Orders of magnitude (speed)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
This article needs additional citations for verification. (May 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
List of orders of magnitude for speed
|Factor (m/s)||Value (m/s)||Value (km/h)||Value (mph)||Value (c)||Item|
|10−18||2.2×10−18||7.8×10−18||4.9×10−18||7.3×10−27||Expansion rate between 2 points in free space 1 m apart under Hubble's law.|
|10−13||1×10−13||3×10−13||2×10−13||3×10−22||Rate of erosion of Bedrock.|
|10−11||9.8×10−11||3.5×10−10||2.2×10−10||3.2×10−19||Rate of global sea level rise in 1993–2003 (3.1 mm/yr).|
|10−10||3×10−10 to 3×10−9||1×10−9 to 1×10−8||7×10−10 to 7×10−9||1×10−18 to 1×10−17||Typical relative speed of continental drift.|
|10−9||1.3×10−9||4.7×10−9||2.9×10−9||4.3×10−18||Average rate of the Moon receding from the Earth (approx. 38 mm/yr).|
|4.8×10−9||1.7×10−8||1.1×10−8||1.6×10−17||Human hair growth (average rate—note that there is a great range of variation).|
|10−6||1.52×10−6||5.4×10−6||3.4×10−6||5.1×10−15||Speed of a cellular vesicle propelled by a motor protein.|
|10−5||1.02×10−5||3.67×10−5||2.28×10−5||3.40×10−14||Speed of the tip of a 7 cm (2.8 in)-long hour hand on a clock.|
|1.4×10−5||5.0×10−5||3.1×10−5||4.6×10−14||Growth rate of bamboo, the fastest-growing woody plant, over 24 hours.|
|10−4||4.0×10−4||1.4×10−3||8.9×10−4||1.3×10−12||Speed of Jakobshavn Isbræ, one of the fastest glaciers, in 2003.|
|6×10−4||2.2×10−3||1.3×10−3||2×10−12||Typical speed of Thiovulum majus, the fastest-swimming bacterium.|
|10−3||0.00275||0.00990||0.00615||9.17×10−12||World record speed of the fastest snail in the Congham, UK.|
|10−2||0.0476||0.171||0.106||1.58×10−10||Compact cassette tape speed.|
|0.080||0.29||0.18||2.6×10−10||The top speed of a sloth.|
|0.5144||1.852||1.151||1.716×10−9||1 knot (nautical mile per hour)|
|100||1.2||4.32||2.68||Typical scanning speed of an audio compact disc; the speed of signals (action potentials) traveling along axons in the human cortex.|
|1–1.5||3.6–5.4||2.2–3.4||3.3–5.0×10−9||Average walking speed—below a speed of about 2 m/s, it is more efficient to walk than to run, but above that speed, it is more efficient to run.|
|2.39||8.53||5.35||7.97×10−9||World record time 50m freestyle swim|
|4.98||16.89||10.16||1.66×10−8||Average running speed|
|5.72||20.42||12.80||1.90×10−8||World record time marathon|
|6–7||20–25||12–15||1.8–2.3×10−8||Comfortable bicycling speed.|
|101||10.438||37.578||23.35||3.48×10−8||Average speed of Jamaican athlete Usain Bolt while setting the 100m world record in Berlin on 16 August 2009.|
|12.42||44.72||27.78||4.14×10−8||Top speed reached by Bolt during the same race.|
|8–14||30–50||18–31||2.7–4.6×10−8||Typical residential speed limit; top speed of a running cat or dog.|
|14||50||31||Typical speed of road-race cyclist.|
|17||60||37||Typical speed of thoroughbred racehorse or racing greyhound.|
|5–25||18–90||11–56||Speed of propagation for unmyelinated sensory neurons.|
|30||110||70||Typical speed of car (freeway); cheetah—fastest of all terrestrial animals; sailfish—fastest fish; speed of go-fast boat.|
|35||125||80||Average speed of a car.|
|37.16||133.78||83.13||1.240×10−7||Land speed record for a human powered vehicle.|
|40||140||90||Typical peak speed of a local service train (or intercity on lower standard tracks).|
|54||195||122||1.8×10−7||Maximum speed a human can attain during a face-down free-fall.|
|67||240||149||The top speed of the world's fastest roller coaster, Formula Rossa.|
|90||320||200||3×10−7||Typical speed of a modern high-speed train (e.g. latest generation of production TGV); a diving peregrine falcon—fastest bird; 320 km/h or 200 mph is a parameter sometimes used in defining a supercar.|
