Organic movement

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Organic tomatoes

The organic movement broadly refers to the organizations and individuals involved worldwide in the promotion of organic food and other organic products. It started during the first half of the 20th century, when modern large-scale agricultural practices began to appear.[citation needed]

Definition[edit]

An organic product can broadly be described as not containing toxic chemicals (including synthetic pesticides, arsenic-containing herbicides, fertilization biosolids, chemical food additives, antibiotics, synthetic hormones, and industrial solvents). In addition to the absence of artificial chemicals, "organic" means not genetically engineered, and having not used ionizing irradiation,[1] which can cause free-radicals and the removal of vitamins.[citation needed] For example, USDA organic restricts against such things, including genetic engineering in products or in the products' animal feed,[2][3][4] and automatically allows the use of "Non-GMO" labelling similar to The Non-GMO Project.[5]

In the United Kingdom, the term used with food is natural food.[6]

History[edit]

Origin[edit]

The organic movement began in the early 1900s in response to the shift towards synthetic nitrogen fertilizers and pesticides in the early days of industrial agriculture. A relatively small group of farmers came together in various associations: Demeter International of Germany, which encouraged biodynamic farming and began the first certification program, the Australian Organic Farming and Gardening Society,[7] the Soil Association of the United Kingdom, and Rodale, Inc. in Emmaus, Pennsylvania, and others. In 1972, these organizations joined to form the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM). In recent years, environmental awareness has driven demand and conversion to organic farming. Some governments, including the European Union, have begun to support organic farming through agricultural subsidy reform. Organic production and marketing have grown at a fast pace.

Historians consider Albert Howard, Viscount Lymington, Robert McCarrison, Edgar J. Saxon and Frank Newman Turner as pioneers of the organic movement in Britain,[8][9][10] and the term "organic farming" was coined by Lord Northbourne in 1940.[11]

Today, organic foods stores have captured a significant share of the grocery shopping market, specifically, Whole Foods Market, Wild Oats, Trader Joe's and others.

Timeline[edit]

  • In the summer of 1924 Rudolf Steiner presented what has been called the first organic agriculture course to a group of over one hundred farmers and others at Koberwitz, now Kobierzyce, Poland.[8][12] In Germany Rudolf Steiner's Spiritual Foundations for the Renewal of Agriculture, published in 1924, led to the popularization of biodynamic agriculture, probably the first comprehensive organic farming system, that was based on Steiner's spiritual and philosophical teachings.
  • The first use of the term "organic farming" is by Lord Northbourne (aka Walter James, 4th Baron Northbourne). The term derives from his concept of "the farm as organism", which he expounded in his book, Look to the Land (1940), and in which he described a holistic, ecologically balanced approach to farming. Northbourne wrote of "chemical farming versus organic farming". http://www.orgprints.org/10138.
  • In 1939, strongly influenced by Sir Howard's work, Lady Eve Balfour launched the Haughley Experiment on farmland in England. It was the first, side-by-side comparison of organic and conventional farming. Four years later, she published The Living Soil, based on the initial findings of the Haughley Experiment. It was widely read, and lead to the formation of a key international organic advocacy group, the Soil Association.
  • Sir Albert Howard's 1940 book, An Agricultural Testament, was influential in promoting organic techniques, and his 1947 book "The Soil and Health, A Study of Organic Agriculture" adopted Northbourne's terminology and was the first book to include "organic" agriculture or farming in its title.
  • During the 1950s, sustainable agriculture was a research topic of interest. The science tended to concentrate on the new chemical approaches. In the U.S. [J. I. Rodale]] began to popularize the term and methods of organic growing. In addition to agricultural research, Rodale's publications through Rodale, Inc. in Emmaus, Pennsylvania helped to promote organic gardening to the general public.
  • In 1962, Rachel Carson, a prominent scientist and naturalist, published Silent Spring, chronicling the effects of DDT and other pesticides on the environment drawing on the research of biodynamic agriculture advocates Marjorie Spock, Mary T. Richards and Ehrenfried Pfeiffer.[13][9] A bestseller in many countries, including the US, and widely read around the world, Silent Spring was instrumental in the US government's 1972 banning of DDT. The book and its author are often credited with launching the environmental movement.[13]
  • In the 1970s, worldwide movements concerned with environmental pollution caused by persistent agrichemical increased attention on organic farming. One goal of the organic movement was to promote consumption of locally grown food, which was promoted through slogans such as "Know Your Farmer, Know Your Food".
  • In 1972, the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), was founded in Versailles, France. IFOAM was dedicated to the diffusion of information on the principles and practices of organic agriculture across national and linguistic boundaries. In the same year, John Battendieri founded Santa Cruz Organics, which marketed some of the first packaged organic products.[10]
  • In the 1980s, around the world, various farming and consumer groups began seriously pressuring for government regulation of organic production to ensure standards of production. This led to various legislation and certification standards being enacted through the 1990s and to date. Currently, most aspects of organic food production are government-regulated in the US and the European Union.
  • In the 2000s, the worldwide market for organic products (including food, beauty, health, bodycare, and household products, and fabrics) has grown rapidly. More countries are establishing formal, government-regulated Organic certification. Monitoring and challenging certification rules and decisions have become a regular, high profile aspect of activists in the organic movement.

