Order of the Francisque
The order was created by the arrêtés of 26 May, 1941, the law of 16 May, 1941 and the decrees of 14 March, 1942 and 31 July, 1942.
The Francisque was the personal symbol of Philippe Pétain, Marshal of France and Head of State.
Although the personal symbol of Philippe Pétain, the francisque was gradually used on official documents as the coat of arms of the Vichy regime.
Although called francisque, the medal and generally speaking the symbol used on official document is a labrys.
At least, 2626 persons received the order of the Francisque. The official number remains unknown as the archives listing all the holders burnt at the end of the Second World War. The holders include:
- The widow of the général Charles Huntziger was the first to receive the order of the francisque;
- The Lumière brothers in 1941;
- Raymond Marcellin;
- François Mitterrand (1943), former French president, receiver number 2202;
- Raoul Salan;
- Marc Boegner, reverend of the French Protestant Church and president of the Protestant Federation of France;
- Paul Dungler;
- Charles Vanel, actor;
- Pierre Fresnay, actor;
- Edmond Giscard d'Estaing, father of the former French president Valéry Giscard d'Estaing;
- Jacques Ploncard d'Assac, journalist and writer;
- Charles Maurras, journalist and writer;
- Henry Coston, journalist and writer;
- Maxime Real del Sarte, sculptor;
- Antoine Pinay, French politician;
- Henri Pourrat, actor;
- Xavier Vallat, French politician;
- Jean-Louis Tixier-Vignancour, French politician;
- Pierre Dunoyer de Segonzac, founder of the École des cadres d'Uriage;
- Paul Morand, writer;
- Louis II, Prince of Monaco;
- René de Chambrun, lawyer, and stepson of Pierre Laval;
- Maurice Couve de Murville, French politician and former Prime Minister;
- Jean Védrine, member of the French resistance, affiliated to the resistance network of François Mitterrand, father of Hubert Védrine, former French minister of foreign affairs;
- L'ordre de la Francisque (Paris, Publications H.C, 1995, 64 pages)