|91||328||204||3.04×10−7||Fastest recorded ball (a golf ball) in sports.|
|102||99.019||356.4||221.5||Maximum speed recorded by a MotoGP motorcycle. Set by Andrea Dovizioso during the 2018 Italian Grand Prix at Mugello Circuit in a Ducati Desmosedici GP18.|
|103||370||230||Speed of super torpedo VA-111 Shkval.|
|103.5||372.6||231.5||3.452×10−7||Maximum speed recorded by a Formula One car. Set by Juan Pablo Montoya during the 2005 Italian Grand Prix at Monza in a McLaren MP4-20.|
|105.5||379.8||236||Maximum speed of a Ferrari F50 GT1.|
|113||408||254||Fastest non-tornadic wind gust recorded on Earth - at Barrow Island, Australia on 1996-04-10 during Severe Tropical Cyclone Olivia.|
|119.742||431.072||267.86||Maximum speed of the Bugatti Veyron Super Sport.|
|120||432||270||4.0×10−7||Speed of propagation for mammalian motor neurons.|
|124.219||447.19||277.87||Maximum speed of the Koenigsegg Agera RS (currently the fastest production car in the world).|
|130||468||290||Wind speed of a powerful tornado.|
|150.6||539||337||Top speed of an internal-combustion-powered NHRA Top Fuel Dragster.|
|157||575||351||Top speed of experimental test TGV train in 2007.|
|161||580||360||Top speed of JR-Maglev in 2003.|
|250||900||560||Typical cruising speed of a modern jet airliner, e.g. an Airbus A380.|
|314||1,130||702||Top speed of any World War II-era aircraft, the Me 163B V18 set on July 6, 1944.|
|320||1,200||720||The speed of a typical .22 LR bullet.|
|340.3||1,225||761||1.135×10−6||Speed of sound in standard atmosphere (15 °C and 1 atm).|
|344.66||1,240.77||770.98||Max speed reached by the jet-propelled car ThrustSSC in 1997—Land speed record.|
|373||1,342.8||833.9||Highest speed recorded during a free fall set by Felix Baumgartner.|
|428||1,540.8||957||Max speed of Bell X-1.|
|464||1,670||1,040||1.55×10−6||Speed of Earth's rotation at the equator.|
|603||2,170.8||1,350||Speed of the Concorde airliner.|
|975||3,510||2,180||Muzzle velocity of M16 rifle.|
|981||3,532||2,194||3.27×10−6||SR-71 Blackbird, the fastest aircraft driven by a mechanical jet engine.|
|103||1,400||5,040||3,100||4.6×10−6||Speed of the Space Shuttle when the solid rocket boosters separate.|
|1,500||5,400||3,400||5×10−6||Speed of sound in water or in soft tissue.|
|1,789||6,443||4,002||Speed of BrahMos II hypersonic cruise missile|
|2,000||7,200||4,500||6.7×10−6||Estimated speed of a thermal neutron.|
|2,019||7,268.4||4,516||Speed of the North American X-15 rocket plane.|
|2,375||8,550||5,345||7.9×10−6||Escape velocity from Moon.|
|2,700||9,600||6,000||Speed of wind on exoplanet HD 189733 b.|
|2,885||10,385||6,453||Top speed of the fastest rocket sled.|
|3,373||12,144||7,546||1.125×10−5||Speed of the unmanned X-43 rocket/scramjet plane.|
|4,500||16,000||10,000||1.5×10−5||A typical value for the specific impulse of current rockets.|
|7,700||27,700||17,200||2.57×10−5||Speed of International Space Station and typical speed of other satellites such as the Space Shuttle in low Earth orbit.|
|7,777||28,000||17,400||2.594×10−5||Speed of propagation of the explosion in a detonating cord.|
|104||11,107||39,985.2||24,846||0.00004||Speed of Apollo 10 – high speed record for human-crewed vehicle.|
|11,200||40,320||25,100||0.00004||Escape velocity from Earth.|
|16,100||57,900||36,000||0.00005||Fastest projectile velocity (1994).|
|16,210||58,356||36,261||0.00005||Escape speed from Earth by NASA New Horizons spacecraft—Fastest escape velocity.|
|17,000||61,000||38,000||0.00006||The approximate speed of the Voyager 1 probe relative to the sun, when it exited the Solar System.|