Organic food[edit]

Organic produce at a farmers' market in Argentina

Organic food, ecological food, or biological food are foods and drinks produced by methods complying with the standards of organic farming. Standards vary worldwide, but organic farming features practices that cycle resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity. Organizations regulating organic products may restrict the use of certain pesticides and fertilizers in the farming methods used to produce such products. Organic foods are typically not processed using irradiation, industrial solvents, or synthetic food additives.[14]

In the 21st century, the European Union, the United States, Canada, Mexico, Japan, and many other countries require producers to obtain special certification to market their food as organic. Although the produce of kitchen gardens may actually be organic, selling food with an organic label is regulated by governmental food safety authorities, such as the National Organic Program of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA)[15] or the European Commission (EC).[16]

From an environmental perspective, fertilizing, overproduction, and the use of pesticides in conventional farming may negatively affect ecosystems, soil health,[17][18] biodiversity, groundwater, and drinking water supplies. These environmental and health issues are intended to be minimized or avoided in organic farming.[19]

Demand for organic foods is primarily driven by consumer concerns for personal health and the environment, such as the detrimental environmental impacts of pesticides.[20] From the perspective of science and consumers, there is insufficient evidence in the scientific and medical literature to support claims that organic food is either substantially safer or healthier to eat than conventional food.[20]

Organic agriculture has higher production costs and lower yields, higher labor costs, and higher consumer prices as compared to conventional farming methods.

Organic companies[edit]

The recent interest in the organic industry has sparked the interest of many businesses from small local distributors to large companies that distribute many products nationally. The organic market is now a 13 billion dollar a year industry, that continues to grow especially from large corporations such as Wal-Mart that are now offering organic choices to their customers.[21] Other companies that offer organic options include General Mills and Kraft. Some large companies have bought smaller already established organic companies such as Earth's Best, Rice Dream soy milk, Garden of Eatin', Celestial Seasonings and Health Valley. When larger companies buy smaller companies it is called stealth ownership.[22]

Organic cosmetics[edit]

Organic cosmetics are products that are made with organic ingredients that were produced without the use of synthetic pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, and fertilizers.

The FDA does not have a definition of "Organic" in terms of organic cosmetics. FDA regulates cosmetics under the authority of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) and the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act (FPLA).

The FDA does not have a definition of “Organic” in terms of organic cosmetics. FDA regulates cosmetics under the authority of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) and the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act (FPLA). The FDA does not have a definition of "Organic" in terms of organic cosmetics. FDA regulates cosmetics under the authority of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) and the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act (FPLA).

The USDA (the U.S. Department of Agriculture) requirements for the use of the term “organic” are separate from the laws and regulations that FDA applies for cosmetics. For more information on "organic" labeling for cosmetics, see the NOP publication, "Cosmetics, Body Care Products, and Personal Care Products." Cosmetic products labeled with “organic” must follow both USDA regulations and FDA regulations of organic claims for labeling and safety requirements for cosmetics.

The Agricultural Marketing Service of USDA supervises the National Organic Program (NOP). The NOP regulations have the definition of "organic" and provide certification for agricultural ingredients if they have been produced under conditions that would meet the definition. Moreover, the regulations also include labeling standards based on the percentage of organic ingredients in every product.[23]

The COSMetic Organic and Natural Standard (COSMOS) sets certification requirements for organic and natural cosmetics products in Europe.[24]

Organic farming[edit]

Vegetables from ecological farming

Organic farming, also known as ecological farming or biological farming,[25][26][27][28][29] is an agricultural system that uses fertilizers of organic origin such as compost manure, green manure, and bone meal and places emphasis on techniques such as crop rotation and companion planting. It originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices. Certified organic agriculture accounts for 70 million hectares (170 million acres) globally, with over half of that total in Australia.[30] Organic farming continues to be developed by various organizations today. Biological pest control, mixed cropping and the fostering of insect predators are encouraged. Organic standards are designed to allow the use of naturally-occurring substances while prohibiting or strictly limiting synthetic substances.[31] For instance, naturally-occurring pesticides such as pyrethrin are permitted, while synthetic fertilizers and pesticides are generally prohibited. Synthetic substances that are allowed include, for example, copper sulfate, elemental sulfur and Ivermectin. Genetically modified organisms, nanomaterials, human sewage sludge, plant growth regulators, hormones, and antibiotic use in livestock husbandry are prohibited.[32][33] Organic farming advocates claim advantages in sustainability,[34][35] openness, self-sufficiency, autonomy and independence,[35] health, food security, and food safety.

