|Type||Far-right political movement|
Ordine Nuovo (Italian for "New Order"), (full name Centro Studi Ordine Nuovo, "New Order Scholarship Center") was an Italian far right cultural and extra-parliamentary political and paramilitary organization founded by Pino Rauti in 1956. It had been the most important extra-parliamentary far-right organization of the post-war Italian republic.
The name is shared by Movimento Politico Ordine Nuovo, a splinter group of Centro Studi Ordine Nuovo.
The organization, considered as an attempt at reforming the Fascist Party (banned by the Constitution), was forcibly dissolved by the Italian government in 1973. Remaining elements of the group formed the Ordine Nero (Black Order) in 1974.
Members and a leader of Movimento Politico Ordine Nuovo participated in several terrorist attacks. These include the 1969 Piazza Fontana bombing, the 1970 Rome-Messina train attack, a grenade attack at a 1974 anti-fascist rally, and the 1974 Italicus Express bombing.
Previously, L'Ordine Nuovo ("The New Order") had been the name of a radical left-wing paper edited by Antonio Gramsci in the early 1920s, with Gramsci's followers being nicknamed "ordinovisti". However, later on the term - in Italian and various other languages - was appropriated by Fascists and Nazis, its original left-wing predecessors forgotten.
The extreme right-wing organization here referred to, whose members were also nicknamed ordinovisti, though being the political opposite of the earlier ones, was born from an internal current and then a schism in the Movimento Sociale Italiano (MSI). In 1954 Arturo Michelini, a moderate seeking an alliance with the Italian Monarchic Party, and possibly with the Christian Democracy, became general secretary of the MSI. This led to the schism of the most intransigent and spiritualist, Evolian current (Nazism was also a reference), led by Pino Rauti, Lello Graziani and Sergio Baldassini. They refused any compromise that brought the party apart from aristocratic principles. The intransigent and spiritualist Ordine Nuovo was then founded in Rome, but still a part of the MSI.
The real break with MSI happened at the MSI congress in Milan in 1956. Pino Rauti declared that, being disappointed with the moderate drift of the MSI, his movement would abandon the political scene, creating the "Centro Studi Ordine Nuovo", an association dedicated to "political studies and analysis". This wanted to be a literal application of the theses of Julius Evola, that is, an aristocratic refusal of contemporary, materialist society. Ordine Nuovo, nonetheless, had a capillary and hierarchical organization on the Italian territory, and often behaved more like an extra-parliamentary political organization than a simple "scholarship center".
|New Order Political Movement|
|Movimento Politico Ordine Nuovo|
|Foundation||December 21, 1969|
|Dissolved||November 21, 1973|
|Split from||New Order Scholarship Center|
|Notable attacks||Piazza Fontana bombing, Piazza della Loggia bombing|
In the 1969, Rauti, along with most of Ordine Nuovo, came back in the MSI party, then led by Giorgio Almirante. The remaining hardliners founded Movimento Politico Ordine Nuovo ("New Order Political Movement").
The motto of Ordine Nuovo was Il nostro onore si chiama fedeltà, or "Our honour is named loyalty", also the motto of the Waffen SS (Meine Ehre heißt Treue). The symbol of the organization was a double-head axe.
Implication in terrorist attacks
Several members of Movimento Politico Ordine Nuovo, including one of its leaders, Pierluigi Concutelli, participated in terrorist attacks.
1969 Piazza Fontana bombing and 1970 Rome-Messina train attack
On 12 December 1969, people belonging to or sympathizing for Ordine Nuovo placed a bomb in Piazza Fontana in Milan, killing 16 and wounding 90. This bombing marked the beginning of the "strategy of tension" in Italy. Ordine Nuovo member Delfo Zorzi was among those convicted for the crime on June 20, 2001, together with Carlo Maria Maggi and Giancarlo Rognoni, but all were later found not guilty in 2004.
In July 1970, members of Ordine Nuovo bombed the Rome-Messina train, killing 6 and wounding 100.
1974 Piazza della Loggia bombing in Brescia
In May 1974 eight activists were killed in Brescia when an anti-fascist protest was taking place in the municipal square. Due to a bomb placed in a trash bin, 8 people died from the explosion, over a hundred were wounded. On May 19, 2005, the Corte di Cassazione confirmed the arrest warrant against Delfo Zorzi, a former Ordine Nuovo member, who was also suspected of being the material perpetrator of the 1969 Piazza Fontana bombing. Alongside Delfo Zorzi, his neo-fascist comrades Carlo Maria Maggi and Maurizio Tramonte, all members of Ordine Nuovo, are also suspected of having organized the Piazza della Loggia bombing in Brescia.
Italicus Express bombing 1974
On 4 August 1974 a Ferrovie dello Stato train was bombed in the early morning hours killing 12 and wounding 48. The following day, Ordine Nero (The new Ordine Nuovo) claimed responsibility.
In a written statement they said
We took revenge for Giancarlo Esposti. We wanted to show the nation that we can place a bomb anywhere we want, whenever and however we please. Let us see in autumn; we will drown democracy under a mountain of dead.
Giancarlo Esposti was killed on 30 May 1974.
- Carlo Cicuttini (member)
- Delfo Zorzi (member)
- Franco Freda (sympathizer)
- Konstantinos Plevris (sympathizer)
- Pino Rauti (founder)
- 1969 Piazza Fontana bombing
- 1974 Piazza della Loggia bombing
- Armed, far-right organizations in Italy
- Vittorio Borraccetti (1986). Eversione di destra, terrorismo e stragi. FrancoAngeli.
- UN PO' DI STORIA (...) MPON: MOVIMENTO POLITICO ORDINE NUOVO Archived February 2, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
- Repubblica.it/politica: Piazza Fontana, nessun colpevole Assolti in appello gli imputati
- Charles Richards (1990-12-01). "Gladio is still opening wounds" (PHP). Independent: 12. Retrieved 2009-08-03.
- Ed Vulliamy (2007-03-04). "Blood and glory" (XHTML). The Observer. Retrieved 2009-08-03.
- Bocca, Giorgio. Gli anni del terrorismo (in Italian). pp. 291–293.
- Fasanella, Giovanni; Antonella Grippo (2006). I Silenzi degli Innocenti (in Italian). BUR. p. 114.
- Moro, Maria Fida (2004). La Nebulosa del Caso Moro (in Italian). Milan, Italy: Selene.
"30 Maggio: Giancarlo Esposti Presente!" [30 May: Giancarlo Esposti Presente!]. In memoriam (in Italian). Paris, France: Novopress. 2006-05-30. Archived from the original (XHTML) on 2014-08-15. Retrieved 2009-08-03.
Google translation into English: 30 May: Giancarlo Esposti Presente! Archived 2001-10-20 at the Wayback Machine
This article needs additional citations for verification. (January 2008)