Order of the Star in the East
|Predecessor||Order of the Rising Sun|
|Successor||Order of the Star|
|Purpose||To educate and prepare the world for the advent of the World Teacher|
|Headquarters||Benares (Varanasi), India|
|C. W. Leadbeater|
|The Herald of the Star|
|Subsidiaries||Star Publishing Trust|
|Affiliations||National Sections in as many as 40 countries and territories|
The Order of the Star in the East (OSE) was an international organization based at Benares (Varanasi), India, from 1911 to 1927. It was established by the leadership of the Theosophical Society at Adyar, Chennai, in order to prepare the world for the arrival of a messianic entity, the so-called World Teacher or Maitreya. The OSE acquired members worldwide as it expanded in many countries; a third of its diverse membership c. 1926 was unaffiliated with the Theosophical Society. The precursor of the OSE was the Order of the Rising Sun (1910–11, also at Benares) and the successor was the Order of the Star (1927–29, based at Ommen, the Netherlands). The precursor organization was formed after leading Theosophists discovered a likely candidate for the new messiah in the then–adolescent Jiddu Krishnamurti (1895–1986), a South Indian Brahmin who was installed as Head of the Order. Almost two decades later Krishnamurti rejected the messianic role, repudiated the Order's mission, and in 1929 disbanded the OSE's successor. The founding and activities of these organizations, as well as the largely unexpected dissolution of the OSE's successor, garnered widespread media attention and public interest. They also led to crises in the Theosophical Society and to schisms in Theosophy.
- 1 Background
- 2 History
- 3 Consequences
- 4 Cultural references
- 5 Notes
- 6 References
- 7 External links
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One of the central tenets of late 19th-century Theosophy as promoted by the Theosophical Society was the complex doctrine of intelligent evolution of all existence. This was said to be occurring on a Cosmic scale, incorporating both physical and non-physical aspects of the known and unknown Universe, and affecting all of its constituent parts regardless of apparent size or importance. The theory was originally promulgated in the Secret Doctrine (published 1888), a book by Helena Blavatsky, one of the founders of contemporary Theosophy and the Theosophical Society.
According to this view, Humankind's evolution on Earth (and beyond) is part of the Cosmic evolution. It is reputedly overseen by a hidden Spiritual Hierarchy, the so-called Masters of the Ancient Wisdom, whose upper echelons consist of advanced spiritual beings. Blavatsky portrayed the Theosophical Society as one of the Hierarchy's many attempts (or "impulses") throughout the millennia, to guide Humanity – in concert with the intelligent evolutionary scheme – to its ultimate, immutable objective: the attainment of perfection and the conscious participation in the evolutionary process. Blavatsky stated that these attempts require an Earth-based infrastructure (such as the Theosophical Society), to pave the way for the Hierarchy's physically appearing emissaries, "the torch-bearer[s] of Truth". The mission of these reputedly regularly appearing emissaries is to practically translate, in a way and language understood by contemporary humanity, the knowledge required to propel it to a higher evolutionary stage.
Blavatsky also wrote about the possible impact of Theosophy and the Theosophical Society in her book The Key to Theosophy (published 1889):
If the present attempt, in the form of our Society, succeeds better than its predecessors have done, then it will be in existence as an organized, living and healthy body when the time comes for the effort of the XXth century. The general condition of men's minds and hearts will have been improved and purified by the spread of its teachings, and, as I have said, their prejudices and dogmatic illusions will have been, to some extent at least, removed. Not only so, but besides a large and accessible literature ready to men's hands, the next impulse will find a numerous and united body of people ready to welcome the new torch-bearer of Truth. He will find the minds of men prepared for his message, a language ready for him in which to clothe the new truths he brings, an organization awaiting his arrival, which will remove the merely mechanical, material obstacles and difficulties from his path. Think how much one, to whom such an opportunity is given, could accomplish. Measure it by comparison with what the Theosophical Society actually has achieved in the last fourteen years, without any of these advantages and surrounded by hosts of hindrances which would not hamper the new leader. [emphasis in original]— Helena Blavatsky, The Key to Theosophy
Based on this and other Blavatsky writings, Theosophists expected the future advent of the aforementioned "next impulse"; additional information was the purview of the Society's Esoteric Section, which Blavatsky had founded and originally led.
After Blavatsky’s death in 1891, influential Theosophist Charles Webster Leadbeater expanded on her writings about the Spiritual Hierarchy and the Masters. He formulated a Christology in which he identified Christ with the Theosophical representation of the Buddhist concept of Maitreya. Leadbeater believed that Maitreya-as-Christ had manifested on Earth in several occasions, using in each case a specially prepared person as a "vehicle". The incarnated Maitreya assumed the role of World Teacher of Humankind, dispensing knowledge regarding underlying truths of Existence.
Annie Besant, another well-known and influential Theosophist (and eventual close associate of Leadbeater’s), had also developed an interest on the advent of the next emissary from the Spiritual Hierarchy. During the decades of the 1890s and 1900s, along with Leadbeater and others, she became progressively convinced that this advent would happen sooner than Blavatsky's proposed timetable. They came to believe it would involve the imminent reappearance of Maitreya as World Teacher, a monumental event in the Theosophical worldview. However, not all Theosophical Society members accepted Leadbeater's and Besant's ideas on the matter; the dissidents charged them with straying from Theosophical orthodoxy and, along with other concepts developed by the two, their elaborations on the Theosophical Maitreya were derisively labeled Neo-Theosophy by their opponents.
