Orders of magnitude (speed)
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List of orders of magnitude for speed
|Factor (m/s)||Value (m/s)||Value (km/h)||Value (mph)||Value (c)||Item|
|10−18||2.2×10−18||7.8×10−18||4.9×10−18||7.3×10−27||Expansion rate between 2 points in free space 1 m apart under Hubble's law.|
|10−13||1×10−13||3×10−13||2×10−13||3×10−22||Rate of erosion of Bedrock.|
|10−11||9.8×10−11||3.5×10−10||2.2×10−10||3.2×10−19||Rate of global sea level rise in 1993–2003 (3.1 mm/yr).|
|10−10||3×10−10 to 3×10−9||1×10−9 to 1×10−8||7×10−10 to 7×10−9||1×10−18 to 1×10−17||Typical relative speed of continental drift.|
|10−9||1.3×10−9||4.7×10−9||2.9×10−9||4.3×10−18||Average rate of the Moon receding from the Earth (approx. 38 mm/yr).|
|4.8×10−9||1.7×10−8||1.1×10−8||1.6×10−17||Human hair growth (average rate—note that there is a great range of variation).|
|10−6||1.52×10−6||5.4×10−6||3.4×10−6||5.1×10−15||Speed of a cellular vesicle propelled by a motor protein.|
|10−5||1.02×10−5||3.67×10−5||2.28×10−5||3.40×10−14||Speed of the tip of a 7 cm (2.8 in)-long hour hand on a clock.|
|1.4×10−5||5.0×10−5||3.1×10−5||4.6×10−14||Growth rate of bamboo, the fastest-growing woody plant, over 24 hours.|
|10−4||4.0×10−4||1.4×10−3||8.9×10−4||1.3×10−12||Speed of Jakobshavn Isbræ, one of the fastest glaciers, in 2003.|
|6×10−4||2.2×10−3||1.3×10−3||2×10−12||Typical speed of Thiovulum majus, the fastest-swimming bacterium.|
|10−3||0.00275||0.00990||0.00615||9.17×10−12||World record speed of the fastest snail in the Congham, UK.|
|10−2||0.0476||0.171||0.106||1.58×10−10||Compact cassette tape speed.|
|0.080||0.29||0.18||2.6×10−10||The top speed of a sloth.|
|0.5144||1.852||1.151||1.716×10−9||1 knot (nautical mile per hour)|
|100||1.2||4.32||2.68||Typical scanning speed of an audio compact disc; the speed of signals (action potentials) traveling along axons in the human cortex.|
|1–1.5||3.6–5.4||2.2–3.4||3.3–5.0×10−9||Average walking speed—below a speed of about 2 m/s, it is more efficient to walk than to run, but above that speed, it is more efficient to run.|
|2.39||8.53||5.35||7.97×10−9||World record time 50m freestyle swim|
|4.98||16.89||10.16||2.00×10−8||Average running speed|
|5.72||20.42||12.80||1.90×10−8||World record time marathon|
|6–7||20–25||12–15||1.8–2.3×10−8||Comfortable bicycling speed.|
|101||10.438||37.578||23.35||3.48×10−8||Average speed of Jamaican athlete Usain Bolt while setting the 100m world record in Berlin on 16 August 2009.|
|12.42||44.72||27.78||4.14×10−8||Top speed reached by Bolt during the same race.|
|8–14||30–50||18–31||2.7–4.6×10−8||Typical residential speed limit; top speed of a running cat or dog.|
|14||50||31||Typical speed of road-race cyclist.|
|17||60||37||Typical speed of thoroughbred racehorse or racing greyhound.|
|5–25||18–90||11–56||Speed of propagation for unmyelinated sensory neurons.|
|30||110||70||Typical speed of car (freeway); cheetah—fastest of all terrestrial animals; sailfish—fastest fish; speed of go-fast boat.|
|35||125||80||Average speed of a car.|
|37.16||133.78||83.13||1.240×10−7||Land speed record for a human powered vehicle.|
|40||140||90||Typical peak speed of a local service train (or intercity on lower standard tracks).|
|54||195||122||1.8×10−7||Maximum speed a human can attain during a face-down free-fall.|
