander of The Royal Victorian Order
D.F: Destroyer Flotilla
D.S.C.:Distinguished Service Cross
D.S.O.:Distinguished Service Order
Frhr:Freiherr (title in the Prussian nobility equivalent to Baron)
HMS: His Majesty's Ship
K.C.B.: Knight Commander of The Most Honourable Order of the Bath
K.C.M.G.:Knight Commander of The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George
K.C.V.O.: Knight Commander of The Royal Victorian Order
M.V.O.: Member of The Royal Victorian Order
SMS: Seiner Majestät Schiff (German; translation: His Majesty's Ship)
the Hon.: The Honourable

Explanatory notes[edit]

Ships sunk during the action are indicated thus: * ; officers killed in action thus:   .

  1. ^ The German Navy's torpedo boats were of similar size and function to the destroyers in the Royal Navy, and are often referred as such.


British Section

  1. ^ 2nd Battle Squadron, 1st Cruiser Squadron and most of the 11th Destroyer Flotilla were at Invergordon, the remainder at Scapa Flow.
  2. ^ Grand Fleet battleships were permanently assigned to Battle Squadrons of eight ships, divided into two divisions of four ships each. In addition a light cruiser accompanied the squadron to repeat visual signals (made by Morse lamp, flags or semaphore), to ensure that the commanding Admiral could stay in touch with all vessels without the use of wireless transmissions (which could betray the presence of the squadron to an enemy). The flagship of the Commander-in-Chief was separate from the squadron organization, but joined one of the divisions for tactical purposes. In addition, there was the 3rd Battle Squadron of older King Edward VII-class pre-Dreadnought battleships, plus HMS Dreadnought herself, which was operating in the Thames Estuary at the time of Jutland. A 6th Battle Squadron of American battleships joined the Grand Fleet in December 1917.
  3. ^ Based at Cromarty Firth.
  4. ^ did not sail: HMS Emperor of India: Capt Charles William Rawson Royds, the usual flagship of RADM A. L. Duff, which was in dock.
  5. ^ did not sail: HMS Royal Sovereign: Capt. A. T. Hunt, which was still working up.
  6. ^ In addition, the 10th Cruiser Squadron: RAdm Dudley de Chair, with 17 armed merchant cruisers, formed the Northern Patrol Force of the Grand Fleet, carrying out blockade duties (these vessels were not engaged at the Battle of Jutland).
  7. ^ Based at Cromarty Firth
  8. ^ The 2nd Cruiser Squadron had just absorbed Minotaur, Hampshire and Donegal from the disbanded 7th Cruiser Squadron on 30 May 1916. Did not sail: HMS Achilles: Capt. F. M. Leake, which was in dock, and HMS Donegal: Capt. W. H. D'Oyly, which was on detached service
  9. ^ There is confusion about the exact name of this officer: the Navy List throughout the period 1914-1923, and the London Gazette in 1916 (announcing his CB) give his name as listed here. However in both earlier and later editions of the Navy List, in his service record, as well as in some (but not all) earlier editions of the London Gazette list him as Arthur Cloudesly Shovel Hughes D'Aeth; the probate records for England and Wales (reporting his death on 23 August 1956) list him as Arthur Cloudesley Shovell Hughes D'Aeth; his obituary in The Times (Saturday, Aug 25, 1956, pg. 11; Issue 53619) gives his name as Arthur Cloudesley Shovel Hughes-D'Aeth. There was similar confusion about the spelling of the name of his namesake, the 18th Century Admiral; in his case Cloudesley Shovell seems to be the accepted spelling nowadays.