Besant became President of the Theosophical Society in 1907, and added considerable weight to the belief of Maitreya's imminent manifestation; this eventually became a commonly held expectation among Theosophists. Besant had started commenting on the possibly imminent arrival of the next emissary as early as 1896; by 1909 the proclaimed "coming Teacher" was a main topic of her lectures and writings.
"Discovery" of Jiddu Krishnamurti
Sometime between late April and late May 1909, at the private beach of the Theosophical Society Headquarters in Adyar, Chennai, Leadbeater encountered Jiddu Krishnamurti, a fourteen-year-old South Indian Brahmin. At the time Jiddu Narayaniah, Krishnamurti's father and longtime Theosophist, was employed by the Society; the family, in relatively poor condition, lived next to the compound. Leadbeater, a controversial figure whose knowledge on occult matters was highly respected by the Society's leadership, came to believe young Krishnamurti was a suitable candidate for the vehicle of the World Teacher – despite the boy's reputedly dull personality and lackluster intellect. Leadbeater soon placed Krishnamurti, and at the latter's insistence his inseparable younger brother Jiddu Nityananda ("Nitya"), under his and the Society's wing; in late 1909 Besant, as President of the Society and head of its Esoteric Section, admitted the Jiddu brothers into both. In March 1910 she became their legal guardian.
Following the "discovery", Leadbeater began occult examinations of Krishnamurti, to whom he had assigned the pseudonym Alcyone – the name of a star in the Pleiades star cluster, and of characters from Greek mythology. Leadbeater's belief regarding the boy's suitability was strengthened by his clairvoyance-aided investigations of Krishnamurti's reputed past and future lives. The results of these investigations were recorded, and eventually published in Theosophical magazines starting April 1910, and in a book in 1913. They were widely read and discussed within the Society, as according to Leadbeater, contemporary Theosophists were involved in various "lives of Alcyone". Such reputed involvement became a matter of status and prestige among Theosophists; it also contributed to factionalism within the Society. In the meantime, Krishnamurti was put on a comprehensive multiyear regiment of physical, intellectual, social, and spiritual training in preparation for his probable future role.
Order of the Rising Sun
In late 1910 the Theosophical Society published the first work "by Alcyone", a booklet entitled At the Feet of the Master. The book became very popular among Theosophists, and around the same time (officially, in January 1911), the Order of the Rising Sun was founded at Benares (Varanasi) by George Arundale, a prominent Theosophist. Arundale, Principal of the Central Hindu College (CHC), had been impressed by Alcyone’s writings, and formed the Order around a CHC-based study group of disciples headed by Krishnamurti. The new entity was generally focused on the expected World Teacher, yet the recently discovered Krishnamurti-Alcyone was – somewhat obliquely – at the center of its attention.
Meanwhile, the activities and proclamations of Leadbeater, Besant, and other senior Theosophists regarding Krishnamurti and the expected Teacher became entangled in prior disputes within and without the Theosophical Society, and also the subjects of new controversies. The evolving controversies, as well as objections by Hindu members of the CHC faculty, prompted Besant to officially disband the organization in May 1911; however, a replacement had already been formed.
Order of the Star in the East
In April 1911 Besant founded the Order of the Star in the East (OSE), based again at Benares, which replaced the Order of the Rising Sun. It was named after the Star of Bethlehem, signifying the proclaimed approach of the new vehicle of Christ-Maitreya. The top positions of the organization were filled: "Mrs Besant and Leadbeater were made Protectors of the new Order of which Krishna [Jiddu Krishnamurti] was the Head, Arundale Private Secretary to the Head, and Wodehouse Organizing Secretary". News regarding Krishnamurti, the Order, and its mission received widespread publicity and worldwide press coverage; the publicity may have been at least partly driven by aspects of the era's prevailing fin de siècle mood.
Objective and principles
The goal of the OSE was to educate and prepare the world for the arrival of the World Teacher and to remove any material obstacles and difficulties from his path. By late 1913, the Order had about 15,000 members worldwide; most of them were also members of the Theosophical Society. However, membership was open to anyone, the only precondition being acceptance of the "Declaration of Principles", which stated the following:
- We believe that a great Teacher will soon appear in the world, and we wish so to live now that we may be worthy to know Him when He comes.
- We shall try, therefore, to keep Him in our minds always, and to do in His name, and therefore to the best of our ability, all the work which comes to us in our daily occupations.
- As far as our ordinary duties allow, we shall endeavour to devote a portion of our time each day to some definite work which may help to prepare for His coming.
- We shall seek to make Devotion, Steadfastness and Gentleness prominent characteristics of our daily life.
- We shall try to begin and end each day with a short period devoted to the asking of His blessing upon all that we try to do for Him and in His name.
