Ordinance of Secession
|Ordinance of Secession|
|Created||c. January 20, 1861|
|Ratified||Ratified January 19, 1861
vote was 208 yeas 89 nays
Signed January 21, 1861
by 293 delegates
Enacted January 22, 1861
|Location||Engrossed copy: University of Georgia Libraries, Hargrett Library|
|Author(s)||George W. Crawford et al.
Engrosser: H. J. G. Williams
|Signatories||293 delegates to The Georgia Secession Convention of 1861|
|Purpose||To announce Georgia's formal intent to secede from the Union.|
The Ordinance of Secession was the document drafted and ratified in 1860 and 1861 by each of the southern states formally seceding from the United States of America. Each state ratified its own ordinance of secession, typically by means of a special convention delegation or by a general referendum. The seceded states formed the Confederate States of America.
During the Civil War, the states of Missouri and Kentucky had competing confederate and unionist governments claiming authority over their states. Missouri's ordinance was approved by a legislative session called by Claiborne Fox Jackson, the pro-confederate governor (see Missouri secession). Kentucky's was approved by a convention of 200 people representing 65 counties of the state, but without support from the unionist state government. The Confederacy officially seated both of these states in 1862, though they were contested throughout the war.
Georgia, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Texas also issued separate declarations of causes, in which they explained their reasons for secession.
|S. Carolina||December 20, 1860|
|Mississippi||January 9, 1861|
|Florida||January 10, 1861|
|Alabama||January 11, 1861|
|Georgia||January 19, 1861|
|Louisiana||January 26, 1861|
|Texas||February 1, 1861||February 23||46,153-14,747|
|Virginia||April 17, 1861||May 23||132,201-37,451|
|Arkansas||May 6, 1861|
|Tennessee||May 6, 1861||June 8||104,471-47,183|
|N. Carolina||May 20, 1861|
|Missouri||October 31, 1861|
|Kentucky||November 20, 1861|
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- American Civil War
- Declaration of the Immediate Causes Which Induce and Justify the Secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union
- List of signers of the Georgia Ordinance of Secession
- Curry, Richard O. (1964). A House Divided, Statehood Politics & the Copperhead Movement in West Virginia. University of Pittsburgh. p. PA49.
- Texts of the Ordinances
- Texts of declarations of causes
- South Carolina's Ordinance of Secession Text and original document from the South Carolina Department of Archives and History.
- Virginia's Ordinance of Secession (enrolled bill) Text and original document from the Library of Virginia.
- Virginia's Ordinance of Secession (signed copies) Text and original documents from the Library of Virginia and National Archives.
- Texas Declaration of Causes, Feb. 2, 1861 Text of Declaration of Causes from Texas archives.