|This article's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. (October 2012)|
The state of Oregon in the United States has established an international reputation for its production of wine. Oregon has several different growing regions within the state's borders which are well-suited to the cultivation of grapes; additional regions straddle the border between Oregon and the states of Washington and Idaho. Wine making dates back to pioneer times in the 1840s, with commercial production beginning in the 1960s.
American Viticultural Areas entirely within the state include the Willamette Valley, Southern Oregon, Umpqua Valley, and Rogue Valley AVAs. Parts of the Columbia Gorge, Walla Walla Valley, and Snake River Valley AVAs lie within Oregon. Pinot noir and Pinot gris are the top two grapes grown, with over 16,000 tons (14,515 metric tons) harvested in 2005. As of 2005,[dated info] Oregon wine makers produced over 1.5 million cases combined.
With 303 wineries in Oregon,[dated info] a tourism industry has developed around wine tasting. Much of the tourism focuses on the wineries and tasting rooms in and around the Yamhill Valley southwest of Portland. In 2004, enotourism contributed an estimated USD $92 million to the state economy, excluding winery and tasting room sales.
- 1 History
- 2 Varieties of wine
- 3 Facts and figures
- 4 Major wine-producing regions
- 5 Enotourism
- 6 Recognition
- 7 Notable wineries and vineyards
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Wine has been produced in Oregon since the Oregon Territory was settled in the 1840s; however, winemaking has only been a significant industry in the state since the 1960s. Grapes were first planted in the Oregon Territory in 1847. Valley View,the first recorded winery, was established by Peter Britt in the late 1850s in Jacksonville. Throughout the 19th century, there was experimentation with various varietals by immigrants to the state. In 1904, an Oregon winemaker won a prize at the St. Louis World's Fair. Wine production stopped in the United States during Prohibition. As in other states, the Oregon wine industry lay dormant for thirty years after Prohibition was repealed.
The Oregon wine industry started to rebuild in the 1960s, when California winemakers opened several vineyards in the state. By 1970, there were five commercial wineries, with 35 recorded acres (14 ha).
This included the planting of Pinot noir grapes in the Willamette Valley, a region long thought too cold to be suitable for viticulture. In the 1970s, more out-of-state winemakers migrated to the state and started to organize as an industry. The state's land use laws had prevented rural hillsides from being turned into housing tracts, preserving a significant amount of land suitable for vineyards. In 1979, Eyrie Vineyards entered a 1975 Pinot noir in the Wine Olympics; the wine was rated among the top Pinots in the world, thus gaining the region its first international recognition.
The accolades continued into the 1980s, and the Oregon wine industry continued to add both wineries and vineyards. The state industry continued to market itself, establishing the first of several AVAs (American Viticulture Areas) in the state. The state also grew strong ties with the Burgundy region of France, as Oregon's governor paid an official visit to Burgundy and a leading French winemaking family bought land in Dundee.
In the early 1990s, the wine industry was threatened by a Phylloxera infestation in the state, but winemakers quickly turned to the use of resistant rootstocks to prevent any serious damage. The state legislature enacted several new laws designed to promote winemaking and wine distribution. The state found a newfound focus on "green" winemaking, leading the global wine industry into more environmentally friendly practices. Several new AVAs were established. By 2005, there were 314 wineries and 519 vineyards in operation in Oregon. By 2009, the number of wineries in the state has increased to 453 and remains the 3rd largest wine producer in the country 
Varieties of wine
Like other wines produced in the United States, Oregon wines are marketed as varietals. Oregon law requires that wines produced in the state must be identified by the grape variety from which it was made, and for most varietals it must contain at least 90% of that variety. The exceptions to the 90% law are the following varietals: Red and White Bordeaux varietals, Red and White Rhône varietals, Sangiovese, Tempranillo, Zinfandel and Tannat. For these wines, they follow the Federal guidelines of 75%. Oregon law has long forbidden use of place names, except as appellations of origin. Oregon is most famous for its Pinot noir, which is produced throughout the state. Pinot noirs from the Willamette Valley have received much critical acclaim from wine connoisseurs and critics, and Oregon is regarded as one of the premier Pinot-producing regions in the world.