- We regard it as our special duty to try to recognise and reverence greatness in whomsoever shown, and to strive to co-operate, as far as we can, with those whom we feel to be spiritually our superiors.— Order of the Star in the East, "Declaration of Principles"
|The Herald of the Star|
|Jiddu Krishnamurti, editor|
|The Star Review|
|Emily Lutyens, editor|
|International Star Bulletin|
|November 1927 – July 1929, Ommen|
|D. Rajagopal & R. L. Christie, editors|
|(jpeg). Retrieved 2015-11-29 – via Theosophy Wiki.|
Following its establishment the OSE began its mission in earnest. Lecture tours, meetings and other activities were undertaken by prominent members of the Order. Articles and pamphlets about the OSE and its mission, published regularly by Theosophical organizations, were joined by an official bulletin, The Herald of the Star, originally based at Adyar, which started publication in January 1912.
As Krishnamurti came of age, he embarked on an intensified schedule of lectures and discussions in several countries, and acquired a large following among the membership of the Theosophical Society. National Sections of the Order were eventually formed in as many as forty countries.
On 28 December 1911, during a ceremony officiated by Krishnamurti at the close of the annual Theosophical Convention (held that year at Benares), those present were reported to be suddenly overwhelmed by a strange feeling of "tremendous power", which seemed to be flowing through Krishnamurti. In Leadbeater's description, "it reminded one irresistibly of the rushing, mighty wind, and the outpouring of the Holy Ghost at Pentecost. The tension was enormous, and every one in the room was most powerfully affected." The next day, at a meeting of the Esoteric Section, Besant for the first time announced that it was now obvious Krishnamurti was indeed the chosen vehicle. Thereafter, 28 December became a "sacred day" for the Order.
In 1912, Krishnamurti's father sued Besant in order to annul her guardianship of his son, which he had previously granted. Among the reasons stated in Narayaniah's deposition was his objection to the deification of Krishnamurti, said to have been caused by Besant's "announcement that he was to be the Lord Christ, with the result that a number of respectable persons had prostrated before him." Besant eventually won the case on appeal.
Also in 1912, most members of the Theosophical Society's German Section followed its head, Rudolf Steiner, in splitting from the parent Society – partly due to disagreement over Besant's and Leadbeater's proclamations concerning Krishnamurti's messianic status.
Controversy regarding the OSE and Krishnamurti again engulfed the Central Hindu College. In 1913, a number of the Order's supporters resigned their positions at the CHC following opposition by the school's administration and trustees, who considered the Order's activities unacademical.
In 1920, Krishnamurti's younger brother Nitya replaced Wodehouse as Organising Secretary. The next year, the first international Congress of the Order of the Star in the East was held in Paris, France, attended by 2,000 members out of then about 30,000 worldwide. At the Congress it was decided that there would be no special ceremonies or rituals associated with the Order or with the World Teacher. Also in the 1920s, regularly scheduled multiday Star Camps, supported by well-organized facilities, started to be held in the Netherlands, the United States, and India. They were attended by thousands of members, with coverage provided by local and international media.
In late 1925, close Krishnamurti associate and friend D. Rajagopal  was appointed general secretary following Nitya's unexpected death. While the Order's activities continued without visible disruption, Nitya's death was a privately devastating, watershed event for Krishnamurti.
Financing the venture and subsequent expansion did not appear to present a problem. Properties in several countries were acquired via specially-formed trusts or by affiliates, for a variety of purposes. In collaboration with the Theosophical Society, the OSE had been producing a number of publications and propaganda material (see § External links); in 1926, it organized its own publishing arm: the Star Publishing Trust, based at Eerde, Ommen, the Netherlands. Along with an official international bulletin published in Ommen (the International Star Bulletin), national bulletins eventually appeared in twenty-one countries, and in fourteen different languages. Also in 1926 it was reported that the Order's membership had reached about 43,000, two thirds of which were members of the Theosophical Society.
Claims and expectations
By year-end 1925, efforts of prominent Theosophists and their affiliated factions to favorably position themselves for the expected Coming were reaching a climax. Extraordinary pronouncements of accelerated spiritual advancement were being made by various parties, privately disputed by others. Ranking members of the Order and the Society had publicly declared themselves to have been chosen as apostles of the new Messiah. The escalating claims of spiritual success, and the internal (and hidden from the public) Theosophical politics, alienated an increasingly disillusioned Krishnamurti. His commitment and enthusiasm had been uneven since the Order's early days, and in private he had occasionally expressed doubts about his presumed mission. He refused to recognize anyone as his disciple or apostle. In the meantime, World Teacher-related spinoff projects proliferated: in August 1925 the establishment of a "World Religion" and a "World University" were announced by the Theosophical leadership. Both of them were later "quietly shelved".
The annual Star Congress for 1925 opened at Adyar on the "sacred day" of 28 December, following the much anticipated but uneventful Theosophical Convention. At the opening, an event occurred that was reminiscent of the incident that had happened on the same day of 1911. Krishnamurti had been giving a speech about the World Teacher and the significance of his coming, when "a dramatic change" took place: his voice suddenly altered and he switched to first person, saying "I come for those who want sympathy, who want happiness, who are longing to be released, who are longing to find happiness in all things. I come to reform and not to tear down, I come not to destroy but to build." For many of the assembled who noticed, it was a "spine-tingling" revelation, "felt ... instantly and independently" – confirmation, in their view, that the manifestation of the Lord Maitreya through his chosen vehicle had begun.
