Orders of magnitude (speed)

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To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various speed levels between approximately 2.2×10−18 m/s and 3.0×108 m/s. Values in bold are exact.

List of orders of magnitude for speed[edit]

List of orders of magnitude for speed
Factor (m/s) Value (m/s) Value (km/h) Value (mph) Value (c) Item
10−18 2.2×10−18 7.8×10−18 4.9×10−18 7.3×1027 Expansion rate between 2 points in free space 1 m apart under Hubble's law.
10−13 1×10−13 3×10−13 2×10−13 3×1022 Rate of erosion of Bedrock.[1]
10−11 9.8×10−11 3.5×10−10 2.2×10−10 3.2×1019 Rate of global sea level rise in 1993–2003 (3.1 mm/yr).[2]
10−10 3×10−10 to 3×10−9 1×10−9 to 1×10−8 7×10−10 to 7×10−9 1×1018 to 1×1017 Typical relative speed of continental drift.
10−9 1.3×10−9 4.7×10−9 2.9×10−9 4.3×1018 Average rate of the Moon receding from the Earth (approx. 38 mm/yr).[citation needed]
4.8×10−9 1.7×10−8 1.1×10−8 1.6×1017 Human hair growth (average rate—note that there is a great range of variation).
10−7 3×10−7 to 1.11×10−5 1.08×10−6 to 4×10−5 6.7×10−7 to 2.5×10−5 1×1015 to 3.7×1014 Calculated speed of an amoeba.[3]
10−6 1.52×10−6 5.4×10−6 3.4×10−6 5.1×1015 Speed of a cellular vesicle propelled by a motor protein.[4]
10−5 1.02×105 3.67×105 2.28×105 3.40×1014 Speed of the tip of a 7 cm (2.8 in)-long hour hand on a clock.[5]
1.4×10−5 5.0×10−5 3.1×10−5 4.6×1014 Growth rate of bamboo, the fastest-growing woody plant, over 24 hours.[6]
10−4 4.0×10−4 1.4×10−3 8.9×10−4 1.3×1012 Speed of Jakobshavn Isbræ, one of the fastest glaciers, in 2003.[7]
6×10−4 2.2×10−3 1.3×10−3 2×1012 Typical speed of Thiovulum majus, the fastest-swimming bacterium.[8]
10−3 0.00178 0.00641 0.00398 5.94×1012 The speed of a particle orbiting a ball of lead of radius 1 m near its surface under its gravity (that is, the first cosmic speed for this ball).
0.00275 0.00990 0.00615 9.17×1012 World record speed of the fastest snail in the Congham, UK.[9]
10−2 0.0476 0.171 0.106 1.58×1010 Compact cassette tape speed.[10]
0.080 0.29 0.18 2.6×1010 The top speed of a sloth.
10−1 0.2778 1 0.6214 9.2657×1010 1 km/h.
0.44704 1.609344 1 1.4912×109 1 mph.
0.5144 1.852 1.151 1.716×109 1 knot (nautical mile per hour)
100 1.2 4.32 2.68 4×109 Typical scanning speed of an audio compact disc; the speed of signals (action potentials) traveling along axons in the human cortex.
1–1.5 3.6–5.4 2.2–3.4 3.3–5.0×109 Average walking speed—below a speed of about 2 m/s, it is more efficient to walk than to run, but above that speed, it is more efficient to run.
2.39 8.53 5.35 7.97×109 World record time 50m freestyle swim
4.98 16.89 10.16 1.66×108 Average running speed
5.72 20.42 12.80 1.90×108 World record time marathon
6–7 20–25 12–15 1.8–2.3×108 Comfortable bicycling speed.
101 10.438 37.578 23.35 3.48×108 Average speed of Jamaican athlete Usain Bolt while setting the 100m world record in Berlin on 16 August 2009.
12.42 44.72 27.78 4.14×108 Top speed reached by Bolt during the same race.
8–14 30–50 18–31 2.7–4.7×108 Typical residential speed limit; top speed of a running cat or dog.
14 50 31 4.7×108 Typical speed of road-race cyclist.
17 60 37 5×108 Typical speed of thoroughbred racehorse or racing greyhound.
5–25 18–90 11–56 1.7–8.3×108 Speed of propagation for unmyelinated sensory neurons.