|67||240||149||The top speed of the world's fastest roller coaster, Formula Rossa.|
|90||320||200||3×10−7||Typical speed of a modern high-speed train (e.g. latest generation of production TGV); a diving peregrine falcon—fastest bird; 320 km/h or 200 mph is a parameter sometimes used in defining a supercar.|
|91||328||204||3.04×10−7||Fastest recorded ball (a golf ball) in sports.|
|102||103||370||230||Speed of super torpedo VA-111 Shkval.|
|103.5||372.6||231.5||3.452×10−7||Maximum speed recorded by a Formula One car. Set by Juan Pablo Montoya during the 2005 Italian Grand Prix at Monza in a McLaren MP4-20.|
|105.5||379.8||236||Maximum speed of a Ferrari F50 GT1.|
|113||408||254||Fastest non-tornadic wind gust recorded on Earth - at Barrow Island, Australia on 1996-04-10 during Severe Tropical Cyclone Olivia.|
|119.742||431.072||267.86||Maximum speed of the Bugatti Veyron Super Sport (currently the fastest production car in the world).|
|120||432||270||4.0×10−7||Speed of propagation for mammalian motor neurons.|
|130||468||290||Wind speed of a powerful tornado.|
|150.6||539||337||Top speed of an internal-combustion-powered NHRA Top Fuel Dragster.|
|157||575||351||Top speed of experimental test TGV train in 2007.|
|161||580||360||Top speed of JR-Maglev in 2003.|
|250||900||560||Typical cruising speed of a modern jet airliner, e.g. an Airbus A380.|
|314||1,130||702||Top speed of any World War II-era aircraft, the Me 163B V18 set on July 6, 1944.|
|320||1,200||720||The speed of a typical .22 LR bullet.|
|340.3||1,225||761||1.135×10−6||Speed of sound in standard atmosphere (15 °C and 1 atm).|
|344.66||1,240.77||770.98||Max speed reached by the jet-propelled car ThrustSSC in 1997—Land speed record.|
|373||1,342.8||833.9||Highest speed recorded during a free fall set by Felix Baumgartner.|
|428||1,540.8||957||Max speed of Bell X-1.|
|464||1,670||1,040||1.55×10−6||Speed of Earth's rotation at the equator.|
|603||2,170.8||1,350||Speed of the Concorde airliner.|
|975||3,510||2,180||Muzzle velocity of M16 rifle.|
|981||3,532||2,194||3.27×10−6||SR-71 Blackbird, the fastest aircraft driven by a mechanical jet engine.|
|103||1,400||5,040||3,100||4.6×10−6||Speed of the Space Shuttle when the solid rocket boosters separate.|
|1,500||5,400||3,400||5×10−6||Speed of sound in water or in soft tissue.|
|1,789||6,443||4,002||Speed of BrahMos II hypersonic cruise missile|
|2,000||7,200||4,500||6.7×10−6||Estimated speed of a thermal neutron.|
|2,019||7,268.4||4,516||Speed of the North American X-15 rocket plane.|
|2,375||8,550||5,345||7.9×10−6||Escape velocity from Moon.|
|2,700||9,600||6,000||Speed of wind on exoplanet HD 189733 b.|
|2,885||10,385||6,453||Top speed of the fastest rocket sled.|
|3,373||12,144||7,546||1.125×10−5||Speed of the unmanned X-43 rocket/scramjet plane.|
|4,500||16,000||10,000||1.5×10−5||A typical value for the specific impulse of current rockets.|
|7,700||27,700||17,200||2.57×10−5||Speed of International Space Station and typical speed of other satellites such as the Space Shuttle in low Earth orbit.|
|7,777||28,000||17,400||2.594×10−5||Speed of propagation of the explosion in a detonating cord.|
|104||11,107||39,985.2||24,846||0.00004||Speed of Apollo 10 – high speed record for human-crewed vehicle.|