Order of the Star
The reputed manifestation of the World Teacher prompted a number of celebratory statements and assertions by prominent Theosophists that were not unanimously accepted by Society members. One result was the persistence of controversy regarding the project. Besant and other leaders of the Society largely managed to contain the dissenters and the controversy, but in the process sustained unflattering publicity. However, the so-called World Teacher Project was also receiving serious and neutral coverage in the global media, and according to reports it was followed sympathetically and with interest by non-Theosophists.
In related developments following the perceived manifestation, Besant announced in January 1927, "[t]he World Teacher is here", and many Star members expected Krishnamurti's unequivocal public proclamation of his messianic status. Reflecting the new situation, in June 1927 the name of the organization was changed to Order of the Star, and its main organ was retitled The Star Review; the organization relocated at Ommen, with D. Rajagopal serving as Chief Organizer.
The renamed organization had two objectives: 
Complementing the reorganization and the proclamations of the World Teacher's manifestation, in 1928 the so-called World Mother Project, headed by Rukmini Devi Arundale (George Arundale's young wife), was put in motion by Theosophical leaders. Krishnamurti again distanced himself from this endeavor, which Indian and international press reports dubbed "Mrs. Besant's New Fad", and it was to be short-lived.
Dissolution and repudiation
By the late 1920s, Krishnamurti's emphasis in public talks and private discussions had changed. He had been gradually discarding or contradicting Theosophical concepts and terminology, disagreeing with leading Theosophists, and talking less about the World Teacher; public interest, and attendance at his speaking engagements, remained high. The shift in emphasis mirrored fundamental changes in Krishnamurti as a person, including his increasing disenchantment with the World Teacher Project. They led Krishnamurti to a thorough reevaluation of his relationship with the Project, the Theosophical Society, and Theosophy in general. Finally, on 3 August 1929, at the Ommen Star Camp, he disbanded the Order in front of Besant and about 3,000 members. In his speech dissolving the organization (also broadcast on Dutch radio), Krishnamurti said:
I maintain that Truth is a pathless land, and you cannot approach it by any path whatsoever, by any religion, by any sect. That is my point of view, and I adhere to that absolutely and unconditionally. Truth, being limitless, unconditioned, unapproachable by any path whatsoever, cannot be organized; nor should any organization be formed to lead or to coerce people along any particular path.— Jiddu Krishnamurti, The Dissolution of the Order of the Star
Despite the changes in Krishnamurti's outlook and pronouncements during the preceding years (and more recent rumors of impending dissolution), the ending of the Order and its mission shocked many of its supporters. Prominent Theosophists openly or under various guises turned against Krishnamurti – including Leadbeater, who reputedly stated, "the Coming has gone wrong". However, other Society members supported Krishnamurti's new direction, and opposed the critical views expressed by Theosophical leaders.
Soon after the dissolution Krishnamurti severed his ties to Theosophy and the Theosophical Society. He denounced the concepts of saviors, leaders, and spiritual teachers. Vowing to work towards setting humankind "absolutely, unconditionally free", he repudiated all doctrines and theories of inner, spiritual and psychological evolution such as those implied in the Theosophical tenets described above (see § Background). Instead, he posited that his goal of complete psychological freedom could be realized only through the understanding of individuals' actual relationships with themselves, society, and nature.
Krishnamurti returned to the donors the estates, property, and funds that had been given to the Order in its various incarnations. He spent the rest of his life promoting his post-Theosophical message around the world as an independent speaker and writer. He became widely known as an original, influential thinker on philosophical, psychological, and religious subjects.
In 1907, the first year for which reliable records were kept, the worldwide membership of the Theosophical Society was estimated at over 15,000. During the following two decades membership suffered due to splits and resignations, but by the mid–1920s it was rising again; it eventually peaked in 1928 at about 45,000 members. The membership of the Order in its various guises kept increasing steadily, yet Krishnamurti's changing message in the period leading to the dissolution may have negatively affected growth. Many members of the Order were also members of the Theosophical Society;  consequently, as many as a third of the members of the Society left "within a few years" of Krishnamurti's disbanding of the Order. In the opinion of a Krishnamurti biographer, the Society, already in decline for other reasons, "was in disarray" upon the dissolution of the Order. While Theosophical publications and leading members tried to minimize the effect of Krishnamurti's actions and the defunct Order's importance, the "truth ... was that the Theosophical Society had been pole-axed. ... [Krishnamurti] had combatively challenged the central tenet of its beliefs".
The failed project led to considerable analysis and retrospective evaluations by the Society and by well-known Theosophists, at that time and since. It also resulted in governance changes in the Theosophical Society Adyar, a reorientation of its Esoteric Section, re-examination of parts of its doctrine, and reticence to outside questions regarding the OSE and the World Teacher Project. According to both theosophical and non-theosophical observers, Theosophical organizations, especially the Theosophical Society Adyar, by the close of the 20th century had yet to recover from Krishnamurti's rejection and the entire World Teacher affair, and entered the 21st still dealing with their effects.
Events and personalities related to the World Teacher Project and the OSE have been portrayed, or alluded to, in artistic and cultural works.