Organic agricultural methods are internationally regulated and legally enforced by many nations, based in large part on the standards set by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), an international umbrella organization for organic farming organizations established in 1972.[36] Organic agriculture can be defined as "an integrated farming system that strives for sustainability, the enhancement of soil fertility and biological diversity while, with rare exceptions, prohibiting synthetic pesticides, antibiotics, synthetic fertilizers, genetically modified organisms, and growth hormones".[37][38][39][40]

Since 1990, the market for organic food and other products has grown rapidly, reaching $63 billion worldwide in 2012.[41]: 25  This demand has driven a similar increase in organically-managed farmland that grew from 2001 to 2011 at a compounding rate of 8.9% per annum.[42]
As of 2020, approximately 75,000,000 hectares (190,000,000 acres) worldwide were farmed organically, representing approximately 1.6% of total world farmland.[43]

Organic farming can be beneficial on biodiversity and environmental protection at local level. However, because organic farming has lower yields compared to conventional farming, additional agricultural land is needed elsewhere in the world, which means that natural land has to be converted into agricultural land. This can cause loss of biodiversity and negative climate effects that outweigh the local environmental gains achieved.[44]

Organic land care and landscaping[edit]

Organic land care, organic landscaping or organic lawn management is a form of horticulture that relies on organic land management techniques such as mowing high, proper watering, use of compost, soil amendments and organic pest control.

In the late 20th century, a movement to manage lawns organically began to grow out of the practices of the organic farming movement. Activists in a number of U.S. cities have pushed local governments to require organic landscaping. Many private properties around the world are managed organically, but some locations require organic land care.[45] Local regulations are often responding to a lack of regulation from the federal government and billion-dollar settlements against pesticide manufacturers.[46]

The organic land care movement gained public recognition in 1996 when England's Prince Charles announced that the Highgrove House gardens and landscaping were under organic management.[47] In 2009, then Harvard University President Drew Gilpin Faust announced that the campus and grounds were under organic management there implemented by landscape director Wayne Carbone and with savings of two million gallons of irrigation water and resulting in cure of leaf spot and apple scab in the campus orchard.[48] In 2018, Portland, Maine became the largest city in the United States to restrict all synthetic pesticide applications across all public lands and private property. The pesticide ordinance passed by the City Council that includes a fine of up to $500 for violations was lobbied for by environmental groups and community organizer Avery Yale Kamila.[49] In 2019, Rafael Tornini, head of the Garden and Environment Service of the Vatican, announced the 37 acre Gardens of Vatican City had been transitioning to organic management since 2017.[50]

Criticisms[edit]

There have been multiple criticisms regarding organic food and organic marketing practices. Scientists at the University of Washington did a test of the urine of children who are on organic food diets and children who are on conventional food diets. The result was children on organic food diets ‘ urine had a median level of pesticide byproducts only one-sixth of children on conventional food diets. However, at the same time French, British and Swedish government food agencies have all concluded that there was no scientific proof that organic food is safer or has more nutrition than conventional foods.[51]