30 110 70 1×107 Typical speed of car (freeway); cheetah—fastest of all terrestrial animals; sailfish—fastest fish; speed of go-fast boat.
35 125 80 1.2×107 Average speed of a car.
37.16 133.78 83.13 1.240×107 Land speed record for a human powered vehicle.[11]
40 140 90 1.3×107 Typical peak speed of a local service train (or intercity on lower standard tracks).
54 195 122 1.8×107 Maximum speed a human can attain during a face-down free-fall.
67 240 149 2.2×107 The top speed of the world's fastest roller coaster, Formula Rossa.
90 320 200 3×107 Typical speed of a modern high-speed train (e.g. latest generation of production TGV); a diving peregrine falcon—fastest bird; 320 km/h or 200 mph is a parameter sometimes used in defining a supercar.[12]
91 328 204 3.04×107 Fastest recorded ball (a golf ball) in sports.[13]
102 99.019 356.4 221.5 3.3×107 Maximum speed recorded by a MotoGP motorcycle. Set by Andrea Dovizioso during the 2018 Italian Grand Prix at Mugello Circuit in a Ducati Desmosedici GP18.[14]
103 370 230 3.44×107 Speed of super torpedo VA-111 Shkval.
103.5 372.6 231.5 3.452×107 Maximum speed recorded by a Formula One car. Set by Juan Pablo Montoya during the 2005 Italian Grand Prix at Monza in a McLaren MP4-20.
105.5 379.8 236 3.52×107 Maximum speed of a Ferrari F50 GT1.
113 408 254 3.77×107 Fastest non-tornadic wind gust recorded on Earth - at Barrow Island, Australia on April 10, 1996 during Severe Tropical Cyclone Olivia.[15]
119.742 431.072 267.86 4×107 Maximum speed of the Bugatti Veyron Super Sport.
120 432 270 4.0×107 Speed of propagation for mammalian motor neurons.
124.219 447.19 277.87 4.1×107 Maximum speed of the Koenigsegg Agera RS (currently the fastest production car in the world).[16]
126–143 452–517 281–321 4.2–4.8×107 The fastest wind speed ever recorded on Earth, caused by the 1999 Bridge Creek–Moore tornado.
150.6 539 337 5×107 Top speed of an internal-combustion-powered NHRA Top Fuel Dragster.
157 575 351 5.2×107 Top speed of experimental test TGV train in 2007.
161 580 360 5.4×107 Top speed of JR-Maglev in 2003.
250 900 560 8.3×107 Typical cruising speed of a modern jet airliner, e.g. an Airbus A380.
314 1,130 702 1×106 Top speed of any World War II-era aircraft, the Me 163B V18 set on July 6, 1944.
320 1,200 720 1.07×106 The speed of a typical .22 LR bullet.
340.3 1,225 761 1.135×106 Speed of sound in standard atmosphere (15 °C and 1 atm).
344.66 1,240.77 770.98 1.15×106 Max speed reached by the jet-propelled car ThrustSSC in 1997—Land speed record.[17]
373 1,342.8 833.9 1.2×106 Highest speed recorded during a free fall set by Felix Baumgartner.
428 1,540.8 957 1.4×106 Max speed of Bell X-1.
464 1,670 1,040 1.55×106 Speed of Earth's rotation at the equator.
603 2,170.8 1,350 2×106 Speed of the Concorde airliner.
975 3,510 2,180 3.25×106 Muzzle velocity of M16 rifle.
981 3,532 2,194 3.27×106 SR-71 Blackbird, the fastest aircraft driven by a mechanical jet engine.
103 1,400 5,040 3,100 4.6×106 Speed of the Space Shuttle when the solid rocket boosters separate.
1,500 5,400 3,400 5×106 Speed of sound in water or in soft tissue.[18]
1,789 6,443 4,002 6×106 Speed of BrahMos II hypersonic cruise missile
2,000 7,200 4,500 6.7×106 Estimated speed of a thermal neutron.
2,019 7,268.4 4,516 6.7×106 Speed of the North American X-15 rocket plane.
2,375 8,550 5,345 7.9×106 Escape velocity from Moon.