In 2005,[dated info] the top five varieties produced in Oregon were:
- Pinot noir 7,974 acres (3,227 ha), 12,086 short tons (10,964 t)
- Pinot gris 1,184 acres (479 ha), 4,317 short tons (3,916 t)
- Chardonnay 842 acres (341 ha), 1,568 short tons (1,422 t)
- Merlot 550 acres (220 ha), 675 short tons (612 t)
- Riesling 524 acres (212 ha), 1,000 short tons (907 t)
Other varieties with significant production in Oregon include Cabernet Sauvignon, Gewürztraminer, Müller-Thurgau, Pinot blanc, Sauvignon blanc, Sémillon, and Syrah. V. vinifera based wines produced in smaller quantities include Arneis, Baco noir, Cabernet franc, Chenin blanc, Dolcetto, Gamay noir, Grenache, Marechal Foch, Malbec, Muscat, Nebbiolo, Petite Syrah, Sangiovese, Tempranillo, Viognier, and Zinfandel. The state also produces sparkling wine, late harvest wine, ice wine, and dessert wine.
Facts and figures
|Year||Vinyard area||# Wineries
|1995||7,100 acres (29 km2)||92||14,280 short tons (12,955 t)||734,437|
|1996||7,500 acres (30 km2)||94||15,191 short tons (13,781 t)||741,953|
|1997||7,800 acres (32 km2)||94||18,669 short tons (16,936 t)||827,312|
|1998||9,000 acres (36 km²)||103||13,265 short tons (12,034 t)||894,386|
|1999||9,800 acres (40 km2)||102||16,523 short tons (14,989 t)||777,890|
|2000||10,500 acres (42 km2)||122||17,663 short tons (16,024 t)||991,770|
|2001||11,100 acres (45 km2)||131||22,163 short tons (20,106 t)||1,082,058|
|2002||12,100 acres (49 km2)||150||20,905 short tons (18,965 t)||1,073,177|
|2003||13,400 acres (54 km2)||170||21,860 short tons (19,831 t)||1,199,086|
|2004||13,700 acres (55 km2)||193||18,620 short tons (16,892 t)||1,286,128|
|2005||14,100 acres (57 km2)||215||23,450 short tons (21,273 t)||1,591,330|
As of the 2005 wine growing season, the state of Oregon has 303 bonded wineries, 384 wine brands, and 734 vineyards growing Vitis vinifera, composing a total of 14,100 acres (57 km2) of which 11,800 acres (48 km2) were harvested in 2005. Out of all US wine growing regions, Oregon ranked third in number of wineries and fourth in production. Nearly 1.6 million cases of Oregon wine were sold in 2005. The retail value of these cases was $184.7 million, a 24% increase over the previous vintage.
The industry has had a significant economic impact on the state. The industry contributed a total of US$1.4 billion to the Oregon economy. Of that figure, over US$800 million is directly provided by wineries and vineyards via sales, wages, and spending. It is estimated that the industry contributed 8,479 wine-related jobs and US$203 million in wages. Exports to other states in 2004 were US$64.1 million.
Oregon produces wine on a much smaller scale than the California wine industry. Oregon's leading producer, King Estate, ships only 175,000 cases per year and most produce under 35,000 cases. The state features many small wineries which produce less than 5,000 cases per year. In contrast, E & J Gallo Winery, the United States' largest winery, produced 65 million cases of wine in 2002. The majority of wineries in the state operate their own vineyards, although some purchase grapes on the market. Oregon contains a significant number of independent vineyards.
The Oregon wine industry focuses on the higher-priced segments of the wine market. Oregon growers receive a higher average return per ton and a higher average revenue per case than do growers in other wine-producing regions in the United States. Despite producing a much smaller volume of wine, Oregon winery revenues per capita are comparable to those of New York and Washington.
Major wine-producing regions
There are, loosely speaking, three main wine producing regions with a major presence in the state of Oregon, as defined by non-overlapping American Viticultural Areas. Two of them—the Willamette Valley AVA and the Southern Oregon AVA—are wholly contained within Oregon; a third, the Columbia Gorge AVA straddles the Columbia River and includes territory in both Oregon and Washington; however, this AVA is considered to be an Oregon AVA. Portions of the Walla Walla Valley AVA, an area which is primarily in Washington (along with the Columbia Valley AVA which contains it), descend into Oregon in the Milton-Freewater area. The Southern Oregon AVA was recently created as the union of two Southern Oregon winegrowing regions long considered distinct, the Rogue Valley and the Umpqua Valley. Several other smaller AVAs are found within some of these larger regions. The Snake River Valley AVA, which straddles Oregon's border with Idaho along the Snake River, is the first AVA to include a part of Eastern Oregon.
