Orders, decorations, and medals of Romania

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The National Decorations System of Romania (Romanian: Sistemul Naţional de Decoraţii) is divided into six categories, listed below. It was re-established in 1998, after a 50-year period of during which Romania used a Soviet-style system of decorations. It is very similar to the system used in Romania in the interwar period.

The list is ordered in descending order of the awards' rank in the National System of Decorations.

The system[edit]

National decorations[edit]

  1. Order of the Star of Romania
  2. Ordinul naţional "Serviciul Credincios" — (National Order "Faithful Service");
  3. Ordinul naţional "Pentru Merit" — (National Order "For Merit");
  4. Crucea naţională "Serviciul Credincios" — (National Cross "Faithful Service");
  5. Medalia naţională "Serviciul Credincios" — (National Medal "Faithful Service");
  6. Medalia naţională "Pentru Merit" — (National Medal "For Merit").

Commemorative decorations[edit]

  1. Ordinul "Victoria Revoluţiei Române din Decembrie 1989" — (Order Victory of the Romanian Revolution of December 1989);
  2. Crucea Comemorativa a celui de-al doilea Război Mondial, 1941-1945 — (Commemorative Cross of the Second World War, 1941–1945);
  3. Crucea Comemorativa a Rezistenţei Anticomuniste — (Commemorative Cross of the Anti-communist Resistance);
  4. Medalia Comemorativă "150 de ani de la naşterea lui Mihai Eminescu" — (Commemorative Medal "150 Years from the birth of Mihai Eminescu").

Military decorations in time of peace[edit]

  1. Ordinul "Virtutea Militară" — (The Order "The Military Virtue");
  2. Ordinul "Virtutea Aeronautică" — (The Order "The Aeronautical Virtue");
  3. Ordinul "Virtutea Maritimă" — (The Order "The Matitime Virtue");
  4. Ordinul "Bărbăţie şi Credinţă" — (The Order "Valour and Faith");
  5. Medalia "Virtutea Militară" — (The Medal "The Military Virtue");
  6. Medalia "Virtutea Aeronautică" — (The Medal "The Aeronautical Virtue");
  7. Medalia "Virtutea Maritimă" — (The Medal "The Matitime Virtue");
  8. Medalia "Bărbăţie şi Credinţă" — (The Medal "Valour and Faith").

Civil decorations on domains of activity[edit]

  1. Ordinul "Meritul Agricol" — (The Order "The Agricultural Merit");
  2. Ordinul "Meritul Cultural" — (The Order "The Cultural Merit")[1];
  3. Ordinul "Meritul Diplomatic" — (The Order "The Diplomatic Merit");
  4. Ordinul "Meritul Industrial şi Comercial" — (The Order "The Industrial and Commercial Merit");
  5. Ordinul "Meritul pentru Învăţământ" — (The Order "Merit for the Education");
  6. Ordinul "Meritul Sanitar" — (The Order "The Sanitary Merit");
  7. Ordinul "Meritul Sportiv" — (The Order "The Sportive Merit");
  8. Medalia "Meritul Agricol" — (The Medal "The Agricultural Merit");
  9. Medalia "Meritul Cultural" — (The Medal "The Cultural Merit")[1];
  10. Medalia "Meritul Diplomatic" — (The Medal "The Diplomatic Merit");
  11. Medalia "Meritul Industrial şi Comercial" — (The Medal "The industrial and Commercial Merit");
  12. Medalia "Meritul pentru Învăţământ" — (The Medal "Merit for the Education");
  13. Medalia "Meritul Sanitar" — (The Medal "The Sanitary Merit");
  14. Medalia "Meritul Sportiv" — (The Medal "The Sportive Merit").

