Order of the German Eagle

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Order of Merit of the German Eagle
Order of Merit of the German Eagle.svg
Neck badge of the Order of the German Eagle
Awarded by Nazi Germany
TypeOrder
EligibilityGerman citizens and foreign nationals
Awarded formilitary and civil services
StatusObsolete
GradesSix
DEU Deutsche Adlerorden 1 BAR.svg

The Order of Merit of the German Eagle (German: Verdienstorden vom Deutschen Adler) was an award of the German Nazi regime, predominantly to foreign diplomats. The Order was instituted on 1 May 1937 by Adolf Hitler.[1] It ceased to be awarded following the collapse of Nazi Germany at the end of World War II in Europe. The wearing of the Order of Merit of the German Eagle is prohibited in the Federal Republic of Germany.

Criteria[edit]

The Order of Merit of the German Eagle was a diplomatic and honorary award given to prominent foreigners, particularly diplomats, who were considered sympathetic to Nazism.[citation needed]

In addition to awards to non-Germans, the Reich Foreign Minister and the Reich Protector of Bohemia and Moravia received a 'Special Degree' (Sonderstufe), with identical insignia to the Grand Cross of the Order. Accordingly, Foreign Minister Constantin von Neurath, received the Special Degree of the Order, with a further award to Joachim von Ribbentrop on his appointment as Foreign Minister in 1938.[2] In 1943 Dr. Wilhelm Frick received the Special Degree after becoming Reich Protector of Bohemia and Moravia.[3]

Appearance and classes[edit]

The Cross is based on the Maltese Cross with German Eagles at each corner carrying a swastika. For military recipients the Order also featured crossed swords.[1] The cross was suspended from a 46 mm red ribbon with stripes in black, red and white. The award, in the first two classes, also came in the form of a silver or gold eight pointed star, with corresponding white Maltese Cross and gold eagles centered. The overall appearance and name of the Order was an imitation of the Prussian Order of the Black Eagle, Order of the Red Eagle and Order of Saint John (Bailiwick of Brandenburg).

From 1937 to 1943 the Order was presented in six classes:[2]

  1. Grand Cross of the Order of the German Eagle with star (Grosskreuz des Deutschen Adlerordens)
  2. Order of the German Eagle with Star (Deutscher Adlerorden mit Stern)
  3. Order of the German Eagle 1st Class (Deutscher Adlerorden, Erste Stufe)
  4. Order of the German Eagle 2nd Class (Deutscher Adlerorden, Zweite Stufe)
  5. Order of the German Eagle 3rd Class (Deutscher Adlerorden, Dritte Stufe)
  6. German Medal of Merit (Deutsche Verdienstmedaille)

An unique Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the German Eagle in Gold with Diamonds (Grosskreuz des Deutschen Adlerordens in Gold und Brillanten) was also awarded to Benito Mussolini on 25 September 1937.[2]

On 27 December 1943 the Order was reorganised into nine classes:[2]

  1. Grand Cross of the Order of the German Eagle in Gold with Star (Goldenes Grosskreuz des Deutschen Adlerordens)
  2. Grand Cross of the Order of the German Eagle with Star (Grosskreuz des Deutschen Adlerordens)
  3. Order of the German Eagle 1st Class (Deutscher Adlerorden, Erste Stufe)
  4. Order of the German Eagle 2nd Class (Deutscher Adlerorden, Zweite Stufe)
  5. Order of the German Eagle 3rd Class (Deutscher Adlerorden, Dritte Stufe)
  6. Order of the German Eagle 4th Class (Deutscher Adlerorden, Vierte Stufe)
  7. Order of the German Eagle 5th Class (Deutscher Adlerorden, Fünfte Stufe)
  8. Silver Medal of Merit (Silberne Verdienstmedaille)
  9. Bronze Medal of Merit (Bronzene Verdienstmedaille)

Recipients[edit]

Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the German Eagle in Gold with Diamonds[edit]

Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the German Eagle in Gold with Star[edit]

The Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the German Eagle in Gold was awarded at least fifteen times:[2]

Grand Cross[edit]

Other classes[edit]

Number awarded unknown.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "AWM Collection Record: RELAWM30337A". Australian War Memorial. September 2008. Archived from the original on 26 February 2012. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Wendel, Marcus. "Holders of the Grand Cross of the Order of the German Eagle in Gold". Axis History Factbook. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  3. ^ David Littlejohn; Colonel C. M. Dodkins. (1968). Orders, Decorations, Medals and Badges of the Third Reich. R.James Bender Publishing California. p. 20 confirms all 3 German recipients.
  4. ^ a b c "Hitler Honours Siamese". The Straits Times. 3 April 1938. p. 3.
  5. ^ Cabadas, Joe (2004). River Rouge. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-7603-1708-2. cited in Joe Cabadas (2008). River Rouge. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
  6. ^ Memoari generala i ministra Ljubomira Marića: (1878-1969). 2012. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  7. ^ Dušan Glišović (2012). Ivo Andrić, Kraljevina Jugoslavija i Treći Rajh 1939-1941. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  8. ^ Wennerholm, Eric. Sven Hedin - En biografi
  9. ^ Washington National Records Center, Suitland, Maryland; WNRC, RG 84, Stockholm Legation Confidential files 1946-1947, Box 4, American Legation, Stockholm, to Department of State (No. 7447), 1946-10-09.
  10. ^ Conway, John S. (1974). "The Churches, the Slovak State and the Jews 1939-1945". The Slavonic and East European Review. 52 (126): 94. JSTOR 4206836.
  11. ^ Geoffrey G. Jones, Adrian Brown, "Thomas J. Watson, IBM and Nazi Germany", Harvard Business School Case 9-807-133, October 2008
  12. ^ Lewis, David L. (1976). The Public Image of Henry Ford: An American Folk Hero and His Company. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. pp. 149–150. ISBN 0814318924.
  13. ^ Royal Thai Government Gazette. แจ้งความสำนักนายกรัฐมนตรี เรื่อง ให้ประดับเครื่องราชอิสสริยาภรณ์ต่างประเทศ Vol. 56 Page 3594 on 11 March 1939
  14. ^ Einar W. Juva: "Rudolf Walden 1872-1946" page 621
  15. ^ Sulamaa, Kaarle (20 April 2016). "Luukkonen, Fanni (1882 - 1947)" (in Finnish). National Biography of Finland. Retrieved 22 February 2017.

External links[edit]