Order of precedence in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

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The order of precedence for members of the Sejm (parliament) of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was created at the same time as the Commonwealth itself – at the Lublin Sejm in 1569. The Commonwealth was a union, in existence from 1569 to 1795, of two constituent nations: the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland (commonly known as Korona, or "the Crown") and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The union's legislative power was vested in a diet (assembly) known as the Sejm which consisted of the three Estates of the Sejm: the monarch, holding the titles of King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania; the Senate; and the House of Deputies.

The order of precedence indicated where senators and deputies would sit during parliamentary sessions and in what order they cast their votes. The order was also followed at other formal occasions, such as royal coronations. The order of precedence remained almost unchanged from its inception in 1569 until the ultimate partition of Poland in 1795. The only changes were made to reflect the addition of new territories as the Commonwealth expanded eastwards during the 16th and 17th centuries. Territitorial losses incurred during Poland's decline in the second half of the 17th and throughout the 18th century had less bearing on the composition of the Sejm, as titular senators and deputies continued to sit in the parliament despite the loss of the lands they officially represented.

Senators[edit]

The Senate traced its roots to the royal privy council and consisted of individuals appointed by the king to specified senatorial offices. The senatorial offices may be divided into three types:

  • ecclesiastical, that is the entire Roman Catholic episcopate (all bishops and archbishops) of the Commonwealth;
  • territorial, that is voivodes, or regional governors, and castellans, or caretakers of castles;
  • ministers of the royal and grand-ducal cabinets, for the Crown and for Lithuania respectively.
Arrangement of seats in the Senate, 1732

Bishops, voivodes and castellans of major cities were considered greater senators (senatorowie więksi), or chair senators (senatorowie krzesłowi) as they were entitled to sit in designated armchairs during the Senate's sessions. The remaining lesser senators (senatorowie mniejsi) were also known as bench senators (senatorowie drążkowi) as they were sitting wherever they could find a place behind the chair senators.

The Archbishop of Gniezno, Poland's first capital city until 1038, also holding the title of Primate of Poland, was the highest ranking senator who also served as an interrex (an acting king) during a vacancy of the royal throne. The Castellan of Kraków, Poland's capital until 1596, was the highest ranking secular senator. His precedence before the Voivode of Kraków dated back to a rebellion led by Voivoide Skarbimir in 1117, for which Duke Boleslaus the Wrymouth punished him by blinding and by making his office inferior to that of the local castellan.[1]