[1]"The Cultural Merit" Order and medal are divided into nine equal classes (A to I), corresponding to the cultural field it is awarded. The ribbon of both the Order and the Medal gave the same design (on white background) and stripes of different colors, to identify each class:

categoria A - literatura — category A - literature
categoria B - muzica — category B - music
categoria C - artele plastice — category C - plastic arts
categoria D - arta spectacolului — category D - show arts
categoria E - patrimoniul cultural naţional — category E - national cultural patrimony
categoria F - promovarea culturii — category F - promoting of culture
categoria G - cultele — category G - religious cults
categoria H - cercetarea ştiinţifică — category H - scientific research
categoria I - arhitectura — category I - architecture

Wartime military decorations[edit]

  1. Ordinul "Mihai Viteazul" — (The Order "Mihai Viteazul");
  2. Ordinul naţional "Steaua României" — (Order of the Star of Romania);
  3. Ordinul naţional "Serviciul Credincios" — (National Order "Faithful Service");
  4. Ordinul naţional "Pentru Merit" — (National Order "For Merit");
  5. Crucea naţională "Serviciul Credincios" — (National Cross "Faithful Service");
  6. Medalia naţională "Serviciul Credincios" — (National Medal "Faithful Service");
  7. Medalia naţională "Pentru Merit" — (National Medal "For Merit");
  8. Ordinul "Virtutea Militară" — (The Order "The Military Virtue");
  9. Ordinul "Virtutea Aeronautică" — (The Order "The Aeronautical Virtue");
  10. Ordinul "Virtutea Maritimă" — (The Order "The Matitime Virtue");
  11. Ordinul "Bărbăţie şi Credinţă" — (The Order "Valour and Faith");
  12. Ordinul "Meritul Sanitar" — (The Order "Sanitary Merit");
  13. Medalia "Virtutea Militară" — (The Medal "The Military Virtue");
  14. Medalia "Virtutea Aeronautică" — (The Medal "The Aeronautical Virtue");
  15. Medalia "Virtutea Maritimă" — (The Medal "The Matitime Virtue");
  16. Medalia "Bărbăţie şi Credinţă" — (The Medal "Valour and Faith");
  17. Medalia "Meritul Sanitar" — (The Medal "The Sanitary Merit").

Honorific signs[edit]

  1. Honorific Sign "The Eagle of Romania";
  2. Honorific Sign "The Reward for the Work in the Public Service";
  3. Honorific Sign "In the Service of the Country" for officers and special statute public functionaries;
  4. Honorific Sign "In the Service of the Country" for warrant officers and special statute public functionaries.

Community medals[edit]

Romanian Jewish community[edit]

Kingdom of Romania[edit]

Orders[edit]

Royal Order of Michael the Brave[edit]

See Order of Michael the Brave

Order of Carol I[edit]

See Order of Carol I

Royal Order of the Star of Romania[edit]

See Order of the Star of Romania

Order of the Crown[edit]

See Order of the Crown

Order of Ferdinand I[edit]

Order of Ferdinand I
Ordinul a Ferdinand I
Litera F.jpg
Emblem of the Order
Awarded by Royal standard of Romania (King, 1922 model).svg King of Romania
Type State decoration
Religious affiliation Romanian Orthodox
Ribbon Navy Blue with a Gold stripe in the middle and a thin Red stripe between the Gold.
Eligibility Exclusively for Romanian citizens only.
Awarded for (1) Outstanding contributions to the Union of Transylvania with Romania;
(2) National activity or Military deeds contributing to the union of all Romanians;
(3) Meritorious service to the nation.
Status 18 February 1937 (Dormant)
Abolished
Sovereign King Michael I of Romania
Grades (w/ post-nominals) Knight Grand Cross with Collar
Knight/Dame Grand Cross
Knight/Dame Grand Officer
Knight/Dame Commander
Knight/Dame Officer
Knight/Dame
Established 10 May 1929 (Instituted)
1929–1947 (National Order)
Precedence
Next (higher) Order of the Crown
Next (lower) Royal Order for Merit
Order of Ferdinand I.gif
The Ribbon of the Order

The Order of Ferdinand I (Romanian: Ordinul a Ferdinand I) instituted on the 10th of May 1929 by the four Regency members (Prince Nicholas, Patriarch Miron Cristea, Gheorghe Buzdugan and Constantin Sărăţeanu) of the minor-King Michael I in memory of the late King Ferdinand I and to reward those who contributed to the building of The Greater Romania; The Order was the fifth highest ranking of the Romanian Decorations of the Kingdom of Romania until the abolishment of monarchy in 1947. It fell into disuse into 1937 and was abolished as a National Order during the abolishment of the Romanian Monarchy; The Order wasn't reinstated as Dynastic Order by the Romanian Royal Family as they had done with two other Orders.

