Orders of magnitude (power)

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This page lists examples of the power in watts produced by various sources of energy. They are grouped by orders of magnitude, and each section covers three orders of magnitude, or a factor of one thousand.

Below 1 watt[edit]

Below 1 yoctowatt[edit]

Yoctowatt (10−24 watt)[edit]

Zeptowatt (10−21 watt)[edit]

Attowatt (10−18 watt)[edit]

Femtowatt (10−15 watt)[edit]

  • 2.5 fW – tech: minimum discernible signal at the antenna terminal of a good FM radio receiver
  • 10 fW (−110 dBm) – tech: approximate lower limit of power reception on digital spread-spectrum cell phones

Picowatt (10−12 watt)[edit]

Nanowatt (10−9 watt)[edit]

  • 2–15 nW – tech: power consumption of 8-bit PIC microcontroller chips when in "sleep" mode

Microwatt (10−6 watt)[edit]

Milliwatt (10−3 watt)[edit]

  • 5 mW – tech: laser in a CD-ROM drive
  • 5–10 mW – tech: laser in a DVD player
  • 70 mW – tech: antenna power in a typical consumer wireless router
  • 500 mW - tech: maximum allowed carrier output power of an FRS radio

Between 1 and 1000 watts[edit]

Watt[edit]

  • 2 W – tech: maximum allowed carrier power output of a MURS radio
  • 4 W – tech: the power consumption of an incandescent night light
  • 4 W – tech: maximum allowed carrier power output of a 10-meter CB radio
  • 8 W – tech: human-powered equipment using a hand crank.[4]
  • 14 W – tech: the power consumption of a typical household compact fluorescent light bulb
  • 20–40 W – biomed: approximate power consumption of the human brain[5]
  • 30–40 W – tech: the power consumption of a typical household fluorescent tube light
  • 60 W – tech: the power consumption of a typical household incandescent light bulb
  • 100 W – biomed: approximate basal metabolic rate of an adult human body[6]
  • 120 W – tech: electric power output of 1 m2 solar panel in full sunlight (approx. 12% efficiency), at sea level
  • 130 W – tech: peak power consumption of a Pentium 4 CPU
  • 200 W – tech: stationary bicycle average power output[7][8]
  • 290 W – units: approximately 1000 BTU/hour
  • 300–400 W – tech: PC GPU Nvidia Geforce Fermi 480 peak power consumption[9]
  • 400 W – tech: legal limit of power output of an amateur radio station in the United Kingdom
  • 500 W – biomed: power output (useful work plus heat) of a person working hard physically
  • 745.7 W – units: 1 horsepower[10]
  • 750 W – astro: approximately the amount of sunshine falling on a square metre of the Earth's surface at noon on a clear day in March for northern temperate latitudes
  • 909 W – biomed: peak output power of a healthy human (non athlete) during a 30-second cycle sprint at 30.1 degree Celsius.[11]

Above 1000 watts[edit]

Kilowatt (103 watts)[edit]

  • 1 kW to 3 kW – tech: heat output of a domestic electric kettle
  • 1.1 kW – tech: power of a microwave oven
  • 1.366 kW – astro: power per square metre received from the Sun at the Earth's orbit
  • 1.5 kW – tech: legal limit of power output of an amateur radio station in the United States
  • up to 2 kW – biomed: approximate short-time power output of sprinting professional cyclists and weightlifters doing snatch lifts
  • 2.4 kW (21,283 kWh/year) – geo: average power consumption per person worldwide in 2008
  • 3.3–6.6 kW – eco: average photosynthetic power output per square kilometer of ocean[12]
  • 3.6 kW – tech: synchrotron radiation power lost per ring in the Large Hadron Collider at 7000 GeV[3]
  • 10 kW to 50 kW – tech: nominal power of clear channel AM[13]
  • 10.0 kW (87,216 kWh/year) – eco: average power consumption per person in the United States in 2008
  • 16–32 kW – eco: average photosynthetic power output per square kilometer of land[12]
  • 30 kW – tech: power generated by the four motors of GEN H-4 one-man helicopter
  • 40 kW to 200 kW – tech: approximate range of power output of typical automobiles
  • 50 kW to 100 kW – tech: highest allowed ERP for an FM band radio station in the United States[14]
  • 167 kW – tech: power consumption of UNIVAC 1 computer
  • 250 kW to 800 kW – tech: approximate range of power output of 'supercars'
  • 450 kW – tech: approximate maximum power output of a large 18-wheeler truck engine

