Organisation Intersex International
Logo for OII UK. Similar logos are used for OII in other countries (but the international organisation uses a different logo)
|Purpose||Intersex human rights|
The Organisation Intersex International (OII) is a global advocacy and support group for people with intersex traits. According to Milton Diamond, it is the world's largest organization of intersex persons. A decentralised network, OII was founded in 2003 by Curtis Hinkle. Upon Hinkle's retirement, American intersex activist Hida Viloria served as Chairperson/President elect from April 2011 through November 2017, when s/he resigned in order to focus on OII's American affiliate, OII-USA's transition into the independent American non-profit, the Intersex Campaign for Equality.
OII was established to give voice to intersex people, including those speaking languages other than just English, for people born with bodies which have atypical sexual characteristics such as gonads, chromosomes, and/or genitals. OII acknowledges intersex as a normal human biological variation, and rejects the terminology of disorder, as in DSD/Disorders of Sex Development, utilized by some other intersex groups, as well as the sexualization of intersex (as in Intersexuality). They acknowledge intersex people's own distinct sexuality, as people who may identify as gay, lesbian, bisexual, queer, trans, straight, or other, in alliance with other members of the LGBTI population.
Sociologist Georgiann Davis describes OII and (the now defunct) Intersex Society of North America as "activist organisations". The objective of OII is to achieve equality and human rights for intersex people, and end human rights violations against them, particularly the practice of non-consensual genital surgeries on infants and minors. The ethos of the group is that people will hold different views as appropriate to the individual; this often entails treating as optional socially and medically constructed categories such as binary genders and sexual identifications; the identity human being being seen as the fundamental identity.
Affiliates include organisations in Chinese, French and Spanish-speaking regions, Australia, and Europe. In November 2017, the former US affiliate, OII-USA, announced that it had left OII. They include:
Intersex Human Rights Australia
Intersex Human Rights Australia, formerly known as OII Australia, is a charitable company that has achieved notable contributions to national health and human rights policies, including intersex inclusion in anti-discrimination legislation, gender recognition, healthcare access, and contributions to a Senate of Australia report on the Involuntary or coerced sterilisation of intersex people in Australia. Notable members include co-chairs Morgan Carpenter and Tony Briffa, and retired president Gina Wilson.
Intersex South Africa
Founded by Sally Gross, Intersex South Africa is an autonomous affiliated organisation. Advocacy work by Sally Gross led to the first recognition of intersex in law in any country in the world.
Oii-Chinese (國際陰陽人組織 — 中文版) aims to end "normalising" surgeries on intersex children, promote awareness of intersex issues, and improve government recognition of gender. Chiu says that surgical "normalisation" practices began in Taiwan in 1953. As part of this mission, founder Hiker Chiu started a "free hugs with intersex" campaign at Taipei's LGBT Pride Parade in 2010. The organisation also gives lectures and lobbies government.
Founded in 2012 at the Second International Intersex Forum, OII Europe is the first European intersex NGO. Along with ILGA-Europe, the organisation contributed to Resolution 1952 (2013) of the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly, on Children's Right to Physical Integrity, adopted in October 2013. Notable representatives include executive director Dan Christian Ghattas, co-chairs Kitty Anderson and Miriam van der Have, and Kristian Ranđelović.
This was the original OII, based in Quebec and Paris, from where the French title Organisation Intersex International derived, and founded by Curtis Hinckle, Andre Lorek and Vincent Guillot (amongst others) between 2003 and 2004. OII-Canada was the first OII-affiliate to become legally incorporated in 2004. OII-Francophonie hosted a summer school in Paris in 2006, with representatives from Canada, France, Belgium and the UK including Vincent Guillot, Cynthia Krauss and Paula Machado.
OII Germany, also known as Internationale Vereinigung Intergeschlechtlicher Menschen, participates in national and European action promoting human rights and bodily autonomy. In September 2013, the Heinrich Böll Foundation published Human Rights between the Sexes, an analysis of the human rights of intersex people in 12 countries, written by Dan Christian Ghattas of OII-Germany.
OII-UK was established between 2004 & 2005 by Tina Livingstone, Michelle O'Brien and Sophia Siedlberg. OII-UK was active in representing the interests of intersex people at UK and European conferences, meetings and forums between 2005 and 2010. After a brief hiatus from 2010 due to members stepping down for health or migration reasons, OII-UK was again active, led by Leslie Jaye.
OII Russia also known as Intersex Russia (Russian: Интерсекс Россия), based in Moscow, Russia was founded in 2017. Notable representatives include Irina Kuzenko, one of the very few open intersex persons in Russia and a co-founder of OII Russia.
- "Welcome to the online home of Organisation Intersex International – OII – world's largest organisation of intersex people". OII International site. 10 January 2012.
- Diamond, Milton; Beh, Hazel G (January 2008). "Changes in the management of children with intersex conditions". Nature Clinical Practice Endocrinology & Metabolism. 4 (1): 4–5. doi:10.1038/ncpendmet0694. PMID 17984980.
- Still, Brian (2008). Online intersex communities: virtual neighborhoods of support and activism. Cambria Press. ISBN 978-1-60497-592-5.
- Callahan, Gerald (2009). Between XX and XY: intersexuality and the myth of two sexes. Chicago Review Press. ISBN 978-1-55652-785-2.