Star of the Order

During its time as a National Order it was widely awarded to Members of the Romanian Royal Family, Romanian Prime Ministers, Romanian politicians, Those who through their National activity or Military deeds contributed to the union of all Romanians, Those who in the future would have had extraordinary merits to the country and People thought to be worthy of receiving the order by the King of the Romanians. There are currently no living Recipients of the Order, except for Former King Michael I.

Grades[edit]
  • Grand Cross with Collar - Limited to 8 Knights
  • Grand Cross - Limited to 15 Knights/Dames
  • Officer - Limited to 75 Knights/Dames
  • Knight/Dame - Limited to 100 Knights/Dames

Royal Order for Merit[edit]

See Order For Merit

Romanian House Order of Hohenzollern[edit]

See House Order of Hohenzollern

Order of Bene Merenti of the Royal House[edit]

Order of Bene Merenti of the Royal House
Ordinul Bene Merenti a Casă Regala
Ordinul Bene Merenti cl 2.jpg
Officer Badges of the Order
Awarded by Royal standard of Romania (King, 1922 model).svg King of Romania
Type State decoration
Religious affiliation Romanian Orthodox
Ribbon Silver with a thin black stripe in the middle and either side
Eligibility (1) Civil, Military;
(2) Foreign Citizens
Awarded for (1) Achievements in the fields of Culture, Science, Industry, Agriculture and Services to the King;
(2) Services to the King
Status Abolished on 8 September 1940
Sovereign King Michael I of Romania
Grades (w/ post-nominals) Knight/Dame Commander
Knight/Dame Officer
Knight/Dame
Medal
Established 20 February 1876 (Instituted)
1876 – 1915 (National Decoration)
1915 - 1940 (National Order)
Precedence
Next (higher) Romanian Order of the House of Hohenzollern
Next (lower) Order of Agricultural Merit
Same Order of St. George
Related House Order of Hohenzollern
ROU National Medal for Merit.png
The Ribbon of the Order

The Order of Bene Merenti of the Royal House (Romanian: Ordinul Bene Merenti a Regala Casă) instituted as a Decoration on the 20th of February 1876 by Prince Carol I (later King Carol I of the Kingdom of Romania) during his tenth year of reign as Domnitor or Sovereign Prince of the United Principalities of Romania. The Decoration was changed into an Order on the 16th of December 1915 by King Carol I's nephew King Ferdinand I of Romania; On the 8th of September 1940, the Order was abolished and replaced with the Order of St. George by King Ferdinand I's grandson King Michael I.[4]

Decoration[edit]

The Order, previously a Decoration Medal called: The Decoration of Bene Merenti of the Royal House was based as a separate Romanian version of the House Order of Hohenzollern of the House of Hohenzollern of which Prince Carol I belonged to.

Although intended to honour Civilians, military figures and foreigners of achievements in the fields of Culture, Science, Industry, Agriculture and also Services to the King, the Decoration was barely bestowed upon.[4]

The Decoration was in two types:

  • The Royal Medal - Consisted of three classes of Gold, Silver and Bronze with no specifications.
  • The Life Saving Medal - Consisted of three classes of Silver Gilt, Silver and Bronze with the specifications to award the acts of courage and devotion of those who, at risk of life: saved or attempted to save the life of a person or private or public property.
Order[edit]

The Decoration transformed into an Order under the reign of King Carol I's nephew King Ferdinand I on the 16th of December 1915.