A 2014 study by a non-profit academic think tank alleged consumers are "routinely deceived" by intentional and endemic misleading health claims in organic marketing.[52] Organic products typically cost 10% to 40% more than similar conventionally produced products.[53] According to the UK's Food Standards Agency, "Consumers may choose to buy organic fruit, vegetables and meat because they believe them to be more nutritious than other food. However, the balance of current scientific evidence does not support this view."[54] A 12-month systematic review commissioned by the FSA in 2009 and conducted at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine based on 50 years' worth of collected evidence concluded that "there is no good evidence that consumption of organic food is beneficial to health in relation to nutrient content."[55] Although the source of the organic movement was small family farms, large corporations have started distributing more organic products and certain categories of organic foods, such as milk, have been reported by Michael Pollan to be highly concentrated and predominantly sourced to mega-farms.[56]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Allen, Gary J.; Albala, Ken, eds. (2007). The Business of Food: Encyclopedia of the Food and Drink Industries. ABC-CLIO. p. 288. ISBN 978-0-313-33725-3.
  2. ^ "Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (eCFR)". Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (eCFR). 5 November 2020. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  3. ^ "Can GMOs Be Used in Organic Products? | Agricultural Marketing Service". www.ams.usda.gov. 1 May 2013. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  4. ^ McEvoy, Miles (21 February 2017). "Organic 101: Can GMOs Be Used in Organic Products?". www.usda.gov. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  5. ^ McEvoy, Miles (21 February 2017). "New Allowances for Including a "Non-GMO" Statement on Certified Organic Meat and Poultry Products". www.usda.gov. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  6. ^ "Criteria for use of the terms Fresh, Pure, Natural etc. in food labeling" (PDF). Food Standards Agency. 1 December 2002.
  7. ^ Paull, John "The Lost History of Organic Farming in Australia", Journal of Organic Systems, 2008, 3(2):2–17.
  8. ^ Conford, Philip (1998). "A Forum for Organic Husbandry: The "New English Weekly" and Agricultural Policy, 1939–1949". Agricultural History Review. 46 (2): 197–210.
  9. ^ Conford, Philip (2002). "The Myth of Neglect: Responses to the Early Organic Movement, 1930–1950". Agricultural History Review. 50 (1): 80–106.
  10. ^ Lockeretz, William. (2018). Organic Farming: An International History. CABI. pp. 24–25. ISBN 978-0-85199-833-6
  11. ^ Paull, John Lord Northbourne, the man who invented organic farming, a biography. Journal of Organic Systems, 2014, 9(1), 31–53.
  12. ^ Paull, John (2011) "Attending the First Organic Agriculture Course: Rudolf Steiner’s Agriculture Course at Koberwitz, 1924", European Journal of Social Sciences, 21(1):64–70.
  13. ^ a b Paull, John (2013) "The Rachel Carson Letters and the Making of Silent Spring", SAGE Open, 3 (July), pp. 1–12.
  14. ^ "Pesticides in Organic Farming". University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved 11 December 2022. Organic foods are not necessarily pesticide-free. Organic foods are produced using only certain pesticides with specific ingredients. Organic pesticides tend to have substances like soaps, lime sulfur and hydrogen peroxide as ingredients. Not all natural substances are allowed in organic agriculture; some chemicals like arsenic, strychnine, and tobacco dust (nicotine sulfate) are prohibited.
  15. ^ "National Organic Program". Agricultural Marketing Service, US Department of Agriculture. 12 December 2018. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  16. ^ "Organic certification". European Commission: Agriculture and Rural Development. 2014. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  17. ^ Reeve, J. R.; Hoagland, L. A.; Villalba, J. J.; Carr, P. M.; Atucha, A.; Cambardella, C.; Davis, D. R.; Delate, K. (1 January 2016). "Chapter Six – Organic Farming, Soil Health, and Food Quality: Considering Possible Links". Advances in Agronomy. Academic Press. 137: 319–367. doi:10.1016/bs.agron.2015.12.003.
  18. ^ Tully, Katherine L.; McAskill, Cullen (1 September 2020). "Promoting soil health in organically managed systems: a review". Organic Agriculture. 10 (3): 339–358. doi:10.1007/s13165-019-00275-1. ISSN 1879-4246. S2CID 209429041.
  19. ^ Lowell, Vicki. "Organic FAQs". Organic Farming Research Foundation. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  20. ^ a b "Should you go organic?". Harvard Health Publishing, Harvard Medical School. 9 September 2015. Retrieved 7 December 2022.
  21. ^ Clark, Georgia. "The New Horizon for Organics: A Market Outlook of the Effects of Wal-Mart on the International Organic Market". June 2007
  22. ^ Kleppel, Gary; Ikerd, John (22 July 2014). The Emergent Agriculture: Farming, Sustainability and the Return of the Local Economy. New Society Publishers. ISBN 9780865717732.
  23. ^ Gpo.gov
  24. ^ Alex, Cosper. "Understanding COSMOS – the COSMetics organic and natural standard". Desjardin. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  25. ^ Labelling, article 30 of Regulation (EU) 2018/848 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 2018 on organic production and labelling of organic products and repealing Council Regulation (EC) No 834/2007.