"The Word of the Master" (Finnish: Mestarin käsky), is a 1925 work for voice and piano by Finnish composer Leevi Madetoja (Op. 71/2). Originally published as "At the Feet of the Master (Alcyone)", its devotional lyrics are based on the eponymous book (see § Order of the Rising Sun). The three-minute-long work was republished under the new title in 1929; as of 2002[update], it was included in contemporary performances on CD-Audio.
"Benares, 1910", an episode in the 1990s US television series The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles created by George Lucas, is taking place in Benares around the time of Krishnamurti's discovery and the formation of the OSE. The hour-long episode loosely (and sympathetically) portrays these and related events. The including series explores the childhood and youth of the fictional character Indiana Jones; in this installment, the protagonist gets to meet the boy Krishnamurti, Besant and Leadbeater. Filmed on location at Benares. The episode originally aired on 3 July 1993, during primetime, on the ABC television network;  it achieved modest Nielsen ratings. It was later re-packaged in a television "Movie of the Week" titled The Journey of Radiance (2000), which was also released, along with related documentary material, on DVD-Video (2007).
Blue Dove, a musical in two acts, is based on Krishnamurti's life between his discovery by Leadbeater and the start of his career as an independent philosopher and speaker following the dissolution of the Order of the Star. The musical, with a running time of two hours and fifteen minutes, premiered in October 2004 at Los Angeles' Ivar Theatre and had a three-week stage run; a 40-minute recording of songs was released in 2005. The libretto and plot, by Englishman Peter Wells, employ considerable artistic license in their portrayals of related persons and events.
- Goodrick-Clarke 2004, pp. 1–2, § "The Secret Doctrine" 14–17, 132; Kuhn 1930, ch. "VIII: The Secret Doctrine" pp. 194–231.
- Goodrick-Clarke 2004, pp. 7–8.
- Goodrick-Clarke 2004, . "Masters, ... feature ... prominently in the inspiration of Theosophy and its founding myth" (p. 5). Retrieved 2015-11-02 – via Google Books (limited preview); Lubelsky 2012, pp. 79–81.
- Blavatsky 1889, . Retrieved 2016-07-07 – via Google Books.
- Lachman 2012, pp. 248–249; Lutyens 1975, pp. 10–11. Members of the Esoteric Section had access to occult instruction and more detailed knowledge of the inner order and mission of the Society and of its reputed hidden Masters or Mahātmās.
- Lubelsky 2012, § "Leadbeater's Doctrine" pp. 139–146; Leadbeater 2007, pp. 31, 74, 191, 232, ch. "XIII: The Trinity and the Triangles" 250–260.
- Lubelsky 2012, pp. 132–134.
- Blavatsky 1889, . Retrieved 2016-07-07 – via Google Books. "But I must tell you that during the last quarter of every hundred years an attempt is made by those 'Masters,' of whom I have spoken, to help on the spiritual progress of Humanity in a marked and definite way. Towards the close of each century you will invariably find that an outpouring or upheaval of spirituality – or call it mysticism if you prefer – has taken place. Some one or more persons have appeared in the world as their agents, and a greater or less amount of occult knowledge and teaching has been given out."
- Lubelsky 2012, pp. 136–137.
- Kuhn 1930, pp. 327, 328–331.
- Vernon 2001, p. 35.
- Schüller 1999.
- Lutyens 1975, pp. 11–12, 46.
- New York Times 1909. Report on the occasion of Besant's early-20th-century lecture tour of the United States.
- Lutyens 1975, pp. 1, 20–21.
- Lutyens 1975, pp. 12, 124–125; Vernon 2001, pp. 99–100. Krishnamurti was not the first, or only, candidate for Vehicleship. Before him, the young son of a high-ranking American Theosophist was considered promising by Leadbeater. Also, thirteen-year-old Indian Rajagopalarya Desikacharya ("D. Rajagopal", 1900–1993) was "discovered" by Leadbeater in 1913, and for a time it was rumored in Theosophical circles that he might supplant Krishnamurti. However, Krishnamurti was considered the most likely vehicle candidate, for whom the Society made available its resources. Rajagopal went on to become a decades-long close associate and friend of Krishnamurti's, but their relationship soured in old age.
- Wood 1964, pp. 287–288, 289. From an eyewitness account of Krishnamurti's "discovery" by Ernest Wood, a close associate of Leadbeater's. The latter maintained he was directed by the Masters (see § Background) on the matter; according to Wood, Leadbeater also stated that Krishnamurti should fulfil the expectations "... 'unless something goes wrong.'" The article includes commentary on related events and controversies.
- Lutyens 1975, pp. 27, 30, 35, 136, 163, 178; Vernon 2001, p. 29. There was a strong brotherly bond between Nitya (1898–1925), and Krishnamurti. In addition, Nitya was charged by Theosophical leaders, and reputedly by the Masters, with looking after Krishnamurti and with assisting him in his presumed mission.
- Lutyens 1975, p. 40. Besant and Krishnamurti developed a very close, lasting personal relationship (Vernon 2001, pp. 46–47).