Megawatt (106 watts)[edit]

  • 1.3 MW – tech: power output of P-51 Mustang fighter aircraft
  • 1.5 MW – tech: peak power output of GE's standard wind turbine
  • 2.4 MW – tech: peak power output of a Princess Coronation class steam locomotive (approx 3.3K EDHP on test) (1937)
  • 2.5 MW – biomed: peak power output of a blue whale
  • 3 MW – tech: mechanical power output of a diesel locomotive
  • 7MW - tech: mechanical power output of a Top Fuel dragster
  • 10 MW – tech: highest ERP allowed for an UHF television station
  • 10.3 MW – geo: electrical power output of Togo
  • 12.2 MW – tech: approx power available to a Eurostar 20-carriage train
  • 16 MW – tech: rate at which a typical gasoline pump transfers chemical energy to a vehicle
  • 26 MW – tech: peak power output of the reactor of a Los Angeles-class nuclear submarine
  • 75 MW – tech: maximum power output of one GE90 jet engine as installed on the Boeing 777
  • 140 MW – tech: average power consumption of a Boeing 747 passenger aircraft
  • 190 MW – tech: peak power output of a Nimitz-class aircraft carrier
  • 900 MW – tech: electric power output of a CANDU nuclear reactor
  • 959 MW – geo: average electrical power consumption of Zimbabwe in 1998

The productive capacity of electrical generators operated by utility companies is often measured in MW. Few things can sustain the transfer or consumption of energy on this scale; some of these events or entities include: lightning strikes, naval craft (such as aircraft carriers and submarines), engineering hardware, and some scientific research equipment (such as supercolliders and large lasers).

For reference, about 10,000 100-watt lightbulbs or 5,000 computer systems would be needed to draw 1 MW. Also, 1 MW is approximately 1360 horsepower. Modern high-power diesel-electric locomotives typically have a peak power of 3–5 MW, while a typical modern nuclear power plant produces on the order of 500–2000 MW peak output.

Gigawatt (109 watts)[edit]

  • 1.3 GW – tech: electric power output of Manitoba Hydro Limestone hydroelectric generating station
  • 2.074 GW – tech: peak power generation of Hoover Dam
  • 2.1 GW – tech: peak power generation of Aswan Dam
  • 4.116 GW – tech: installed capacity of Kendal Power Station, the world's largest coal-fired power plant.
  • 8.21 GW – tech: capacity of the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant, the world's largest nuclear power plant.[15][16]
  • 10.7 GW – tech: estimated energy production of Costa Rica for 2015[17]
  • 11.7 GW – tech: power produced by the Space Shuttle in liftoff configuration (9.875 GW from the SRBs; 1.9875 GW from the SSMEs.)[18]
  • 12.6 GW – tech: electrical power generation of the Itaipu Dam
  • 12.7 GW – geo: average electrical power consumption of Norway in 1998
  • 18.3 GW – tech: peak electrical power generation of the Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest hydroelectric power plant of any type.
  • 22.4 GW - tech: peak power of all German solar panels (at noon on a cloudless day), researched by the Fraunhofer ISE research institute in 2014 [2]
  • 55 GW – tech: peak daily electrical power consumption of Great Britain in November 2008.[19]
  • 73.1 GW - tech: total installed power capacity of Turkey on December 31, 2015.[20]
  • 74 GW – tech: total installed wind turbine capacity at end of 2006.[21]
  • 101.6 GW – tech: peak electrical power consumption of France (February 8, 2012 at 7:00 pm)
  • 166 GW – tech: average power consumption of the first stage of the Saturn V rocket.[22][23]
  • 700 GW – biomed: humankind basal metabolic rate as of 2013 (7 billion people).