  26. ^ History of Organic Farming. biocyclopedia.com (Aug 2022 accessed)
    "Various types and methods of organic agriculture have been developed in the Northern Hemisphere, such as the biological-organic and biodynamic method"
  27. ^ Biological Farming/Ecological Farming: USDA National Agricultural Library (version Aug 2007)
    "the term biological often refers to organic farming, whereas the term ecological refers to organic plus environmental considerations such as on-farm wildlife management"
  28. ^ Organic farming. Lexicon Wein‑Plus (Aug 2022 accessed)
    "A form of production (also organic farming, ecological farming, ecological-biological farming, ecological agriculture, alternative agriculture) for the production of food and other agricultural products."
  29. ^ Clean & Organic Agricultural Products. RIRDC, Oct 2000.]
    "Biological farming and ‘bio’ products are terms often used in European countries as equivalent to organic farming. [...] Ecological farming and ‘eco’ products are terms also used in European countries as equivalent to organic farming."
  30. ^ Paull, John (2019). "Organic Agriculture in Australia: Attaining the Global Majority (51%)". Journal of Environment Protection and Sustainable Development – via Academia.edu.
  31. ^ "USDA Blog » Organic 101: Allowed and Prohibited Substances". blogs.usda.gov. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
  32. ^ Paull, John (2011) "Nanomaterials in food and agriculture: The big issue of small matter for organic food and farming", Proceedings of the Third Scientific Conference of ISOFAR (International Society of Organic Agriculture Research), 28 September – 1 October, Namyangju, Korea., 2:96-99
  33. ^ "USDA List of Allowed and Prohibited Substances in Organic Agriculture". USDA List of Allowed and Prohibited Substances in Organic Agriculture. USDA. 4 April 2016. Archived from the original on 28 December 2015. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
  34. ^ Arsenault, Chris. "Only 60 Years of Farming Left If Soil Degradation Continues". Scientific American. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  35. ^ a b Coleman, Eliot (1995), The New Organic Grower: A Master's Manual of Tools and Techniques for the Home and Market Gardener (2nd ed.), pp. 65, 108, ISBN 978-0930031756.
  36. ^ Paull, John "From France to the World: The International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM)", Journal of Social Research & Policy, 2010, 1(2):93-102.
  37. ^ Danielle Treadwell, Jim Riddle, Mary Barbercheck, Deborah Cavanaugh-Grant, Ed Zaborski, Cooperative Extension System, What is organic farming? Archived 3 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  38. ^ H. Martin, '’Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs Introduction to Organic Farming, ISSN 1198-712X
  39. ^ Dale Rhoads, Purdue Extension Service, What is organic farming? Archived 10 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  40. ^ Gold, Mary. "What is organic production?". National Agricultural Library. USDA. Archived from the original on 7 August 2007. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  41. ^ Helga Willer, Julia Lernoud and Robert Home The World of Organic Agriculture: Statistics & Emerging Trends 2013, Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL) and the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM, 2013).
  42. ^ Paull, John (2011) "The Uptake of Organic Agriculture: A Decade of Worldwide Development", Journal of Social and Development Sciences, 2 (3), pp. 111-120.
  43. ^ "The World of Organic Agriculture - Statistics & Emerging Trends 2022" (PDF). FiBL and IFOAM. p. 11. Retrieved 20 February 2022.
  44. ^ "Scientists urge EU to allow the use of novel breeding techniques and modern biotechnology in organic farming". Wageningen Plant Research. 23 April 2021.
  45. ^ Land, Leslie (12 April 2007). "Are Bugs the Pests, or Humans? Organic Lawns Take Hold". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  46. ^ "Pesticide industry influence at the local level". EHN. 16 November 2021. Retrieved 3 June 2022.
  47. ^ Aslet, Clive (12 November 2018). "Inside the private world of Prince Charles: What's life really like for our future king?". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  48. ^ Raver, Anne (23 September 2009). "The Grass Is Greener at Harvard". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  49. ^ Billings, Randy (4 January 2018). "Portland's tough new ban on synthetic pesticides allows few exceptions". Portland Press Herald. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  50. ^ Caldwell, Zelda (2 August 2019). "The Vatican Gardens are going "green"". Aleteia – Catholic Spirituality, Lifestyle, World News, and Culture. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  51. ^ Jan, Grover; Singer, Peter; Mason, Jim (2008). FOOD. Detroit: Greenhaven Press. pp. 170–171. ISBN 978-0737737943.
  52. ^ Organics Exposed (Academics Review Organic Marketing Report 2014), by Steve Kopperud, Brownfield News, 2 May 2014.
  53. ^ Winter, CK and SF Davis, 2006 "Organic Foods" Journal of Food Science 71(9):R117–R124.
  54. ^ The Food Standards Agency’s Current Stance Archived 31 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  55. ^ Sophie Goodchild (29 July 2009). "Organic food 'no healthier' blow". London Evening Standard. Archived from the original on 1 August 2009. Retrieved 29 July 2009.
  56. ^ Naturally, by Michael Pollan, The New York Times Magazine, 13 May 2001.

References[edit]

External links[edit]