Orders of magnitude (molar concentration)

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This page lists examples of the orders of magnitude of molar concentration. Source values are parenthesized where unit conversions were performed.

All orders[edit]

List of orders of magnitude for molar concentration
Factor (Molarity) SI prefix Value Item
10−24 yM 1.66 yM 1 elementary entity per litre[1]
8.5 yM airborne bacteria in the upper troposphere (5100/m3)[2]
10−23
10−22
10−21 zM 3.6 zM solar neutrinos on Earth (6.5×1010 /cm2⋅s)[3]
10−20 12 zM radon in ambient, outdoor air in the United States (0.4 pCi/L7000/L)[4]
10−19 120 zM indoor radon at the EPA's "action level" (4 pCi/L70000/L)[5]
686 zM cosmic microwave background photons in outer space (413/cm3)[6]
10−18 aM
10−17
10−16
10−15 fM 2 fM bacteria in surface seawater (1×109/L)[7]
10−14 20 fM virions in surface layer North Atlantic seawater (10×109/L)[8]
50–100 fM gold in seawater[9]
10−13
10−12 pM 7.51–9.80 pM normal range for erythrocytes in blood in an adult male ((4.52–5.90)×1012/L)[10][11]
10−11 10–100 pM gold in undersea hydrothermal fluids[9]
10−10 170 pM upper bound for healthy insulin when fasting[12]
10−9 nM 5 nM inhaled osmium tetroxide is immediately dangerous to life or health (1 mg Os/m3)[13]
10−8
10−7 101 nM hydronium and hydroxide ions in pure water at 25 °C (pKW = 13.99)[14]
10−6 µM
10−5
10−4 180–480 µM normal range for uric acid in blood[10]
570 µM inhaled carbon monoxide induces unconsciousness in 2–3 breathes and death in < 3 min (12800 ppm)[15]
10−3 mM 0.32–32 mM normal range of hydronium ions in stomach acid (pH 1.5–3.5)[16]
5.5 mM upper bound for healthy blood glucose when fasting[17]
7.8 mM upper bound for healthy blood glucose 2 hours after eating[17]
10−2 cM 20 mM neutrinos during a supernova, AU from the core (1058 over 10 s)[18]
44.6 mM pure ideal gas at 0 °C and 101.325 kPa[19]
10−1 dM 140 mM sodium ions in blood plasma[10]
480 mM sodium ions in seawater[20]
100 M
101 daM 40 M pure solid hydrogen (86 g/L)[21]
55.5 M pure water at 3.984 °C, its maximum atmospheric value (0.9999720 g/cm3)[22]
102 hM 118.8 M pure osmium at 20 °C (22.587 g/cm3)[23]
103 kM
104 24 kM helium in the solar core (150 g/cm365%)[24]
105
106 MM
107
108 122.2 MM nuclei in a white dwarf from a M progenitor star (106.349 g/cm3)[25]
109 GM
1010
1011
1012 TM
1013
1014
1015 PM
1016
1017 228 PM nucleons in atomic nuclei (2.3×1017 kg/m3 = 1.37×1044/m3)[26]
1018 EM
1077 3.9×1077 M the Planck concentration (2.4×10104/m3), inverse of the Planck volume

SI multiples[edit]

SI multiples of molar (M)
Submultiples Multiples
Value SI symbol Name Value SI symbol Name
10−1 M dM decimolar 101 M daM decamolar
10−2 M cM centimolar 102 M hM hectomolar
10−3 M mM millimolar 103 M kM kilomolar
10−6 M µM micromolar 106 M MM megamolar
10−9 M nM nanomolar 109 M GM gigamolar
10−12 M pM picomolar 1012 M TM teramolar
10−15 M fM femtomolar 1015 M PM petamolar
10−18 M aM attomolar 1018 M EM examolar
10−21 M zM zeptomolar 1021 M ZM zettamolar
10−24 M yM yoctomolar 1024 M YM yottamolar