- Cohen, Stephan (2007). The gay liberation youth movement in New York: "an army of lovers cannot fail. Routledge. p. 121. ISBN 978-0-415-95799-1.
- Karkazis, Katrina (2008). Fixing sex: intersex, medical authority, and lived experience. Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-4318-9.
- Intersex Campaign for Equality (November 8, 2017). "New Mission and Independent Status for IC4E as Viloria resigns from post as OII Chair".
- Holmes, Morgan (2009). Critical Intersex. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7546-7311-8.
- Rosario, Vernon (2009). "Quantum Sex: Intersex and the Molecular Deconstruction of Sex". GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies. 15 (2): 267–284. doi:10.1215/10642684-2008-138..
- Davis, Georgiann (2011). ""DSD is a Perfectly Fine Term": Reasserting Medical Authority through a Shift in Intersex Terminology". In PJ McGann; David J Hutson (eds.). Advances in Medical Sociology. 12. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing. pp. 155–182. ISBN 978-0-85724-575-5.
- Chiland, C (September 2008). "La problématique de l'identité sexuée". Neuropsychiatrie de l'Enfance et de l'Adolescence. 56 (6): 328–334. doi:10.1016/j.neurenf.2008.03.009.
- Carpenter, Morgan (March 4, 2018). "We are now "Intersex Human Rights Australia"". Intersex Human Rights Australia. Retrieved March 31, 2018.
- Carpenter, Morgan (June 18, 2013). "Australia can lead the way for intersex people". The Guardian. Retrieved 2016-05-20.
- "Statement on the Senate report 'Involuntary or coerced sterilisation of intersex people in Australia'". Intersex Human Rights Australia. 29 October 2013.
- Bock, Andrew (20 June 2013). "Call to end intersex genital operations". The Age.
- Carpenter, Morgan (November 15, 2013). "It's time to defend intersex rights". Sydney: Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2016-05-20.
- "OutSummit Speakers". OutRight Action International. December 2015. Retrieved 2015-12-20.
- Mitchell, Mani (17 February 2014). "In memory of Sally Gross ISSA-Intersex Society of South Africa". Intersex Trust Aotearoa New Zealand.
- "Remembering Sally Gross". Organisation Intersex International. 21 February 2014.
- "Neither here, nor there". Taipei Times. November 27, 2013.
- "擁抱陰陽人 系列2：停止矯正手術 陰陽兒不是異形". Lihpao Daily. 23 December 2013.
- "Taiwan to allow legal gender changes without transitioning". Gay Star News. 9 December 2013.
- "Germany recognises gender 'X'". Liberty Times. November 3, 2013.
- "Intersex: Hiker Chiu's story". Radio Taiwan International. January 20, 2011. Archived from the original on July 3, 2015.
- "First ever European Intersex NGO founded. OII Europe sets up work on Intersex Human Right Issues". OII Europe. 14 December 2012.
- "Transgender Europe welcomes Creation of European Intersex Human Rights Organization". Transgender Europe. March 5, 2013.
- Cassell, Heather (10 October 2013). "Europe adopts historic intersex resolution". Bay Area Reporter.
- "ILGA-Europe and OII Europe Statement on the adoption of a historical intersex resolution by the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe". ILGA-Europe. 3 October 2013.
- Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly (6 September 2013). "Children's right to physical integrity: Explanatory memorandum by Ms Rupprecht, rapporteur".
- Caroline Ausserer, Dr. Dan Christian Ghattas (December 15, 2015). ""It Is Still a Big Taboo"". Heinrich Böll Foundation. Retrieved 2015-12-20.
- "OII Francophonie". Retrieved 2017-01-12.
- "A qui appartiennent nos corps? Féminisme et luttes intersexes" (PDF). Nouvelles Questiones Féministes. Université de Lausanne. 27 (1). 2008.
- "1ères Universités d'été des Intersexes et Intergenres d'Europe Paris - du 16 au 19 août 2006". OII-France. 1 August 2006.
- Viloria, Hida (November 6, 2013). "Op-ed: Germany's Third-Gender Law Fails on Equality". The Advocate.
- Ghattas, Dan Christian (2013). Human Rights between the Sexes A preliminary study on the life situations of inter*individuals (PDF). Berlin: Heinrich-Böll-Stift. ISBN 978-3-86928-107-0. Retrieved 2016-05-20.
- "Dan Christian Ghattas". OII Germany. 8 January 2008.
- "A preliminary study on the life situations of inter* individuals". OII Europe. 4 November 2013 – via oiieurope.org.
- "Menschenrechte zwischen den Geschlechtern". Heinrich Böll Foundation. October 2013.
- "Reflection on a Decade of OII Activism in an English Speaking Context". OII-UK. 24 November 2014.
- "About | Intersex Russia | Интерсекс Россия". Intersex Russia | Интерсекс Россия | Главная. Retrieved 2019-01-04.
- Internationalen Vereinigung Untergeschlechtlicher Menschen - OII Germany
- Intersex Human Rights Australia
- Intersex South Africa (ISSA)
- Organisation Intersex International
- OII-Chinese 國際陰陽人組織 — 中文版
- OII Europe
- OII Francophonie - French-speaking
- OII Hispanohablante – Organización Internacional Intersexual (Spanish-speaking)
- OII UK
- OII Russia