|29,800||107,280||66,700||0.00010||Speed of the Earth in orbit around the Sun.|
|47,800||172,100||106,900||0.00016||Atmospheric entry speed of the Galileo atmospheric probe—Fastest controlled atmospheric entry for a man-made object.|
|66,000||240,000||150,000||0.00022||Lower speed bound of the steel plate cap from the Pascal-B nuclear test of Operation Plumbbob.[circular reference]|
|70,220||252,800||157,100||0.00023||Speed of the Helios 2 solar probe.|
|73,800||265,000||165,000||0.00023||Estimated top speed of the Juno spacecraft (mass ~3600 kg) relative to Earth before insertion into Jupiter's orbit — Fastest man-made technical object.|
|105||100,000||360,000||224,000||0.0003||Dust particles in dust accelerators can exceed this speed.|
|140,000||540,000||313,170||0.00047||Approaching velocity of Messier 98 to our galaxy.|
|200,000||700,000||450,000||0.00070||Orbital speed of the solar system in the Milky Way galaxy.|
|308,571||1,080,000||694,288||0.001||Approaching velocity of Andromeda Galaxy to our galaxy.|
|440,000||1,600,000||980,000||0.0015||Typical speed of the stepped leader of lightning (cf. return stroke below).|
|445,000||1,600,000||995,000||0.0015||Max velocity of the remaining shell (mass about 0.1 mg) of an inertial confinement fusion capsule driven by the National Ignition Facility for the 'Bigfoot' capsule campaign. Current fastest macroscopic man-made system.|
|450,000||1,600,000||1,000,000||0.0015||Typical speed of a particle of the solar wind, relative to the Sun.|
|552,000||1,990,000||1,230,000||0.0018||Speed of the Milky Way, relative to the cosmic microwave background.|
|617,700||2,224,000||1,382,000||0.0021||Escape velocity from the surface of the Sun.|
|106||1,000,000||3,600,000||2,200,000||0.0030||Typical speed of a Moreton wave across the surface of the Sun.|
|1,610,000||5,800,000||3,600,000||0.0054||Speed of hypervelocity star PSR B2224+65, which currently seems to be leaving the Milky Way.|
|5,000,000||18,000,000||11,000,000||0.017||Estimated minimum speed of star S2 at its closest approach to Sagittarius A*.|
|107||14,000,000||50,000,000||31,000,000||0.047||Typical speed of a fast neutron.|
|30,000,000||100,000,000||70,000,000||0.1||Typical speed of an electron in a cathode ray tube.|
|108||100,000,000||360,000,000||220,000,000||0.3||The escape velocity of a neutron star.|
|100,000,000||360,000,000||220,000,000||0.3||Typical speed of the return stroke of lightning (cf. stepped leader above).|
|124,000,000||447,000,000||277,000,000||0.4||Speed of light in a diamond (Refractive index 2.417).|
|200,000,000||720,000,000||440,000,000||0.7||Speed of a signal in an optical fiber.|
|299,792,456||1,079,252,840||670,615,282||1 − 9×10−9||Speed of the 7 TeV protons in the Large Hadron Collider at full power.|
|299,792,457.996||1,079,252,848.786||670,616,629.38||1 − 1×10−11||Maximal speed of an electron in LEP (104.5 GeV).|
|299,792,458 − 1.5×10−15||1,079,252,848.8 − 5.4×10−15||670,616,629.4||1 − 4.9×10−24||Speed of the Oh-My-God particle ultra-high-energy cosmic ray.|
|299,792,458||1,079,252,848.8||670,616,629.4||1||Speed of light or other electromagnetic radiation in a vacuum or massless particles.|
- Typical projectile speeds - also showing the corresponding kinetic energy per unit mass
- Neutron temperature
- Orders of magnitude (momentum)
- Blewett, Richard, ed. (2012). "Chapter 2: Australia in time and space". Shaping a nation. Geoscience Australia and ANU E-Press. pp. 57–58. Retrieved 2015. Check date values in:
- Bindoff, NL; et al. "Observations: Oceanic Climate Change and Sea Level" (PDF). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 2010-08-21.