- Besant & Leadbeater 2003, p. 9. "To this 'himself' or ego [i.e. each of the characters in the Lives of Alcyone] we have given a distinguishing name, so that he may be recognized under all the disguises put on to suit the part he is playing. These are mostly names of constellations, stars, or Greek heroes." Krishnamurti's pseudonym may be related to one of the mythical Pleiades or to another mythological Alcyone, a goddess whose story is related to the so-called halcyon days. Theosophy assigns occult or esoteric significance to practically all ancient mythologies (Kalnitsky 2003, pp. 294–296, 300), whose theogonies are considered by Theosophical doctrine to be closely related to actual cosmological and astronomical events. See also Pleiades in folklore and literature.
- Besant & Leadbeater 1913, "Foreword" pp. 1–8 [specific context pp. 2–3].
- Lutyens 1975, pp. 23–24. Leadbeater proclaimed his clairvoyance as a matter of fact; this was accepted by many Theosophists. Reincarnation is considered a fundamental doctrine in Theosophy. Besides Krishnamurti, Leadbeater assigned names with Esoteric Theosophical significance to several other actors in the "lives of Alcyone".
- Vernon 2001, chs. "4. At the Feet of the Master"–"5. Moulding a Messiah" pp. 51–93 [cumulative].
- Vernon 2001, pp. 61–64. At the Feet of the Master went on to become an international bestseller, eventually published in over two dozen languages; its publication also resulted in controversy regarding the author's identity. Considered a spiritual classic, it was still in print as of 2012[update] (Rodrigues 2012, p. 462).
- Lutyens 1975, pp. 42–46. "George Arundale [appeared as] Fides in The Lives of Alcyone". The CHC had been co-founded by Annie Besant and counted several prominent Theosophists among its faculty and staff.
- Tillett 1986, ch. "15. Conflict over Krishnamurti" pp. 506–553. Information on contemporary controversies regarding Krishnamurti, inside and outside the Theosophical Society.
- Row 1911. Long letter by a senior Indian Theosophist published in Indian newspaper The Leader shortly after the formation of the Order of the Rising Sun. In it, Row disputes the Adyar-based leadership's claims about Krishnamurti and their positions on Theosophical doctrine.
- Lubelsky 2012, pp. 298–299.
- Lutyens 1975, p. 84.
- Vernon 2001, p. 64.
- Lutyens 1975, pp. 46, 125, 227. Ernest Armine Wodehouse, an educator and brother of the poet and writer P.G. Wodehouse, was another prominent Theosophist.
- Vernon 2001, pp. 10, 22, 38; Grand Forks Daily Herald 1912. "A stripling of fifteen, Krishnamurti, a Hindu is thought by many Theosophists to be a second Messiah and a new sect has been formed for his support with the star of the east the emblem." Krishnamurti was actually seventeen-years-old at the time of the article's publication (Lutyens 1975, p. 308 [in "Notes and Sources", note for p. 2]).
- Wodehouse 1911.
- Lutyens 1975, p. 74. "Not all of them [i.e. OSE members] Theosophists".
- Wodehouse 1911; Hartmann 1925.
- Lutyens 1975, p. 246. The International Star Bulletin, with D. Rajagopal as chief editor, joined the pre-existing Herald of the Star; Hotchener 1928–29. From the bulletin of the United States Section of the Order.
- D. Rajagopal 1929a; a cover image of the August 1930 issue can be seen here ( Commons file page).
- Theosophy Wiki 2013.
- The New Statesman 1926, p. 255. This comprehensive 1926 report about the so-called World Teacher Project states that Besant lectures on the subject (in London) attracted audiences of 8,000 per talk.
- Lutyens 1975, pp. 46, 64, 75; Vernon 2001, pp. 64, 100. The bulletin listed Krishnamurti as (nominal) editor. It relocated to London in 1914, revamped as a 64-page glossy magazine with several full-page color illustrations (see External images for link to an example front cover); it also solicited (Credo n.d.), and published, articles by non-members and non-Theosophists as well, on a variety of current issues – such as two contributions in 1917 by philosopher and mathematician Bertrand Russell (Russell 1995, pp. 123, 301).
- Lutyens 1975, pp. 129, 135, 169–170, 171, 172–173; Vernon 2001, pp. 84, 85, 132–133; Krishnamurti talks were also broadcast on radio (The Manchester Guardian 1926).
- Hartmann 1925.
- Lutyens 1975, pp. 54–55, 56 (also see § New Testament (in Pentecost), and Holy Spirit). According to Leadbeater and other Theosophists, Krishnamurti had previously undergone a spiritual Initiation and had been accepted as a pupil by the reputed hidden overseers of the Theosophical Society (Lutyens 1975, chs. "4. First Initiation"–"5. First Teaching" pp. 29–46 [cumulative]).
- Lutyens 1975, pp. 62, ch. "8. The Lawsuit" 64–71, 82, 84.
- McDermott 1992. Rudolf Steiner, at the time leader of the German Section of the Theosophical Society, rejected the claims of Krishnamurti's messianic status. The resulting tensions between the German Section and Besant and Leadbeater was one of the reasons that led to a split in the Society and, in 1912, to Steiner forming the Anthroposophical Society.