The Willamette Valley AVA is the wine growing region which encompasses the Willamette Valley. It stretches from the Columbia River in the north to just south of Eugene in the south, where the Willamette Valley ends; and from the Oregon Coast Range in the West to the Cascade Mountains in the East. At 5,200 square miles (13,500 km2), it is the largest AVA in the state, and contains most of the state's wineries; approximately 200 as of 2006.
The climate of Willamette Valley is mild year-round, with cool, wet winters and warm, dry summers; extreme temperatures are uncommon. Most rainfall occurs outside the growing season and the valley gets relatively little snow. Not all parts of the Valley are suitable for viticulture, and most wineries and vineyards are found west of the Willamette River, with the largest concentration in Yamhill County.
The region is best known for its Pinot noir, and also produces large amounts of Pinot gris, Riesling, and Chardonnay. The region also produces Cabernet Sauvignon, Gewürztraminer, Müller-Thurgau, Sémillon, and Zinfandel grapes, but in far smaller quantities.
The region is divided into six subordinate AVAs: Chehalem Mountains AVA, Dundee Hills AVA, Eola-Amity Hills AVA, McMinnville AVA, Ribbon Ridge AVA, and the Yamhill-Carlton District AVA. In addition, many wine connoisseurs further divide the Willamette Valley into northern and southern regions approximately at the latitude of Salem.
The Southern Oregon AVA is an AVA which was formed as the union of two existing AVAs—the Rogue Valley AVA and the Umpqua Valley AVA. (A small strip of connecting territory is included in the Southern Oregon AVA to make it a contiguous region; however, this strip passes through mountains regions not suitable for vineyards.) This AVA was established in 2004 to allow the two principal regions in Southern Oregon to jointly market themselves. As the Rogue Valley and Umpqua Valley regions produce different grapes and different varietals, they are examined separately.
Umpqua Valley AVA
The Umpqua Valley AVA contains the drainage basin of the Umpqua River, excluding mountainous regions. The Umpqua Valley has a warmer climate than the Willamette Valley, but is cooler than the Rogue Valley to the south. It is the oldest post-prohibition wine region in Oregon. Grapes grown here include Tempranillo, Baco noir, Pinot noir, Pinot gris, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, and Riesling, Grüner Veltliner, and a host of lesser known Vitis vinifera. The region includes two sub-AVAs, the Red Hill Douglas County, Oregon AVA, a single vineyard AVA, as well as the Elkton, Oregon AVA, which was established in early 2013.
Rogue Valley AVA
The Rogue Valley AVA includes the drainage basin of the Rogue River and several tributaries, including the Illinois River, the Applegate River, and Bear Creek. Most wineries in the region are found along one of these three tributaries, rather than along the Rogue River itself. The region is 70 miles (110 km) wide by 60 miles (100 km) long (although much of the land within the AVA is not suitable for grape cultivation); there are currently 32 wineries with only 1,100 acres (4 km2) planted. The three valleys differ greatly in terroir, with the easternmost Bear Creek valley being warmest and driest, and the westernmost Illinois River valley being coolest and wettest. Each river valley has a unique climate and grows different varieties of grapes. Overall, however, this region is the warmest and driest of Oregon's wine-growing regions. The region has one sub-AVA, the Applegate Valley AVA.
The Columbia Gorge AVA is found in the Columbia Gorge. This region straddles the Columbia River, and thus lies in both Oregon and Washington; it is made up of Hood River and Wasco counties in Oregon, and Skamania and Klickitat counties in Washington. The region lies to the east of the summits of nearby Mount Hood and Mount Adams, situated in their rain shadows; thus, the region is significantly drier than the Willamette Valley. It also exhibits significant differences in elevation due to gorge geography, and strong winds common in the area also play a factor in the region's climate. This allows a wide variety of grapes to be grown in the Columbia Gorge. The region has nearly 40 vineyards, growing a wide variety of grapes, including Syrah, Pinot noir, Chardonnay, Gewürztraminer, Zinfandel, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot gris, Riesling, and Sangiovese.