Color coding
Ecclesiastical Greater territorial Lesser territorial Cabinet ministers
# English title Polish title Type Rank Voivoideship Notes
1 Archbishop of Gniezno Arcybiskup gnieźnieński ecclesiastical greater Kalisz Primate of Poland; in Gniezno Voivodeship from 1768
2 Archbishop of Lviv Arcybiskup lwowski ecclesiastical greater Ruthenia
3 Bishop of Kraków Biskup krakowski ecclesiastical greater Kraków
4 Bishop of Kuyavia Biskup kujawski ecclesiastical greater Brześć Kujawski
5–6 Bishop of Vilnius Biskup wileński ecclesiastical greater Vilnius Alternating with the bishop of Poznań
5–6 Bishop of Poznań Biskup poznański ecclesiastical greater Poznań Alternating with the bishop of Vilnius
7–8 Bishop of plock Płock Biskup plz płocki ecclesiastical greater plock Płock Alternating with the bishop of Warmia
7–8 Bishop of Warmia Biskup warmiński ecclesiastical greater Warmia Alternating with the bishop of Płock
9 Bishop of luck Lutsk Biskup lz łucki ecclesiastical greater Volhynia
10 Bishop of Przemyśl Biskup przemyski ecclesiastical greater Ruthenia
11 Bishop of Samogitia Biskup zz żmudzki ecclesiastical greater Samogitia
12 Bishop of Chełmno Biskup chełmiński ecclesiastical greater Chełmno
13 Bishop of Chełm Biskup chełmski ecclesiastical greater Ruthenia
14 Bishop of Kiev Biskup kijowski ecclesiastical greater Kiev
15 Bishop of Kamianets-Podilskyi Biskup kamieniecki ecclesiastical greater Podolia
16 Bishop of Livonia Biskup inflancki ecclesiastical greater Livonia After 1677
17 Bishop of Smolensk Biskup smoleński ecclesiastical greater Smolensk
18 Castellan of Kraków Kasztelan krakowski territorial greater Kraków
19 Voivode of Kraków Wojewoda krakowski territorial greater Kraków
20 Voivode of Poznań Wojewoda poznański territorial greater Poznań
21 Voivode of Vilnius Wojewoda wileński territorial greater Vilnius
22 Voivode of Sandomierz Wojewoda sandomierski territorial greater Sandomierz
23 Castellan of Vilnius Kasztelan wileński territorial greater Vilnius
24 Voivode of Kalisz Wojewoda kaliski territorial greater Kalisz
25 Voivode of Trakai Wojewoda trocki territorial greater Trakai
26 Voivode of Sieradz Wojewoda sieradzki territorial greater Sieradz
27 Castellan of Trakai Kasztelan trocki territorial greater Trakai
28 Voivode of leŁęczyca Wojewoda lz łęczycki territorial greater le Łęczyca
29 Starosta of Samogitia Starosta zz żmudzki territorial greater Samogitia
30 Voivode of Brześć Kujawski Wojewoda brzesko-kujawski territorial greater Brześć Kujawski
31 Voivode of Kiev Wojewoda kijowski territorial greater Kiev
32 Voivode of Inowrocław Wojewoda inowrocławski territorial greater Inowrocław
33 Voivode of Ruthenia Wojewoda ruski territorial greater Ruthenia
34 Voivode of Volhynia Wojewoda wołyński territorial greater Volhynia
35 Voivode of Podolia Wojewoda podolski territorial greater Podolia
36 Voivode of Smolensk Wojewoda smoleński territorial greater Smoleńsk
37 Voivode of Lublin Wojewoda lubelski territorial greater Lublin
38 Voivode of polock Polatsk Wojewoda polz połocki territorial greater polock Polatsk
39 Voivode of Belz Wojewoda bełski territorial greater Belz
40 Voivode of Navahrudak Wojewoda nowogródzki territorial greater Navahrudak
41 Voivode of plock Płock Wojewoda plz płocki territorial greater plock Płock
42 Voivode of Vitsebsk Wojewoda witebski territorial greater Vitsebsk
43 Voivode of Masovia Wojewoda mazowiecki territorial greater Masovia
44 Voivode of Podlachia Wojewoda podlaski territorial greater Podlachia
45 Voivode of Rawa Mazowiecka Wojewoda rawski territorial greater Rawa Mazowiecka
46 Voivode of Brest-Litovsk Wojewoda brzesko-litewski territorial greater Brest-Litovsk
47 Voivode of Chełmno Wojewoda chełmiński territorial greater Chełmno
48 Voivode of Mstsislau Wojewoda mścisławski territorial greater Mstsislau
49 Voivode of Malbork Wojewoda malborski territorial greater Malbork
50 Voivode of Bratslav Wojewoda bracławski territorial greater Bratslav
51 Voivode of Pomerania Wojewoda pomorski territorial greater Pomerania
52 Voivode of Minsk Wojewoda miński territorial greater Minsk
53 Voivode of Livonia Wojewoda inflancki territorial greater Livonia After 1677
54 Voivode of Chernihiv Wojewoda czernihowski territorial greater Chernihiv After 1635
55 Castellan of Poznań Kasztelan poznański territorial greater Poznań
56 Castellan of Sandomierz Kasztelan sandomierski territorial greater Sandomierz
57 Castellan of Kalisz Kasztelan kaliski territorial greater Kalisz
58 Castellan of Wojnicz Kasztelan wojnicki territorial greater Kraków
59 Castellan of Gniezno Kasztelan gnieźnieński territorial greater Kalisz In Gniezno Voivodeship from 1768
60 Castellan of Sieradz Kasztelan sieradzki territorial greater Sieradz
61 Castellan of le Łęczyca Kasztelan lz łęczycki territorial greater le Łęczyca
62 Castellan of Samogitia Kasztelan zzm żmudzki territorial greater Samogitia
63 Castellan of Brześć Kujawski Kasztelan brzesko-kujawski territorial greater Brześć Kujawski
64 Castellan of Kiev Kasztelan kijowski territorial greater Kiev
65 Castellan of Inowrocław Kasztelan inowrocławski territorial greater Inowrocław
66 Castellan of Lviv Kasztelan lwowski territorial greater Ruthenia
67 Castellan of Volhynia Kasztelan wołyński territorial greater Volhynia
68 Castellan of Kamianets-Podilskyi Kasztelan kamieniecki territorial greater Podolia
69 Castellan of Smolensk Kasztelan smoleński territorial greater Smolensk
70 Castellan of Lublin Kasztelan lubelski territorial greater Lublin
71 Castellan of polock Polatsk Kasztelan polzocki połocki territorial greater polock Polatsk
72 Castellan of Belz Kasztelan bełski territorial greater Belz
73 Castellan of Navahrudak Kasztelan nowogródzki territorial greater Navahrudak