- Lutyens 1975, pp. 42–43, 61, 134. Besant, and Leadbeater (who had been the subject of controversy and lurid accusations in the past), portrayed much of the opposition to the OSE and its mission – as well as the litigation regarding Krishnamurti's guardianship – as being part of wider, interrelated conflicts: ongoing debates about the role of the Theosophical Society in Indian life, and campaigns by political-religious opponents who disagreed with Besant's positions on Indian Home Rule; a contrary viewpoint to Besant's and Leadbeater's portrayal of events can be found in Das 1913. The author, a co-founder of the CHC (Lubelsky 2012, p. 258) and former General Secretary of the Indian Section of the Theosophical Society, was opposed to the World Teacher Project, the OSE, and eventually to Besant.
- Lutyens 1975, p. 125. Nitya was appointed following the resignation of Wodehouse.
- Lutyens 1975, p. 129. Many of those present attended at great financial cost, according to Krishnamurti biographer Mary Lutyens.
- Landau 1943, pp. 88–103. Rom Landau attended the 1927 Eerde, Ommen gathering and Star Camp at Krishnamurti's invitation. He described his impressions of the proceedings and of the attending members.
- Vernon 2001, pp. 152–153; Lutyens 1975, ch. "24. Fears for Nitya" pp. 202–209, 219–221, 227. Nitya's death shocked Krishnamurti's circle; it "broke him [Krishnamurti] completely". He had received assurances regarding his brother's well-being by prominent Theosophists and reputedly, by members of the hidden Spiritual Hierarchy. Yet he recovered quickly.
- Lutyens 1975, p. 74. "Neither the Theosophical Society nor the Order of the Star ever seemed to be prevented from carrying out any of their projects through lack of funds".
- Vernon 2001, pp. 138–139, 144–145. One of the projects was the Star Amphitheatre, an open-air temple built in the early 1920s on OSE land in Balmoral, New South Wales. It was to be utilized by the World Teacher as a platform for his message (Roe 1986, pp. 287–288).
- Lutyens 1975, p. 232n. From the 1926 Annual Report of the Order; the membership included people of many faiths: "In India ... Mahometans, Buddhists and Christians sit together without any holy war starting, to hear Krishnamurti" (Boston Daily Globe 1926) [Mohammedan variant spelling "Mahometan"]; von Weisl 1929, p. 6. "[H]alf the members of the local Zionist group in Bombay,... are also members of the theosophical movement, and many of them ... are ... members of the 'Order of the Star,' ... believers in the so-called new world-saviour Krishnamurti".
- Lutyens 1975, chs. "10. Doubts and Difficulties" pp. 80–96, "14. Critical and Rebellious" pp. 118–123, also pp. 103–104, 124–125, 127–128, 133–134, 138–139, 147. Krishnamurti reputedly exclaimed about his presumed mission around 1914–15, "... 'Why did they ever pick on me?'" (p. 86). He was admonished by Besant regarding the importance of his work for the World Teacher Project (p. 86). Leadbeater had been critical in the late 1910s; in 1922, he again made Krishnamurti aware of the Masters' expectations.
- Lutyens 1975, chs. "25. The Self Appointed Apostles"–"26. The First Manifestation" pp. 210–226 [cumulative].
- Lutyens 1975, pp. 214, 222.
- Lutyens 1975, p. 223. The 1925 Theosophical Convention took place on the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Theosophical Society. There were high expectations among Theosophists and Star members, mainly due to rumors of significant imminent manifestations related to the World Teacher. The Convention attracted large crowds and wide representation by the international media.
- Lutyens 1975, pp. 223–225; however, not all of those present noticed anything unusual. Krishnamurti later stated that he could not recall details of the incident (Vernon 2001, p. 158).
- New York Times 1926; Washington Post 1926. Report about the 1926 Convention of the United Kingdom Section of the Theosophical Society.
- Los Angeles Times 1926b. This press report considered "the strenuous efforts" of Besant "and her cult" regarding the World Teacher as objects of amusement; in contrast, Krishnamurti was said to "have retained no little common sense despite his recent dip into theosophy".
- Boston Daily Globe 1926. "Whether one believes in this 'second coming' or not, interest is being displayed in this question throughout the world. In many cases representatives of orthodox religious organizations have expressed receptiveness to this belief. ... There is widespread expectation of such an event, which disregards denominational and religious and even national boundaries"; but see NEWCAT – the Library Catalogue of the University of Newcastle, Australia . Retrieved 2015-12-24. [Library holding of a title published c. 1926, that presents an opposing view].
- Lutyens 1975, p. 241. Statement by Besant to the Associated Press.
- Hotchener 1928; Lutyens 1975, pp. 178, 245–246. The renamed organization was headquartered at Castle Eerde. The 18th century castle and 5,000 acres (8 sq mi) of the surrounding estate had been gifted to the OSE in the early 1920s.
- Lutyens 1975, pp. 246, 315 [in "Notes and Sources", note for p. 252]. The new bulletin was edited by Lutyens' mother Emily (née Lady Lytton). Like its predecessor, it also increasingly published or republished articles on a wide array of issues. Again, not all contributors were associated with the Order or with Theosophy; among those was novelist D. H. Lawrence, whose essay "Men and Women" was first published in the Review's November 1929 issue (Lawrence 2004, p. xxx [in "Introduction"]).