  10. ^ These did not form part of the line of battle;Abdiel was attached for tactical minelaying and Oak as a tender to the flagship. In addition the seaplane carrier HMS Campania: Capt Oliver Schwann sailed from Scapa Flow 0130 hrs, 31 May, but was too slow to catch the fleet and was ordered to return 0430 hrs 31 May; and the kite balloon tender HMS Menelaus: Cdr C. W. N. McCulloch, did not sail
  11. ^ A typical Destroyer Flotilla (D.F.) consisted of 18 vessels: 16 destroyers (4 divisions of 4 vessels each, forming two half flotillas) plus two leaders (either a Light Cruiser or Flotilla leader) for the half-flotilla commanders. Unlike the German Navy, this organization was very flexible, being organized by the flotilla commander by signal when sailing, and subject to change during battle. The order of battle of British destroyers is based on the tactical organization at the start of the battle given in,[5] plus other sources as noted. It differs from that given in most published secondary sources, which reflect only the administrative order of battle. The destroyers in each flotilla were usually of a uniform design: the 1st Flotilla was made up of I-class vessels built in 1911, 4th Flotilla K-class, the 9th Flotilla (which had formerly been designated the 3rd Flotilla) L-class; the 10th, 11th, 12th and 13th Flotillas were Admiralty M-class. The sole exception at the time of Jutland was the Admiralty M-class destroyer HMS Ophelia, temporarily assigned to the 4th Flotilla (she was due to join the new 14th Flotilla later in 1916).
  12. ^ did not sail: HMS Cockatrice (refit), HMS Paragon (refit) and HMS Victor.
  13. ^ Four destroyers detached from the 4th and 12th Destroyer Flotillas as escorts for the 2nd Cruiser Squadron.[6]
  14. ^ Based at Cromarty Firth except for HMS Marne, HMS Manners, HMS Michael and HMS Mons at Scapa Flow. Did not sail: HMS Musketeer (refit) and HMS Marmion (refit).
  15. ^ did not sail: HMS Mameluke (refit, Glasgow) and HMS Napier (refit, Glasgow); also HMS Mischief assigned to Group 8/4th D.F.
  16. ^ Attached from 5th Light Cruiser Squadron of the Harwich Force.
  17. ^ Attached from 3rd Light Cruiser Squadron.
  18. ^ I-class destroyers (except Ophelia) attached from 4th Destroyer Flotilla.
  19. ^ Also known at different times during the war as Cruiser Force A, and the Battle Cruiser Force. At the time of Jutland, British battle cruisers were organized in three squadrons of three ships each, plus a fleet flagship. One of these Squadrons, the 3rd, was temporarily detached to the main body of the Grand Fleet. In addition there were three light cruiser squadrons and the 13th Destroyer Flotilla assigned (augmented at Jutland by additional attached destroyers). The Battle Cruiser Fleet was based at Rosyth on the Firth of Forth, Scotland.
  20. ^ Did not sail: HMAS Australia: Capt S. H. Radcliffe, usual flagship of RADM Pakenham, which was in dock at Devonport.
  21. ^ Did not sail: HMS Negro, HMS Nepean, HMS Nereus, HMS Paladin, HMS Penn and HMS Pigeon.
  22. ^ The 9th Destroyer Flotilla was part of the Harwich Force; this group of six destroyers were attached to the Battle Cruiser Fleet at the time of Jutland, and sailed under this designation with the organization given below.[10]
  23. ^ Did not sail: HMS Queen Elizabeth: Capt. G. P. W. Hope.
  24. ^ Attached from Grand Fleet, in company with 5th Battle Squadron. Did not sail: HMS Botha (flotilla leader), HMS Archer, HMS Jackal, HMS Phoenix and HMS Tigress (all refitting); HMS Beaver, HMS Druid, HMS Ferret, HMS Hind, HMS Hornet and HMS Sandfly (all detached to the Nore, as escort to the 3rd Battle Squadron, which was guarding the Thames Estuary against a Battle Cruiser raid).