2,700 9,600 6,000 9×106 Speed of wind on exoplanet HD 189733 b.[19]
2,885 10,385 6,453 9.6×106 Top speed of the fastest rocket sled.[20]
3,373 12,144 7,546 1.125×105 Speed of the unmanned X-43 rocket/scramjet plane.
4,500 16,000 10,000 1.5×105 A typical value for the specific impulse of current rockets.
7,700 27,700 17,200 2.57×105 Speed of International Space Station and typical speed of other satellites such as the Space Shuttle in low Earth orbit.
7,777 28,000 17,400 2.594×105 Speed of propagation of the explosion in a detonating cord.
104 11,107 39,985.2 24,846 0.00004 Speed of Apollo 10 – high speed record for human-crewed vehicle.
11,200 40,320 25,100 0.00004 Escape velocity from Earth.
16,100 57,900 36,000 0.00005 Fastest projectile velocity (1994).[21]
16,210 58,356 36,261 0.00005 Escape speed from Earth by NASA New Horizons spacecraft—Fastest escape velocity.
17,000 61,000 38,000 0.00006 The approximate speed of the Voyager 1 probe relative to the sun, when it exited the Solar System.[22]
29,800 107,280 66,700 0.00010 Speed of the Earth in orbit around the Sun.
47,800 172,100 106,900 0.00016 Atmospheric entry speed of the Galileo atmospheric probe—Fastest controlled atmospheric entry for a man-made object.
66,000 240,000 150,000 0.00022 Lower speed bound of the steel plate cap from the Pascal-B nuclear test of Operation Plumbbob.[23][circular reference]
70,220 252,800 157,100 0.00023 Speed of the Helios 2 solar probe.
73,800 265,000 165,000 0.00023 Estimated top speed of the Juno spacecraft (mass ~3600 kg) relative to Earth before insertion into Jupiter's orbit — second fastest man-made technical object.[24]
105 100,000 360,000 224,000 0.0003 Dust particles in dust accelerators can exceed this speed.[25]
140,000 540,000 313,170 0.00047 Approaching velocity of Messier 98 to our galaxy.
192,000 690,000 430,000 0.00064 Predicted top speed of the Parker Solar Probe at its closest perihelion in 2024.[26][27]
200,000 700,000 450,000 0.00070 Orbital speed of the solar system in the Milky Way galaxy.
308,571 1,080,000 694,288 0.001 Approaching velocity of Andromeda Galaxy to our galaxy.
440,000 1,600,000 980,000 0.0015 Typical speed of the stepped leader of lightning (cf. return stroke below).[28]
445,000 1,600,000 995,000 0.0015 Max velocity of the remaining shell (mass about 0.1 mg) of an inertial confinement fusion capsule driven by the National Ignition Facility for the 'Bigfoot' capsule campaign.[29] Current fastest macroscopic man-made system.
450,000 1,600,000 1,000,000 0.0015 Typical speed of a particle of the solar wind, relative to the Sun.
552,000 1,990,000 1,230,000 0.0018 Speed of the Milky Way, relative to the cosmic microwave background.
617,700 2,224,000 1,382,000 0.0021 Escape velocity from the surface of the Sun.
106 1,000,000 3,600,000 2,200,000 0.0030 Typical speed of a Moreton wave across the surface of the Sun.
1,610,000 5,800,000 3,600,000 0.0054 Speed of hypervelocity star PSR B2224+65, which currently seems to be leaving the Milky Way.
5,000,000 18,000,000 11,000,000 0.017 Estimated minimum speed of star S2 at its closest approach to Sagittarius A*.[30]
107 14,000,000 50,000,000 31,000,000 0.047 Typical speed of a fast neutron.
30,000,000 100,000,000 70,000,000 0.1 Typical speed of an electron in a cathode ray tube.
108 100,000,000 360,000,000 220,000,000 0.3 The escape velocity of a neutron star.
100,000,000 360,000,000 220,000,000 0.3 Typical speed of the return stroke of lightning (cf. stepped leader above).[31]
124,000,000 447,000,000 277,000,000 0.4 Speed of light in a diamond (Refractive index 2.417).
200,000,000 720,000,000 440,000,000 0.7 Speed of a signal in an optical fiber.