Walla Walla Valley
Portions of northeastern Oregon (in the vicinity of Milton-Freewater) are part of the Walla Walla Valley AVA, which was established in 1984. This appellation, which is part of the Columbia Valley AVA, lies primarily within Washington state. This region has nearly 100 wineries and 1,200 acres (5 km2) planted. Wines grown in the valley include Syrah, Merlot, and Cabernet Sauvignon, as well as Sangiovese and a few exotic varietals including Counoise, Carmenère, Mourvèdre, Cabernet Franc, Nebbiolo and Barbera.
Snake River Valley
A new viticultural area along the Snake River was established on April 9, 2007. Principally located in Idaho, the area also encompasses two large counties in Eastern Oregon, Baker County and Malheur County. The region's climate is unique among AVAs in Oregon; the average temperature is relatively cool and rainfall is low, creating a shorter growing season. Current production is led by hardy grapes such as Riesling, Gewürztraminer, and Chardonnay. The climate also lends itself extremely well to the production of ice wine. However, the AVA is quite large and warmer microclimates within the area can also support different types of grapes such as Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot.
|Maysara Winery||1997||Former abandoned wheat farm|
|Yamhill Valley Vineyards||1983||The oldest winery in the McMinnville AVA|
|Coeur De Terre Vineyard||1998||Specializes in estate grown Pinot Noir|
|Youngberg Hill Vineyards||1989|
|Brittan Vineyards||2004||Pinot Noir|
|Durant Vineyards||1973||Dundee Hills AVA. Proprietors: Ken and Penny Durant.|
With the continuing improvement in the region's winemaking reputation, enotourism in Oregon has become a significant industry in its own right. On-site sales are becoming an increasingly important part of the business of Oregon winemaking, and other businesses which cater to wine tourists, such as lodging, fine restaurants, art gallerys, have been appearing in places like Dundee, many of which have long been rural farming communities. Wine festivals and tastings are commonplace. It is estimated that enotourism contributed USD $92 million to the state economy in 2004,[dated info] excluding sales at wineries and tasting rooms. There are approximately 1.48 million visits to Oregon wineries each year, 49% by Oregonians and 51% from out of state visitors. Major events which draw significant numbers of tourists to wine country include the International Pinot Noir Celebration and the Oregon Pinot Camp.
Facilities for wine tourists in Oregon are considered underdeveloped compared to wine regions in California, especially premium growing regions like the Napa Valley AVA. Only 5% of overnight leisure trips in the state involve visits to wineries, a much smaller figure than comparable Californian growing regions which range from 10% to 25%. Oregon lacks many accommodations found in wine growing regions in other states such as luxury hotels, resorts, and other attractions suitable for well-heeled tourists. As of August 2006,[dated info] a resort hotel is being planned in Dundee, which would be located near notable wineries such as Domaine Drouhin Oregon. A local developer and businessman has proposed construction of a 50-room hotel, spa and restaurant in the Dundee Hills region, but has met with opposition from many notable vintners, including David Lett, who fear that such a development would dramatically alter the landscape of the region. Concern has also been raised by vintners that the proposed site is on prime growing land that should be used for wine production rather than a resort hotel.
The increase in winery-related tourism, as well as the presence of a casino in the Willamette Valley, has greatly impacted the region's transportation infrastructure. Oregon Route 99W, the highway which runs through the heart of Willamette Valley wine country (and which is the main street in towns such as Newberg and Dundee), is plagued with frequent traffic jams. Plans to construct a freeway bypass around Newberg and Dundee (avoiding the prime growing areas in the hills) are in motion, but are highly controversial. Currently, construction of the highway project is unfunded, and the Oregon Department of Transportation has proposed making the new bypass a toll road, highly unusual for Oregon. Tolls have also been proposed on the existing route of OR 99W, in addition to the new bypass. This proposal has proven to be highly controversial, with many local residents opposing the plan, primarily due to potential negative effects on businesses located on 99W and a general aversion to tolling existing roads.
|This section's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. (October 2012)|
Recognition for quality
Oregon wines have won several major awards, and/or been praised by notable wine critics.
