Oreophrynella quelchii

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Oreophrynella quelchii
Oreophrynella quelchii.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Bufonidae
Genus: Oreophrynella
O. quelchii
Binomial name
Oreophrynella quelchii
Boulenger, 1895

Oreophryne Quelchii Boulenger, 1895[2]

Oreophrynella quelchii, commonly known as the Roraima black frog[4] or Roraima bush toad, is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae.[3] This species is restricted to the transboundary summit of Mount Roraima in Venezuela, Guyana and Brazil, and to the nearby Wei-Assipu-tepui on the Brazil–Guyana border.[1][5] It has been recorded at elevations of 2,300–2,800 m (7,500–9,200 ft) above sea level.[1]

History and etymology[edit]

Oreophrynella quelchii was described as Oreophryne Quelchii by George Albert Boulenger in 1895.[2][3] The description was based on one of the several specimens collected from the summit of Mount Roraima by Mr. J. J. Quelch and Mr. F. McConnell. The species was named for the former.[2]


The holotype, a male, measures 22 mm (0.87 in) in snout–vent length. Coloration is black, but the throat and belly are spotted or marbled with bright yellow,[2] also described as bright orange with black mottling.[6] Webbing between the fingers and toes is moderate (basal). The dorsum has a high density of tubercles of various sizes.[2][6]

Habitat and conservation[edit]

The species' natural habitats are high montane tepui environments. It is diurnal and usually found on open rock surfaces. It is a common species on the summit of Mount Roraima. There are currently no major threats, although the restricted range of the species makes its vulnerable to stochastic events. Also disturbance by tourists could be a threat. Parts of its range are protected by the Canaima National Park (Venezuela) and Monte Roraima National Park (Brazil).[1]


  1. ^ a b c d Marinus Hoogmoed; Josefa Celsa Señaris (2004). "Oreophrynella quelchii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004: e.T54853A11216183. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T54853A11216183.en.
  2. ^ a b c d e Boulenger, G. A. (1895). "Description of a new batrachian (Oreophryne Quelchii) discovered by Messrs. J. J. Quelch and F. McConnell on the summit of Mount Roraima". Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Series 6. 15 (90): 521–522. doi:10.1080/00222939508680212.
  3. ^ a b c Frost, Darrel R. (2017). "Oreophrynella quelchii Boulenger, 1895". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
  4. ^ "Oreophrynella quelchii Roraima Black Frog". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
  5. ^ Cole, Charles J.; Townsend, Carol R.; Reynolds, Robert P.; MacCulloch, Ross D.; Lathrop, Amy (2013). "Amphibians and reptiles of Guyana, South America: illustrated keys, annotated species accounts, and a biogeographic synopsis". Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 125 (4): 317–578. doi:10.2988/0006-324X-125.4.317. S2CID 86665287.
  6. ^ a b Kok, Philippe J. R. (2009). "A new species of Oreophrynella (Anura: Bufonidae) from the Pantepui region of Guyana, with notes on O. macconnelli Boulenger, 1900". Zootaxa. 2071: 35–49. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.2071.1.3.