German Section
The German designations of ship types, fleets, squadrons and flotillas are given in brackets after the English designation.

  1. ^ Did not sail: SMS König Albert: Capt Thorbecke (condenser breakdown), SMS Bayern: Capt Max Hahn (new construction, working up at Kiel), tender SMS T.39.
  2. ^ Did not sail: attached Fleet tenders SMS D4, SMS T96, SMS T98 and SMS T16.
  3. ^ Did not sail: attached tenders SMS Blitz and SMS T20
  4. ^ Did not sail: SMS Preussen: Capt Frey, detached to Baltic as guard-ship at The Sound, and tenders SMS Pfeil and SMS T49.
  5. ^ Did not sail: SMS Berlin: Cdr Hildebrand, at Wilhelmshaven; and SMS Brummer: Capt Wilhelm Schulz, at Kiel.
  6. ^ Flagship of the Leader of U-Boats: Capt Hermann Bauer, attached to the 4th Scouting Group for tactical purposes.
  7. ^ German torpedo boat flotillas typically comprised two half-flotillas of five vessels each, plus an additional vessel for the flotilla commander. The boats were given numbers sequentially based on the order in which they were built. In addition, each boat had an initial letter denoting its builder: V for the Vulcan works at Stettin, S for the Schichau Works at Elbing in East Prussia, B for the Blohm und Voss Works at Hamburg, and G for Krupp's Germania Works at Kiel. All but one of the boats that fought at Jutland belonged to the number series than began with SMS V1 in 1911 (only SMS V189 belonged to the earlier series). Boats numbered 1-24 were of the 1911 Type [15] and served in the 5th and 7th Flotillas; boats numbered in the range 25-95 were of the 1913 Type[16] and served in the 1st, 3rd, 6th and 9th Flotillas. The vessels in the 2nd Flotilla were of a special large type built in 1914-15 and designated Torpedobootzerstörer (Torpedo Boat Destroyers) .[17]
  8. ^ Attached to the 4th Scouting Group for tactical purposes.
  9. ^ Did not sail: 2nd Half-Flotilla (2. halbsflottille), consisting of SMS G192: SLt Mewis, SMS G195: Lt Mickel, SMS G196: Lt Frhr von Seld, SMS G193: Lt Oswald Paul and SMS S165: SLt Johannes-Henning Schneider, all under the command of Cdr Hans Kolbe.
  10. ^ Did not sail: SMS V190: Lt(Reserve) Bon-Ed, and SMS G197: Lt Crelinger.
  11. ^ Did not sail: SMS V74: Lt Günther Ehrlich, and SMS G85: Lt Hans Herbert Stobwasser.
  12. ^ Did not sail: SMS V70: Lt Lemelsen, SMS S55: Lt Holscher.
  13. ^ Groos, op. cit., Anlage 6./7. states Lt Otto Karlowa in SMS S54 was the leader of the 6th Half-Flotilla on 30 May 1916; however from the narrative (Groos, op. cit., p.304) it is clear that Riedel in V48 led the half-flotilla during the battle until the vessel was sunk in action and he was killed; the Second World War destroyer Z6 was named in Riedel's honor.[18]
  14. ^ Did not sail: SMS G172, refitting; sailed, but returned to port prior to action: SMS V186: Lt Wedigo von Keyserling.
  15. ^ Did not sail: SMS Graudenz: Lt Beucer, under repair at Wilhelmshaven, and SMS Stralsund: Capt Weniger, in dock at Kiel.
  16. ^ Attached to the 2nd Scouting Group for tactical purposes.
  17. ^ Did not sail: SMS S49: Lt Bauftaedt and SMS V43: Lt Carl.
  18. ^ In the First World War, German officers ranks were slightly higher in status: both Kapitän zur See and Fregattenkapitän were considered equivalent to a Captain in the Royal Navy; Korvettenkapitän was equivalent to a RN Commander; and Kapitänleutnant and Oberleutnant zur See to an RN Lieutenant (there was no German equivalent of a RN Lieutenant-Commander).[19] To avoid ambiguities (e.g. "Capt" could mean Kapitän zur See or Fregattenkapitän), the NATO system is employed.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Edinburgh's War, University of Edinburgh. http://www.edinburghs-war.ed.ac.uk/system/files/pdf_Battle_of_Jutland.pdf
  2. ^ The Admiralty. Jutland Despatches. pp. 33–47. 
  3. ^ Corbett, Naval Operations Vol. III Appendix A
  4. ^ Of the remainder, Dreadnought, Emperor of India and Queen Elizabeth were in dry dock for refitting and maintenance, while Royal Sovereign had only commissioned three weeks previously and was left behind due to the inexperience of her crew
  5. ^ The Admiralty, Op. Cit., Enclosure No. III - Battle Plan.
  6. ^ The Admiralty. Op. Cit. p. 402. 
  7. ^ The Admiralty. Op. Cit. pp. 338–340. 
  8. ^ The Admiralty. Op. Cit. pp. 344–352. 
  9. ^ The Admiralty. Op. Cit. pp. 229–230. 
  10. ^ The Admiralty. Op. Cit. p. 405. 
  11. ^ The Admiralty. Op. Cit. pp. 242–252. 
  12. ^ The Admiralty. Op. Cit. p. 400. 
  13. ^ Groos, Nordsee vol.5. Anlage 6., pp 466-470 and Anlage 7., pp.471-472 (in German).
  14. ^ Frost, Jutland, Appendix 1, pp. 533-538.
  15. ^ Emmerich, German Naval History, Type 1911 Torpedo boats (accessed 2 May 2013).
  16. ^ Emmerich, Op. Cit., Type 1913 Torpedo boats (accessed 2 May 2013).
  17. ^ Emmerich, Op. Cit., Torpedobootzerstörer (accessed 2 May 2013).
  18. ^ Emmerich, Op. Cit., German Destroyer Z.6 (accessed 2 May 2013).
  19. ^ Jane's Fighting Ships 1914. p. 155. 

Sources[edit]