- In 1904, Forest Grove winemaker Ernest Reuter won a silver medal at the St. Louis World's Fair.
- In 1979, Eyrie Vineyards' 1975 South Block Pinot noir placed in the top 10 of Burgundy-style wines at the Gault-Millau French Wine Olympiades, and was rated the top Pinot noir. In a rematch, however, the Eyrie finished second to a French wine.
- Two gold medals in the International Wine Competition in London in 1982.
- A Yamhill Valley Vineyards 1983 Pinot noir was the first place preference at the 1985 Oregon Pinot noir/French Burgundy Challenge at the International Wine Center in New York City.
- In 2006, seven Oregon wines made Wine Spectator's annual Top 100 Wines list. Producers on the list included: Shea, Argyle, Archery Summit, Lemelson, Ken Wright, Elk Cove, and Benton Lane.
- Oregon wines have continued to appear on Wine Spectator's annual Top 100 Wines list. For example, the 2009 list included the King Estate 2008 Signature Pinot gris and the 1999 Argyle Extended Tirage. The 2011 list had 2009 Pinot noirs from Sineann and Rex Hill wineries.
Notable wineries and vineyards
This is a list of notable operating and defunct wineries and vineyards in the state of Oregon in the United States, including those in the Southern Oregon AVA and Willamette Valley AVA. Included are wineries and vineyards owned or operated by larger wineries not based in Oregon.
|Bethel Heights Vineyard||Salem||1977|
|Bridgeview Vineyard and Winery||Cave Junction||1986|
|Coeur de Terre Vineyard||McMinnville||1998|
|Cooper Mountain Vineyards||Beaverton||1978|
|Eyrie Vineyards||McMinnville (winery)
|HillCrest Vineyards||Roseburg, Oregon (winery)
Umpqua Valley (vineyards)
|King Estate||Lorane||1991||Produces Pinot gris.|
|Oak Knoll Winery||Hillsboro||1970|
|Sokol Blosser Winery||Dundee||1971||Produces Pinot noir.|
|Willamette Valley Vineyards||Turner||1983||Additional winery and vineyard in Forest Grove.|
|Valley View Winery||Applegate Valley||1976|
- Gelardi, Michael (October 24, 2012). "Winery opponents, not LUBA, muddle land-use law". Daily Journal of Commerce. Retrieved 2012-10-26.
In 1970, there were five commercial wineries in Oregon and 35 recorded acres of vineyards. Today, there are more than 400 wineries and greater than 20,000 acres of vineyards in Oregon.
- Appellation America (2007). "Oregon: Appellation Description". Retrieved Nov. 16, 2007.
- "Oregon Wine Historical Milestones". Northwest Viticultural Center. Chemeketa Community College. Archived from the original on 2005-12-01. Retrieved 2012-10-16.
- Lisa Shara Hall. "History of the Oregon Wine Industry (excerpt)". AvalonWine.com.
- Number of U.S. Wineries Continues to Grow, Reaches 6,223 from winebusiness.com
- OLCC Statutes, 845-010-0915.
- "The Oregon Story and how to sell it" (pdf). Oregon Wine Board.
- National Agricultural Statistics Service (2006). "Oregon Vineyard and Winery Report" (pdf). Oregon Wine Board.
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- Oregon Wine Center (2005). "Oregon Wine Industry Facts". Oregon Wine Board.
- Full Glass Research (January 2006). "The Economic Impact of the Wine and Wine Grape Industries on the Oregon Economy" (pdf). Oregon Wine Center.
- Lisa Shara Hall (2001). Wines of the Pacific Northwest. Mitchell Beazley. ISBN 1-84000-419-3.
- Claburn, Thomas (September 20, 2004). "Top of the List: Recipe for a better winery". Information Week.
- Susan R. O'Hara. "Oregon Wineries, Wines, and Wine Country". Wines Northwest.
- "It's official: Government establishes Snake River Valley AVA". Wine Press Northwest. March 10, 2007.
- "Willamette Valley AVA". AppellationAmerica.com. Appellation America.
- "Oregon Climate Zone Summary: Zone 2-The Willamette Valley". Oregon State University.
- O'Hara, Susan R. "Oregon Wine Country: North Willamette Valley Wineries Map". Wines Northwest.