On the 8th of September 1940, the Order was abolished and replaced by the Order of St. George under the reign of King Ferdinand I's grandson King Michael I.[4]

Grades[edit]
  • Commander or 1st Class
  • Officer or 2nd Class
  • Knight/Dame or 3rd Class
  • Medal

Order of St. George[edit]

Order of Saint George
Ordinul a Sfântul Gheorghe
Awarded by Royal standard of Romania (King, 1922 model).svg King of Romania
Type State decoration
Religious affiliation Romanian Orthodox
Ribbon Navy Blue with thin Yellow stripes on the sides.
Eligibility Military
Awarded for Achievements of Service in time of war.
Status Abolished in 1947
Sovereign King Michael I of Romania
Grades (w/ post-nominals) Knight Grand Cross with Collar
Knight Grand Cross
Knight Grand Officer
Knight Commander
Knight Officer
Knight
Established 15 September 1940 (Instituted)
1940 - 1947 (National Order)
Precedence
Next (higher) Romanian House Order of Hohenzollern
Next (lower) Order of Agricultural Merit
Same Order of Bene Merenti of the Royal House
EGY Order of the Nile - Knight BAR.png
The Ribbon of the Order

Order[edit]

The Order was instituted by King Michael I of Romania on the 15th of September 1940, 9 days after his second accession as King of Romania; The Order replaced the Order of Bene Merenti of the Royal House.

The Order was the second highest Military award after the Order of Michael the Brave and was intended for Military figures who made "Achievements of Service in time of war", however the Order was never awarded.

The Order was abolished during the abolishment of the Romanian Monarchy in 1947 and hasn't been reinstated as a Dynastic Order of the Decorations of the Romanian Royal House by Former King Michael I.

Grades[edit]

  • Knight Grand Cross with Collar
  • Knight Grand Cross
  • Knight Grand Officer
  • Knight Commander
  • Knight Officer
  • Knight

Royal Order of Agricultural Merit[edit]

Order of Agricultural Merit
Ordinul a Agricol Merit
Romana Order of agricultural.jpg
Star of the Order
Awarded by Royal standard of Romania (King, 1922 model).svg King of Romania
Type State decoration
Religious affiliation Romanian Orthodox
Ribbon Green with a Gold stripe in the Middle.
Eligibility Romanian and Foreign Citizens
Awarded for Outstanding contributions to Agriculture.
Status Abolished in 1947
Sovereign King Michael I of Romania
Grades (w/ post-nominals) Sovereign Knight Grand Officer
Knight/Dame Commander
Knight/Dame Officer
Knight/Dame
Medals
Precedence
Next (higher) Order of St. George
Next (lower) Order of Faithful Service]
Related Decorations of Culture
Ribbon Meritul comercial si industrial.png
The Ribbon of the Order

The Order was established to intend to award Romanian and Foreign Civilians who made "Outstanding contributions to Agriculture", especially after the Great Depression in which Romania was steadily progressing from.

The Order was abolished during the abolishment of the Romanian Monarchy in 1947.

The Order was reinstated during the Socialist Republic of Romania, See Socialist Order of Agriculture and abolished after the Romanian Revolution.

On the 31st of March 2000, the Order was reinstated again, See Republican Order of Agriculture.

Royal Order of Faithful Service[edit]

See Order of Faithful Service

Royal Order of Military Virtue[edit]

See Order of Military Virtue

Royal Order of Aeronautical Virtue[edit]

Royal Order of Aeronautical Virtue
Regala Ordinul a Virtutea Aeronautică
Ordinul Virtutea Aeronautica Comandor 1930 (avers).jpg
Commander's Necklet of the Order
Awarded by Royal standard of Romania (King, 1922 model).svg King of Romania
Type Military Decoration
Religious affiliation Romanian Orthodox
Ribbon Pale Blue with thin White Gold stripes on either side and in the middle
Eligibility (1) Civil, Military;
(2) Members of the Royal Romanian Air Force and Air Cadets.
Awarded for (1) Acts of Bravery or Valour in the air;
(2) Achievements in Aviation.
Status Abolished in 1947
Sovereign King Michael I of Romania
Chancellor Chief of the Romanian Royal Air Force
Grades (w/ post-nominals) Knight Commander
Knight Officer
Knight
Medal
Established 31 July 1930 (Instituted)
1930 – 1947 (National Order)
Precedence
Next (higher) Royal Order of Faithful Service