Terawatt (1012 watts)[edit]

Petawatt (1015 watts)[edit]

Exawatt (1018 watts)[edit]

In a keynote presentation, NIF & Photon Science Chief Technology Officer Chris Barty described the "Nexawatt" Laser, an exawatt (1,000-petawatt) laser concept based on NIF technologies, on April 13 at the SPIE Optics + Optoelectronics 2015 Conference in Prague. Barty also gave an invited talk on "Laser-Based Nuclear Photonics" at the SPIE meeting.[29]

Zettawatt (1021 watts)[edit]

Yottawatt (1024 watts)[edit]

  • 33.8 YW – tech: peak power output of the Tsar Bomba, the largest nuclear weapon ever built.[30]
  • 10-100 YW – geo: estimated total power output of a Type-II civilization on the Kardashev scale.
  • 384.6 YW – astro: luminosity of the Sun

Greater than one thousand yottawatts[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Nanoelectromechanical systems face the future". Physics World. February 1, 2001. 
  2. ^ "article was originally published as Los Alamos research paper LAUR-03-6163". December 2003. 
  3. ^ a b CERN. Beam Parameters and Definitions". Table 2.2. Retrieved September 13, 2008
  4. ^ dtic.mil - harvesting energy with hand-crank generators to support dismounted soldier missions, 2004-12-xx
  5. ^ http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2001/JacquelineLing.shtml
  6. ^ (PDF) https://web.archive.org/web/20081217040211/http://www.gearypacific.com/ComfortZone/14%20The%20People%20Load.pdf. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 17, 2008. Retrieved March 17, 2008.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  7. ^ alternative-energy-news.info - The Pedal-A-Watt Stationary Bicycle Generator, January 11, 2010
  8. ^ econvergence.net - The Pedal-A-Watt Bicycle Generator Stand Buy one or build with detailed plans., 2012
  9. ^ "GeForce GTX 480 Tortured by FurMark: 300W and Earplugs Required!". Geeks3D.com. March 28, 2010. Retrieved August 9, 2010. 
  10. ^ DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Classical Physics. USDOE. 1992. pp. CP–05, Page 9. OSTI 10170060. 
  11. ^ Ball, D; Burrows C; Sargeant AJ (March 1999). "Human power output during repeated sprint cycle exercise: the influence of thermal stress.". Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 79 (4): 360–6. PMID 10090637. 
  12. ^ a b http://www.fao.org/docrep/w7241e/w7241e05.htm
  13. ^ http://www.fcc.gov/mb/audio/amclasses.html
  14. ^ http://www.fcc.gov/mb/audio/fmclasses.html
  15. ^ http://www.controleng.com/blog/820000282/post/1100035510.html
  16. ^ http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/Japan/Electricity.html
  17. ^ "Costa Rica has been running on 100% renewable energy for 2 months straight". 
  18. ^ http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2001/StaverieBoundouris.shtml
  19. ^ National Grid electricity consumption statistics
  20. ^ Turkish Electricity Transmission Company's Installed Capacity Statistics
  21. ^ World Wind Energy Association Statistics (PDF).
  22. ^ Annamalai, Kalyan; Ishwar Kanwar Puri (2006). Combustion Science and Engineering. CRC Press. p. 851. ISBN 978-0-8493-2071-2. 
  23. ^ https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Saturn_v_schematic.jpg
  24. ^ [1] – Nasa: Listening to shortwave radio signals from Jupiter
  25. ^ U.S energy consumption by source, 1949–2005, Energy Information Administration accessed May 25, 2007
  26. ^ Dumé, Belle (July 27, 2005). "Geoneutrinos make their debut". Physics World. Figure 1 Radiogenic heat in the Earth 
  27. ^ "上海超强超短激光达到国际领先水平". 
  28. ^ eli-beams.eu: Lasers
  29. ^ https://lasers.llnl.gov/news/papers-presentations#barty
  30. ^ http://prezi.com/h0cxhu__7y7f/robert-oppenheimer-czar-bomb/ Tsar Bomba's 33.8 YW estimate by J. Robert Oppenheimer
  31. ^ http://arxiv.org/abs/0809.0754
  32. ^ http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0311488
  33. ^ http://arxiv.org/abs/1311.5734