299,792,456 1,079,252,840 670,615,282 1 − 9×109 Speed of the 7 TeV protons in the Large Hadron Collider at full power.[32]
299,792,457.996 1,079,252,848.786 670,616,629.38 1 − 1×1011 Maximal speed of an electron in LEP (104.5 GeV).
299,792,458 − 1.5×10−15 1,079,252,848.8 − 5.4×10−15 670,616,629.4 1 − 4.9×10−24 Speed of the Oh-My-God particle ultra-high-energy cosmic ray.[33]
299,792,458 1,079,252,848.8 670,616,629.4 1 Speed of light or other electromagnetic radiation in a vacuum or massless particles.
>299,792,458 >1,079,252,848.8 >670,616,629.4 >1 Expansion rate of the universe between objects farther apart than the Hubble radius

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ Bindoff, NL; et al. "Observations: Oceanic Climate Change and Sea Level" (PDF). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 2010-08-21.
  3. ^ "Do amoebas move fast or slow". Study.com. Study.com. Retrieved March 31, 2020.
  4. ^ Hill, David; Holzwarth, George; Bonin, Keith (2002). "Velocity and Drag Forces on motor-protein-driven Vesicles in Cells". APS Southeastern Section Meeting Abstracts. 69: EA.002. Bibcode:2002APS..SES.EA002H.
  5. ^ v = r ω = 0.07 m · 2π/60 s/min · 60 min/hr · 12 hr
  6. ^ Farrelly, David (1984). The Book of Bamboo. Sierra Club Books. ISBN 978-0-87156-825-0.
  7. ^ Joughin I.; Abdalati W.; Fahnestock M. (2004). "Large fluctuations in speed on Greenland's Jakobshavn Isbrae glacier". Nature. 432 (7017): 608–610. Bibcode:2004Natur.432..608J. doi:10.1038/nature03130. PMID 15577906.
  8. ^ Tom Fenchel (1994). "Motility and chemosensory behaviour of the sulphur bacterium Thiovulum majus". Microbiology. 140 (11): 3109–3116. doi:10.1099/13500872-140-11-3109. Retrieved 2010-08-21.
  9. ^ "snailracing.net".
  10. ^ TDK cassette spec sheet Archived 2007-06-20 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on 27 March 2007
  11. ^ "Dutch cyclist claims new world speed record in Nevada". BBC News. 18 September 2013. Retrieved 21 September 2013.
  12. ^ "Supercar". Retrieved 2009-10-10.
  13. ^ "FSN Sport Science - Episode 7 - Myths - Jason Zuback". Sport Science. YouTube. Retrieved 2009-07-27.
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  15. ^ "World record wind gust". World Meteorological Association. Archived from the original on 2013-01-20. Retrieved 2010-01-26.
  16. ^ "The Koenigsegg Agera RS Is Officially the World's Fastest Car". 4 November 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
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  18. ^ clinicalimagingscience.org - Photoacoustic Imaging: Opening New Frontiers in Medical Imaging
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  23. ^ Operation Plumbbob
  24. ^ Mike Wall (July 4, 2016). "By Jove! NASA Probe Arrives at Jupiter After 5-Year Trek". Space.com. Retrieved July 5, 2016.
  25. ^ M. Horányi et al.: The SSERVI - Impact Dust Accelerator Facility at the University of Colorado, 47th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2016), accessed May 30, 2017
  26. ^ "NASA Press Kit: Parker Solar Probe" (PDF). NASA. August 2018. Retrieved February 13, 2020.
  27. ^ Garner, Rob (August 9, 2018). "Parker Solar Probe: Humanity's First Visit to a Star". NASA. Retrieved February 13, 2020.
  28. ^ Thomson, E. M.; Uman, M. A.; Beasley, W. H. (1985). "Speed and current for lightning stepped leaders near ground as determined from electric field records". Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. 90 (D5): 8136–8142. Bibcode:1985JGR....90.8136T. doi:10.1029/JD090iD05p08136.
  29. ^ "'Bigfoot' Prowls the NIF Target Chamber". Lawrence Livermore National Lab. February 2018.
  30. ^ information@eso.org. "Surfing a Black Hole - Star Orbiting Massive Milky Way Centre Approaches to within 17 Light-Hours".
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  33. ^ J. Walker (January 4, 1994). "The Oh-My-God Particle". Fourmilab.