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1/L ÷ NA1.66 yM
  2. ^ DeLeon-Rodriguez, Natasha; Lathem, Terry L.; Rodriguez-R, Luis M.; Barazesh, James M.; Anderson, Bruce E.; Beyersdorf, Andreas J.; Ziemba, Luke D.; Bergin, Michael; Nenes, Athanasios; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T. (12 February 2013). "Microbiome of the upper troposphere: Species composition and prevalence, effects of tropical storms, and atmospheric implications". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 110 (7): 2575–2580. Bibcode:2013PNAS..110.2575D. doi:10.1073/pnas.1212089110. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 3574924. PMID 23359712. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
  3. ^ Bahcall, John N.; Serenelli, Aldo M.; Basu, Sarbani (1 March 2005). "New Solar Opacities, Abundances, Helioseismology, and Neutrino Fluxes". The Astrophysical Journal. 621 (1): L85–L88. arXiv:astro-ph/0412440. Bibcode:2005ApJ...621L..85B. doi:10.1086/428929.
  4. ^ "Radon Toxicity Case Study: What are the Standards and Regulations for Environmental Radon Levels? | ATSDR - Environmental Medicine & Environmental Health Education - CSEM". www.atsdr.cdc.gov. CDC. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  5. ^ Basic Radon Facts (Report). United States Environmental Protection Agency. July 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
  6. ^ Smoot, George F. (13 May 1997). "The Cosmic Microwave Background Spectrum". arXiv:astro-ph/9705101. Bibcode:1997astro.ph..5101S.
  7. ^ Gamfeldt, Lars; Lefcheck, Jonathan S.; Byrnes, Jarrett E. K.; Cardinale, Bradley J.; Duffy, J. Emmett; Griffin, John N. (March 2015). "Marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: what's known and what's next?". Oikos. 124 (3): 252–265. doi:10.1111/oik.01549.
  8. ^ Bergh, Øivind; Børsheim, Knut Yngve; Bratbak, Gunnar; Heldal, Mikal (August 1989). "High abundance of viruses found in aquatic environments". Nature. 340 (6233): 467–468. Bibcode:1989Natur.340..467B. doi:10.1038/340467a0. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 2755508. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  9. ^ a b Kenison Falkner, K.; Edmond, J. M. (1 May 1990). "Gold in seawater". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 98 (2): 208–221. Bibcode:1990E&PSL..98..208K. doi:10.1016/0012-821X(90)90060-B. ISSN 0012-821X. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  10. ^ a b c Reference ranges for blood tests
  11. ^ "Erythrocyte Count (RBC): Reference Range, Interpretation, Collection and Panels". Medscape. 7 January 2017. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  12. ^ "Insulin: Reference Range, Interpretation, Collection and Panels". Medscape. WebMD. 22 April 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
  13. ^ "CDC - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH): Osmium tetroxide (as Os) - NIOSH Publications and Products". www.cdc.gov. CDC. 2 November 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  14. ^ Bandura, Andrei V.; Lvov, Serguei N. (2006). "The Ionization Constant of Water over Wide Ranges of Temperature and Density" (PDF). Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data. 35 (1): 15–30. Bibcode:2006JPCRD..35...15B. doi:10.1063/1.1928231.
  15. ^ Goldstein, Mark (December 2008). "Carbon Monoxide Poisoning". Journal of Emergency Nursing. 34 (6): 538–542. doi:10.1016/j.jen.2007.11.014. PMID 19022078.
  16. ^ Marieb EN, Hoehn K (2010). Human anatomy & physiology. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings. ISBN 978-0-8053-9591-4.
  17. ^ a b "Type 2 diabetes - Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic". www.mayoclinic.org.
  18. ^ "nature physics portal - looking back - Neutrinos and neutrino mass from a supernova". www.nature.com. Nature Publishing Group 2006. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  19. ^ Vm = 8.3145 × 273.15 / 101.325 = 22.414 dm3/mol
  20. ^ 0.469 mol/kg at an average density of 1.025 kg/L
  21. ^ Dewar, James (1899). "Sur la solidification de l'hydrogène". Annales de Chimie et de Physique. 18: 145–150.
  22. ^ Franks, Felix, ed. (1974). The Physics and Physical Chemistry of Water (2 ed.). New York: Plenum Press. p. 376. ISBN 9781468483345.
  23. ^ Arblaster, J. W. (1995). "Osmium, the Densest Metal Known". Platinum Metals Review. 39 (4): 164.
  24. ^ "Helio- and Asteroseismology". solar-center.stanford.edu. Stanford SOLAR Center. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  25. ^ Fields, C. E.; Farmer, R.; Petermann, I.; Iliadis, C.; Timmes, F. X. (20 May 2016). "Properties of Carbon-Oxygen White Dwarfs From Monte Carlo Stellar Models". The Astrophysical Journal. 823 (1): 46. arXiv:1603.06666. Bibcode:2016ApJ...823...46F. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/823/1/46.
  26. ^ "The Atomic Nucleus". www.cyberphysics.co.uk. Retrieved 26 November 2018.