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Organomegaly is the abnormal enlargement of organs. For example, clitoromegaly is the enlargement of the clitoris, and cardiomegaly is enlargement of the heart. Visceromegaly is the enlargement of abdominal organs.[1] Examples of visceromegaly are enlarged liver (hepatomegaly), spleen (splenomegaly), stomach, kidneys, and pancreas.

Definitions for various organs[edit]

Values refer to adults unless otherwise specified.

Organ Term for enlargement Cutoff for definition
Abdominal aorta Ectasia or mild dilation

>2.0 cm and <3.0 cm[2]

Abdominal aortic aneurysm
  • Moderate AAA: 3.0–5.0 cm[2]
  • Large or severe AAA: >5.0[2] or 5.5.[3] cm
Common bile duct Dilatation
  • Mild dilatation:[4] 8–12 mm
  • Moderate dilatation:[4] 12–16 mm
  • Severe dilatation:[4] 16–20 mm
  • Extremely severe dilatation:[4] >20 mm
Gallbladder Wall thickening 3 mm wall thickness[5]
Hydrops Greater than 5 cm transverse dimension[6]
Heart Cardiomegaly Indicated by cardiothoracic ratio over 0.5.[7]
Large intestine Dilation

Upper limit of normal range of diameter:[8]

Wall thickening Wall thickness 5 mm[9]
Kidneys Enlargement Length >13 cm in females or >14 cm in males.[10]
Liver Hepatomegaly Longitudinal axis > 15.5 cm at the hepatic midline, or > 16.0 cm at the midclavicular line[11]
Lymph nodes Lymphadenopathy Generally 10 mm[12][13]
Renal pelvis Part of hydronephrosis grading 4 – 20 mm:
  • Fetal: Anteroposterior diameter of less than 4 mm in fetuses up to 32 weeks of gestational age and 7 mm afterwards.[14]
  • Adults: cutoff values defined differently by different sources, with anteroposterior diameters ranging between 10 and 20 mm.[15] About 13% of normal healthy adults have a transverse pelvic diameter of over 10 mm.[16]
Prostate Prostatomegaly Volume over 30 cm3.
Pulmonary artery Dilation >29 mm[17]
Small intestine Dilation
  • Mild: 2.5–2.9 cm[20]
  • Moderate: 3-4 cm[20]
  • Severe: >4 cm[20]
Wall thickening 3–5 mm[23]
Spleen Splenomegaly Largest dimension of over 11 cm,[24][25] or craniocaudal height of 13[26] cm.
  • Moderate splenomegaly: the largest dimension is between 11–20 cm[24]
  • Severe splenomegaly: the largest dimension is greater than 20 cm[24]
Thoracic aorta Dilation Diameters:
  • >3.5 cm generally[27]

Upper limits of standard reference range:

  • 3.3 cm in small young individuals[28]
  • 4.3 cm among large elderly individuals.[28]
  • 2.3 cm among small young individuals[28]
  • 3.2 cm among large elderly individuals.[28]
Thoracic aortic aneurysm Diameter:
  • > 4.5 cm (US)[27]
  • > 4.0 cm (Korea)[29]
Testis Enlargement 5 cm (long axis) x 3 cm (short axis)[30]
Tonsil Enlarged tonsil 2.5 cm in length, 2.0 cm in width and 1.2 cm in thickness.[31]
Ureter Megaureter 6[32] or 7[33] mm
Urinary bladder Wall thickening 3–5 mm thick, and < 3 mm when well distended.[34]


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