Next (lower) Order of the Cross of Queen Marie
Same Royal Order of Military Virtue
Order[edit]

The Order was established on the 31st of July 1930 by Carol II as the fourth highest Military Award after the Order of Michael the Brave and the Order of St. George

The Order was intended to award Civilian and Military air personnel as well as Members of the Royal Romanian Air Force and Air Cadets in times of Peace and War.

The Order was abolished during the abolishment of the Romanian Monarchy in 1947.

On the 31st of March 2000, the Order was re-established, See Republican Order of Aeronautical Virtue.

Grades[edit]
  • Commander or 1st Class
  • Officer or 2nd Class
  • Knight or 3rd Class
  • Medal
Insignia[edit]

The badge of the Order was based on the same design of the Order of Michael the Brave, however with a small shield of the Lesser Coat of arms of Romania in the middle of the badge.

Order of the Cross of Queen Marie[edit]

Order of the Cross of Queen Marie
Ordinul a Crucea a Regina Maria
Kruis van Koningin Maria van Roemenië 1917 Ie Klasse aan het Oorlogslint.gif
Commander's Necklet of the Order.
Awarded by Royal standard of Romania (King, 1922 model).svg King of Romania
Type Military Decoration
Religious affiliation Romanian Orthodox
Ribbon Bright Orange.
Eligibility Civil, Military.
Awarded for Merit in Medical work in Wars and in Peacetime.
Status Abolished in 1947
Sovereign King Michael I of Romania
Grand Master Queen Marie, Queen Grandmother of Romania
Chancellor Chief of the Romanian Royal Air Force
Grades (w/ post-nominals) Knight Commander
Knight Officer
Knight
Medal
Established 17 March 1917 (Instituted)
1930 – 1947 (National Order)
Precedence
Next (higher) Royal Order of Military Virtue
Royal Order of Aeronautical Virtue
Next (lower) Royal Order of the Eagle of Romania
The Order of the Phoenix of Tonga.gif
The Ribbon of the Order

The Order of the Cross of Marie (Romanian: Ordinul a Crucea a Regina Marie) instituted on the 15th of February 1917 by King Ferdinand I of Romania as the fifth and lowest Military Award, for Grand Mastership of his wife Princess Marie of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Edinburgh, who was a Nurse in Military hospitals as well as led The Romanian Red Cross in World War I.

The Order was established to award Civil and Military Personnel of Merit in Medical work in Wars and in Peacetime working in the same field as Queen Marie.

The Order was abolished during the abolishment of the Romanian Monarchy in 1947 and hasn't been reinstated as a Dynastic Order of the Decorations of the Romanian Royal House by Former King Michael I.

Grades[edit]
  • Commander or 1st Class
  • Officer or 2nd Class
  • Knight or 3rd Class

Royal Order of the Eagle of Romania[edit]

See Order of the Eagle of Romania

Decorations[edit]

Decoration of the Cross of Queen Elisabeth[edit]

Decoration of the Cross of Queen Elisabeth
Decoratia a Crucea a Regina Elisabeta
Awarded by Royal standard of Romania (King, 1922 model).svg King of Romania
Type State decoration
Religious affiliation Romanian Orthodox
Ribbon Pale Blue with thin Gold stripes on the end of either side.
Eligibility Exclusively for Romanian women only.
Awarded for Outstanding contributions or services to the wounded, sick, ambulances and hospitals.
Status Abolished in 1947
Sovereign King Michael I of Romania
Grades (w/ post-nominals) Dame
Established 6 October 1878 (Instituted)
1878 - 1947 (National Order)
Precedence
Next (higher) Royal Order of the Eagle of Romania
Next (lower) Decoration of the Cross of Sanitary Merit
Bareta Crucea Elisabeta.png
The Ribbon of the Decoration