|11,200||40,320||25,100||0.00004||Escape velocity from Earth.|
|16,100||57,900||36,000||0.00005||Fastest projectile velocity (1994).|
|16,210||58,356||36,261||0.00005||Escape speed from Earth by NASA New Horizons spacecraft—Fastest escape velocity.|
|17,000||61,000||38,000||0.00006||The approximate speed of the Voyager 1 probe relative to the sun, when it exited the Solar System.|
|29,800||107,280||66,700||0.00010||Speed of the Earth in orbit around the Sun.|
|47,800||172,100||106,900||0.00016||Atmospheric entry speed of the Galileo atmospheric probe—Fastest controlled atmospheric entry for a man-made object.|
|70,220||252,800||157,100||0.00023||Speed of the Helios 2 solar probe.|
|73,800||265,000||165,000||0.00023||Estimated top speed of the Juno spacecraft relative to Earth before insertion into Jupiter's orbit — Fastest man-made technical object.|
|105||100,000||360,000||224,000||0.0003||Dust particles in dust accelerators can exceed this speed.|
|140,000||540,000||313,170||0.00047||Approaching velocity of Messier 98 to our galaxy.|
|200,000||700,000||450,000||0.00070||Orbital speed of the solar system in the Milky Way galaxy.|
|308,571||1,080,000||694,288||0.001||Approaching velocity of Andromeda Galaxy to our galaxy.|
|440,000||1,600,000||980,000||0.0015||Typical speed of the stepped leader of lightning (cf. return stroke below).|
|450,000||1,600,000||1,000,000||0.0015||Typical speed of a particle of the solar wind, relative to the Sun.|
|552,000||1,990,000||1,230,000||0.0018||Speed of the Milky Way, relative to the cosmic microwave background.|
|617,700||2,224,000||1,382,000||0.0021||Escape velocity from the surface of the Sun.|
|106||1,000,000||3,600,000||2,200,000||0.0030||Typical speed of a Moreton wave across the surface of the Sun.|
|1,610,000||5,800,000||3,600,000||0.0054||Speed of hypervelocity star PSR B2224+65, which currently seems to be leaving the Milky Way.|
|5,000,000||18,000,000||11,000,000||0.017||Estimated minimum speed of star S2 at its closest approach to Sagittarius A*.|
|107||14,000,000||50,000,000||31,000,000||0.047||Typical speed of a fast neutron.|
|30,000,000||100,000,000||70,000,000||0.1||Typical speed of an electron in a cathode ray tube.|
|108||100,000,000||360,000,000||220,000,000||0.3||The escape velocity of a neutron star.|
|100,000,000||360,000,000||220,000,000||0.3||Typical speed of the return stroke of lightning (cf. stepped leader above).|
|124,000,000||447,000,000||277,000,000||0.4||Speed of light in a diamond (Refractive index 2.417).|
|200,000,000||720,000,000||440,000,000||0.7||Speed of a signal in an optical fiber.|
|299,792,456||1,079,252,840||670,615,282||1 − 9×10−9||Speed of the 7 TeV protons in the Large Hadron Collider at full power.|
|299,792,457.996||1,079,252,848.786||670,616,629.38||1 − 1×10−11||Maximal speed of an electron in LEP (104.5 GeV).|
|299,792,458 − 1.5×10−15||1,079,252,848.8 − 5.4×10−15||670,616,629.4||1 − 4.9×10−24||Speed of the Oh-My-God particle ultra-high-energy cosmic ray.|
|299,792,458||1,079,252,848.8||670,616,629.4||1||Speed of light or other electromagnetic radiation in a vacuum or massless particles.|
- Typical projectile speeds - also showing the corresponding kinetic energy per unit mass
- Neutron temperature
- Orders of magnitude (momentum)
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