- Tillett 1986, p. 766; Lutyens 1975, pp. 257, 258n. In the then–prominent Esoteric Christology of Theosophists, the World Mother corresponded to the Virgin Mary, the World Teacher being the embodiment of the Christ-principle. Rukmini Arundale was to be the World Mother's vehicle; however, the project has also been described as an attempt (by leading Theosophists opposing him) to sideline Krishnamurti, who was by then becoming increasingly vocal in his maverick course (Vernon 2001, pp. 174–175).
- Los Angeles Times 1926a. Krishnamurti interviewed by the Los Angeles Times 25 May 1926, during a visit to Paris.
- Lutyens 1975, p. 257. A Krishnamurti speaking appearance at the Hollywood Bowl (Los Angeles) on 15 May 1928 was attended by 16,000 people. His subject was "Happiness through Liberation".
- Lutyens 1975, chs. "18. The Turning Point"–"21. Climax of the Process" pp. 152–188 [cumulative], 219–222, 236, 265–266, 276. Krishnamurti experienced life-changing events of physical, psychological and spiritual nature starting in 1922. These mystified the leaders of the Theosophical Society who were ultimately unable to explain them, but provided Krishnamurti with an avenue of growth and life independent of Theosophy, the Order, and the Society. Another major factor was Nitya's premature death from tuberculosis in November 1925, which deeply affected Krishnamurti, and had revelatory consequences. His continuing disagreements with leading Theosophists became more acute, despite Besant's efforts for conciliation. She offered to resign as President of the Society, and in 1928, in sympathy with Krishnamurti, closed the Esoteric Section. She reopened it after the dissolution of the Order. See also § Life-altering experiences (in Jiddu Krishnamurti).
- D. Rajagopal 1929b. In the previously official international bulletin of the Order of the Star. The bulletin published several issues post-dissolution, following Krishnamurti's new direction (Lutyens 1975, p. 314 [in "Notes and Sources", note for p. 246]).
- Washington Post 1929.
- Lutyens 1975, p. 272.
- J. Krishnamurti 1929, pp. 3–4.
- Lutyens 1975, pp. 260, 271.
- Lutyens 1975, pp. 277–279, 315 [in "Notes and Sources", notes for pp. 278–279]. Letters by Krishnamurti to Emily Lutyens (December 1929, including reference to reputed quote by Leadbeater) and Annie Besant (February 1930), and reaction of leading Theosophists to the dissolution.
- Vernon 2001, p. 179; Réhault 2006, pp. 9, 10.
- Scott 1930. "[T]he Vehicle stands quite alone." From an editorial in The Manchester Guardian; a related news agency report is in the same issue (The Manchester Guardian 1930).
- Lutyens 1975, pp. 276, 285. Krishnamurti remained on friendly terms with individual members of the Society. In 1980, he visited the Adyar Headquarters after an almost 50-year absence, and "reconciled the rift that seemingly existed between him and the Society" (Rodrigues 2012, p. 470).
- Vernon 2001, pp. 180–181, 186, 213–215.
- J. Krishnamurti 1929, p. 14.
- J. Krishnamurti c. 1980.
- Lutyens 1975, p. 276. Some OSE assets were repurposed for Krishnamurti's continuing work (D. Rajagopal 1929a).
- Weatherby 1986. An obituary of Krishnamurti.
- Tillett 1986, p. 943n.
- Taylor 1992, p. 328; Rodrigues 2012, p. 472. "[M]any ... were wealthy and influential in their countries."
- Roe 1986, p. 288.
- Campbell 1980, pp. 130, 176. Almost half a century later (1980), the Theosophical Society Adyar had about 35,000 members.
- Vernon 2001, pp. 188–189.
- Schüller 2001. "Introduction by the editor". In van der Leeuw (1930), [Alpheus reprint edition]. Annotation, to commentary about the crisis in the Theosophical Society after the dissolution of the Order of the Star. Original 1930 commentary by a prominent Dutch Theosophist; Schüller 1997. Later analysis from a theosophical perspective, examines whether the project may have failed relative only to contemporary expectations; Rodrigues 2012, pp. 477, 482. A non-theosophical evaluation of the project and its consequences. Such evaluations face questions "without unambiguous answers" according to the author. He states, "features of Krishnamurti’s post-Theosophical life aligned itself in certain respects with the dispositions to which he was conditioned as the physical vehicle for 'Lord Maitreya,' but veered away from those dispositions in certain crucial areas".
- Vernon 2001, pp. 268–270. Roland Vernon, a Krishnamurti biographer, comments briefly on contemporary Theosophy. He writes of the changes in the outlook of the Theosophical Society Adyar since the era of Besant and Leadbeater, and of the Society's continuing relationship with, and influence by, Krishnamurti and his message.
- Schüller 2008; Lubelsky 2012, p. 317.
- Djupsjöbacka 2002, pp. 7, § "[Track] 30 The Word of the Master (Alcyone)" 31–32. The lyrics incorporate the epilogue of At the Feet of the Master (Alcyone 1911); Eskola 2015. The work was commissioned by the Theosophical Society in Finland for the parent organization's 50th anniversary. See § Reception (in At the Feet of the Master) for an image of the cover of the original sheet music.
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