74 Castellan of plock Płock Kasztelan plz płocki territorial greater plock Płock
75 Castellan of Vitsebsk Kasztelan witebski territorial greater Vitsebsk
76 Castellan of Czersk Kasztelan czerski territorial greater Masovia
77 Castellan of Podlachia Kasztelan podlaski territorial greater Podlachia
78 Castellan of Rawa Mazowiecka Kasztelan rawski territorial greater Rawa Mazowiecka
79 Castellan of Brest-Litovsk Kasztelan brzesko-litewski territorial greater Brest-Litovsk
80 Castellan of Chełmno Kasztelan chełmiński territorial greater Chełmno
81 Castellan of Mstsislau Kasztelan mścisławski territorial greater Mstsislau
82 Castellan of Elbląg Kasztelan elbląski territorial greater Malbork
83 Castellan of Bratslav Kasztelan bracławski territorial greater Bratslav
84 Castellan of Gdańsk Kasztelan gdański territorial greater Pomerania
85 Castellan of Minsk Kasztelan miński territorial greater Minsk
86 Castellan of Livonia Kasztelan inflancki territorial greater Livonia
87 Castellan of Chernihiv Kasztelan czernihowski territorial greater Chernihiv
88 Castellan of Nowy Sącz Kasztelan sazd sądecki territorial lesser Kraków
89 Castellan of Międzyrzecz Kasztelan międzyrzecki territorial lesser Poznań
90 Castellan of Wiślica Kasztelan wiślicki territorial lesser Sandomierz
91 Castellan of Biecz Kasztelan biecki territorial lesser Kraków
92 Castellan of Rogoźno Kasztelan rogoziński territorial lesser Poznań
93 Castellan of Radom Kasztelan radomski territorial lesser Sandomierz
94 Castellan of Zawichost Kasztelan zawichojski territorial lesser Sandomierz
95 Castellan of Ląd Kasztelan lądzki territorial lesser Kalisz
96 Castellan of sremŚrem Kasztelan szśremski territorial lesser Poznań
97 Castellan of zarnowŻarnów Kasztelan zzażarnowski territorial lesser Sandomierz
98 Castellan of Małogoszcz Kasztelan małogoski territorial lesser Sandomierz
99 Castellan of Wieluń Kasztelan wieluński territorial lesser Sieradz
100 Castellan of Przemyśl Kasztelan przemyski territorial lesser Ruthenia
101 Castellan of Halych Kasztelan halicki territorial lesser Ruthenia
102 Castellan of Sanok Kasztelan sanocki territorial lesser Ruthenia
103 Castellan of Chełm Kasztelan chełmski territorial lesser Ruthenia
104 Castellan of Dobrzyń Kasztelan dobrzyński territorial lesser Brześć Kujawski
105 Castellan of polaniec Połaniec Kasztelan polzaniecki połaniecki territorial lesser Sandomierz
106 Castellan of przemet Przemęt Kasztelan przemezcki przemęcki territorial lesser Poznań
107 Castellan of Krzywiń Kasztelan krzywiński territorial lesser Poznań
108 Castellan of Czchów Kasztelan czchowski territorial lesser Sandomierz
109 Castellan of Nakło nad Notecią Kasztelan nakielski territorial lesser Kalisz In Gniezno Voivodeship from 1768
110 Castellan of Rozprza Kasztelan rospierski territorial lesser Sieradz
111 Castellan of Biechów Kasztelan biechowski territorial lesser Kalisz
112 Castellan of Bydgoszcz Kasztelan bydgoski territorial lesser Inowrocław
113 Castellan of Brzeziny Kasztelan brzeziński territorial lesser le Łęczyca
114 Castellan of Kruszwica Kasztelan kruszwicki territorial lesser Brześć Kujawski
115 Castellan of oswiecim Oświęcim Kasztelan oszwiez oświęcimski territorial lesser Kraków
116 Castellan of kamiensk Kamieńsk Kasztelan kamienzski kamieński territorial lesser Kalisz In Gniezno Voivodeship from 1768
117 Castellan of Spycimierz Kasztelan spycimierski territorial lesser Sieradz
118 Castellan of inowlodz Inowłódz Kasztelan inowlzozdz inowłodzki territorial lesser le Łęczyca
119 Castellan of Kowal Kasztelan kowalski territorial lesser le Łęczyca
120 Castellan of Santok Kasztelan santocki territorial lesser Poznań
121 Castellan of Sochaczew Kasztelan sochaczewski territorial lesser Rawa Mazowiecka
122 Castellan of Warsaw Kasztelan warszawski territorial lesser Masovia
123 Castellan of Gostynin Kasztelan gostyński territorial lesser Rawa Mazowiecka
124 Castellan of Wizna Kasztelan wiski territorial lesser Masovia
125 Castellan of raciaz Raciąż Kasztelan raciaz raciąski territorial lesser plock Płock
126 Castellan of Sierpc Kasztelan sierpski territorial lesser plock Płock
127 Castellan of Wyszogród Kasztelan wyszogrodzki territorial lesser Masovia
128 Castellan of Rypin Kasztelan rypiński territorial lesser Brześć Kujawski
129 Castellan of Zakroczym Kasztelan zakroczymski territorial lesser Masovia
130 Castellan of Ciechanów Kasztelan ciechanowski territorial lesser Masovia
131 Castellan of Liw Kasztelan liwski territorial lesser Masovia
132 Castellan of Lipno Kasztelan lipnowski territorial lesser Brześć Kujawski
133 Castellan of Lubaczów Kasztelan lubaczowski territorial lesser Belz
134 Equerry castellan of the Sieradz Voivodeship Kasztelan konarski z woj. sieradzkiego territorial lesser Sieradz
135 Equerry castellan of the Łęczyca Voivodeship Kasztelan konarski z woj. lz łęczyckiego territorial lesser le Łęczyca
136 Equerry castellan of the Brześć Kujawski Voivodeship Kasztelan konarski z woj. brzesko-kujawskiego territorial lesser Brześć Kujawski
137 Grand Marshal of the Crown Marszałek wielki koronny cabinet lesser
138 Grand Marshal of Lithuania Marszałek wielki litewski cabinet lesser
139 Grand Chancellor of the Crown Kanclerz wielki koronny cabinet lesser
140 Grand Chancellor of Lithuania Kanclerz wielki litewski cabinet lesser
141 Under-Chancellor of the Crown Podkanclerzy koronny cabinet lesser
142 Under-Chancellor of Lithuania Podkanclerzy litewski cabinet lesser
143 Treasurer of the Crown Podskarbi koronny cabinet lesser
144 Treasurer of Lithuania Podskarbi litewski cabinet lesser
145 Court Marshal of the Crown Marszałek nadworny koronny cabinet lesser
146 Court Marshal of Lithuania Marszałek nadworny litewski cabinet lesser