The Decoration of the Cross of Queen Elisabeth (Romanian: Decoratia a Crucea a Regina Elisabeta) was a Decoration established by Prince Carol I of Romania by Royal Decree: 2270 of 6 October 1878 for his wife Princess Elisabeth of Wied to award Romanian women she deemed to have achieved outstanding service of Caring for the wounded and sick, whether directly in ambulances and hospital campaigns or indirectly and also through donations or other actions.[5]

The Decoration was abolished during the abolishment of the Romanian Monarchy in 1947 and hasn't been reinstated as a Dynastic Decoration of the Decorations of the Romanian Royal House by Former King Michael I.

Decoration of the Cross of Sanitary Merit[edit]

Decoration of the Cross of Sanitary Merit
Decoratia a Crucea a Meritul Sanitar
Awarded by Royal standard of Romania (King, 1922 model).svg King of Romania
Type Chivalric state Decoration
Religious affiliation Romanian Orthodox
Ribbon White with thin Red lines at either side.
Eligibility Civil, Military
Awarded for Outstanding Donors, Writers or other acts and work that contributes to improving the health status of the country.
Status Abolished in 1947
Sovereign King Michael I of Romania
Grades (w/ post-nominals) Knight/Dame
Member
Established 25 November 1913 (Instituted)
1913 - 1947 (National Decoration)
Precedence
Next (higher) Decoration of the Cross of Queen Elisabeth
Next (lower) Decoration of the Cross of The Danube
Ribbon Meritul Sanitar civil.png
Peactime
Ribbon Meritul Sanitar war.png
Wartime
The Ribbons of the Decoration

The Decoration of the Cross of Sanitary Merit (Romanian: Decoratia a Crucea a Meritul Sanitar) was a Decoration established by King Carol I of Romania by Royal Decree: 6471 of 25 November 1913 for his wife Princess Elisabeth of Wied to award Romanian Men, Women and Organisations deemed to be working outstandingly to improve the health status of the country.[5][6]

The Decoration was abolished during the abolishment of the Romanian Monarchy in 1947 and hasn't been reinstated as a Dynastic Decoration of the Decorations of the Romanian Royal House by Former King Michael I.

Decoration of the Cross of The Danube[edit]

Decoration of the Cross of The Danube
Decoratia Trecerii Dunarii
Awarded by Royal standard of Romania (King, 1922 model).svg King of Romania
Type Chivalric state Decoration
Religious affiliation Romanian Orthodox
Ribbon Bright Red and Black.
Eligibility Civil, Military
Awarded for Outstanding leadership and contributions in the Romanian War of Independence
Status Abolished in 1947
Sovereign King Michael I of Romania
Grades (w/ post-nominals) Knight
Member
Established 23 March 1878 (Instituted)
1878 - 1947 (National Decoration)
Precedence
Next (higher) Decoration of the Cross of Sanitary Merit
Bareta Crucea Trecerea Dunării - civil.png
Civil
Bareta Crucea Trecerea Dunării - militar.png
Military
The Ribbons of the Decoration

The Decoration of the Cross of The Danube (Romanian: Decoratia a Crucea a Danube) was a Decoration established by Prince Carol I of Romania by Royal Decree: 617 of 23 March 1878 to award individuals of outstanding leadership and contributions in the Romanian War of Independence.

The Decoration was later awarded to very few individuals who were deemed to prove great leadership.[5]

The Decoration was named after the Danube River where The Romanian Army fought the Ottoman Imperial Army.[7]

The Decoration was abolished during the abolishment of the Romanian Monarchy in 1947 and hasn't been reinstated as a Dynastic Decoration of the Decorations of the Romanian Royal House by Former King Michael I.

See also[edit]

References[edit]