- Hill, David; Holzwarth, George; Bonin, Keith (2002). "Velocity and Drag Forces on motor-protein-driven Vesicles in Cells". American Physical Society, the 69th Annual Meeting of the Southeastern. abstract. #EA.002: EA.002. Bibcode:2002APS..SES.EA002H.
- v = r ω = 0.07 m · 2π/
- Farrelly, David (1984). The Book of Bamboo. Sierra Club Books. ISBN 978-0-87156-825-0.
- Joughin I.; Abdalati W.; Fahnestock M. (2004). "Large fluctuations in speed on Greenland's Jakobshavn Isbrae glacier". Nature. 432 (7017): 608–610. Bibcode:2004Natur.432..608J. doi:10.1038/nature03130. PMID 15577906.
- Tom Fenchel (1994). "Motility and chemosensory behaviour of the sulphur bacterium Thiovulum majus". Microbiology. 140 (11): 3109–3116. doi:10.1099/13500872-140-11-3109. Retrieved 2010-08-21.
- TDK cassette spec sheet Archived 2007-06-20 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on 27 March 2007
- "Dutch cyclist claims new world speed record in Nevada". BBC News. 18 September 2013. Retrieved 21 September 2013.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-06-29. Retrieved 2009-10-10.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "FSN Sport Science - Episode 7 - Myths - Jason Zuback". Sport Science. YouTube. Retrieved 2009-07-27.
- "Event Best Maximum Speed" (PDF). MotoGP.com. 2016-03-20. Retrieved 2014-06-02.
- "World record wind gust". World Meteorological Association. Archived from the original on 2013-01-20. Retrieved 2010-01-26.
- "The Koenigsegg Agera RS Is Officially the World's Fastest Car". 4 November 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
- clinicalimagingscience.org - Photoacoustic Imaging: Opening New Frontiers in Medical Imaging
- Discovery Space: Top 10 Extrasolar Planets Archived 2009-03-03 at the Wayback Machine
- 846 TS Hypersonic Upgrade Program Archived 2009-02-02 at the Wayback Machine
- MALCOLM W. BROWNE (March 22, 1994). "Fastest Gun on Earth: Goals Go Beyond Planet". The New York Times. Retrieved July 31, 2011.
- Elert, Glenn. "Speed of the Voyager Space Probes".
- Operation Plumbbob
- Mike Wall (July 4, 2016). "By Jove! NASA Probe Arrives at Jupiter After 5-Year Trek". Space.com. Retrieved July 5, 2016.
- M. Horányi et al.: The SSERVI - Impact Dust Accelerator Facility at the University of Colorado, 47th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2016), accessed May 30, 2017
- Thomson, E. M.; Uman, M. A.; Beasley, W. H. (1985). "Speed and current for lightning stepped leaders near ground as determined from electric field records". Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. 90: 8136–8142. doi:10.1029/JD090iD05p08136.
- "'Bigfoot' Prowls the NIF Target Chamber". Lawrence Livermore National Lab. February 2018.
- email@example.com. "Surfing a Black Hole - Star Orbiting Massive Milky Way Centre Approaches to within 17 Light-Hours".
- Idone, Vincent P.; Orville, Richard E.; Mach, Douglas M.; Rust, W. David (1987). "The propagation speed of a positive lightning return stroke". Geophysical Research Letters. 14 (11): 1150–1153. doi:10.1029/GL014i011p01150.
- "LHC beams". CERN.
- J. Walker (January 4, 1994). "The Oh-My-God Particle". Fourmilab.