- "Federal Register: Vol 69 No. 235 / Wednesday, December 8, 2004 / Rules and Regulations, RIN 1513-AA75: Establishment of the Southern Oregon Viticultural Area (2002R-338P)" (PDF).
- "Umpqua Valley AVA". Appellation America.
- Lawrence, James. "Elkton Oregon AVA approved in US". Decanter. Retrieved 2014-03-20.
- "Rogue Valley AVA". AppellationAmerica.com. Appellation America.
- Susan R. O'Hara. "Rogue Valley and Applegate Valley Appellations of Southern Oregon". Wines Northwest.
- "Applegate Valley AVA". AppellationAmerica.com. Appellation America.
- "Federal Register: May 10, 2004 (Volume 69, Number 90)".
- "Description of grapes and wines of Columbia Gorge AVA" (doc). Columbia Gorge Winegrowers.
- "Gorge Vineyards". Columbia Gorge Winegrowers.
- "Walla Walla Valley APA". AppellationAmerica.com. Appellation America.
- "Appelation (Walla Walla)". Walla Walla Wine.com. Walla Walla Valley Wine Alliance.
- "TTB Approves New AVA: The Rocks District of Milton-Freewater". February 6, 2015. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
- Mike Hegedus (May 29, 2007). "Fruit of the Vine". CNBC.
- Cole Danehower (April 9, 2007). "Snake River Valley Appellation a First for Idaho". AppellationAmerica.com.
- Maysara, Vineyards. "Maysara Vinyards".
- Yamhill Valley, Vineyards. "Yamhill Valley Vineyards". Retrieved 25 October 2013.
- Coleman, Vineyards. "Coleman Vineyards". Retrieved 25 October 2013.
- Coeur De Terre, Vineyard. "Coeur De Terre Vineyard". Retrieved 25 October 2013.
- Youngberg, Hill. "Youngberg Hill". Retrieved 25 October 2013.
- Brittan, Vineyards. "Brittan Vineyard". Retrieved 25 October 2013.
- Durant, Vineyards. "Durant Vineyards". Retrieved 25 October 2013.
- Harvey Steiman (May 2, 2006). "Oregon Grapples with Wine Tourism". Wine Spectator.
- "Newberg-Dundee Transportation Improvement Project". ODOT Region 2 Construction Projects. Oregon Department of Transportation.
- Oregon Roads Project (April 17, 2006). "Alternatives Assessment: Summary Feasibility Review: Newberg-Dundee Transportation Improvement Project" (PDF). Oregon Transportation Improvement Group. Retrieved 2006-08-17.
- Schellene Clendenin (May 13, 2006). "Proposal to toll 99W proves to be an unpopular idea". The Newberg Graphic. Retrieved 2006-08-17.
- Giraud, Matt (1984). "Grape Expectations: The Birth of Oregon's Wine Industry". Willamette Week.
- "Oregon Wine Center: Yamhill Valley Vineyards (profile)".
- Wine Spectator’s Top 100 At A Glance. Wine Spectator. Retrieved December 4, 2007.
- Wine Spectator’s Top 100 of 2009 At A Glance. Wine Spectator. Retrieved March 21, 2009.
- Wine Spectator’s Top 100 of 2011 At A Glance. Wine Spectator. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
- Comiskey, P. "Oregon Pinot gris Puts Some Flash in the Glass," Los Angeles Times, February 6, 2008.
- Klooster, K. ‘Finalizing 2011 Numbers’ Oregon Wine Press, February 1, 2012.
- The wines and wineries of America's Northwest: the premium wines of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, 1986, ISBN 0-936666-03-X
- A travel companion to the wineries of the Pacific Northwest: featuring the pinot noirs of Oregon's Willamette Valley, 2002, ISBN 0-9704154-3-5
- Legal issues affecting Oregon wineries & vineyards, 2003
- Oregon wine country, 2004, ISBN 1-4000-1367-4
- Cooking with the wines of Oregon, 2007, ISBN 1-55285-843-X
- Oregon Winegrowers Association
- Oregon Wine Center
- OLCC changes wine label laws, a 2007 article from Portland Business Journal
- Oregon Wine: Grapes of Place Documentary produced by Oregon Public Broadcasting