Deputies[edit]

The Sejm in session, 1622

Deputies elected in local sejmiks.[2]

# Constituency Voivodeship Deputies
1 Kraków Kraków 6
2 Poznań Poznań 6
3 OświęcimZator Kraków 2
4 Vilnius Vilnius 2
5 Ashmyany Vilnius 2
6 Lida Vilnius 2
7 Vilkmergė Vilnius 2
8 Braslaw Vilnius 2
9 Sandomierz Sandomierz 7
10 Kalisz Kalisz 6
11 Trakai Trakai 2
12 Hrodna Trakai 2
13 Kaunas Trakai 2
14 Upytė Trakai 2
15 Sieradz Sieradz 4
16 Wieluń Sieradz 2
17 Leczyca Łęczyca Leczyca Łęczyca 4
18 Samogitia Samogitia 2
19 Brześć Kujawski Brześć Kujawski 2
20 Dobrzyń Brześć Kujawski 2
21 Kiev Kiev 6
22 Inowrocław Inowrocław 2
23 Lviv Ruthenia 2
24 Przemyśl Ruthenia 2
25 Sanok Ruthenia 2
26 Halych Ruthenia 2
27 Chełm Ruthenia 2
28 Volhynia Volhynia 6
29 Podolia Podolia 6
30 Smolensk Smolensk 2
31 Starodub Smolensk 2
32 Lublin Lublin 3
33 Polatsk Polatsk 2
34 Belz Belz 4
35 Navahrudak Navahrudak 2
36 Slonim Navahrudak 2
37 Vawkavysk Navahrudak 2
38 Płock Płock 2
39 Vitebsk Vitebsk 2
40 Orsha Vitebsk 2
41 Czersk Masovia 2
42 Warsaw Masovia 2
43 Wizna Masovia 2
44 Wyszogród Masovia 2
45 Zakroczym Masovia 2
46 Ciechanów Masovia 2
47 Lomza Łomża Masovia 2
48 Różan Masovia 2
49 Liw Masovia 2
50 Nur Masovia 2
51 Drohiczyn Podlachia 2
52 Bielsk Podlaski Podlachia 2
53 Mielnik Podlachia 2
54 Rawa Mazowiecka Rawa Mazowiecka 2
55 Sochaczew Rawa Mazowiecka 2
56 Gostynin Rawa Mazowiecka 2
57 Brest-Litovsk Brest-Litovsk 2
58 Pinsk Brest-Litovsk 2
59 Chełmno Chełmno 2
60 Mstsislau Mstsislau 2
61 Malbork Malbork 2
62 Bratslav Bratslav 6
63 Gdańsk Pomerania 2
64 Minsk Minsk 2
65 Mazyr Minsk 2
66 Rechytsa Minsk 2
67 Livonia Livonia 6
68 Chernihiv Chernihiv 4

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Kasztelan". Encyklopedja Staro-polska (in Polish). III. Piotr Laskauer i S-ka. 1902. 
  2. ^ "Feliks Koneczny - "Dzieje administracji w Polsce w zarysie"". Nonpossumus.pl. Retrieved 2012-11-14.