Middle-earth dwarf characters

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Many of the fictional characters in J.R.R. Tolkien's legendarium are dwarves, a short stocky race inhabiting the world of Arda (the Earth in an imagined mythological past). Dwarves lived in the continent Middle-earth, mostly under its mountains.

Thorin's Company[edit]

Thorin's company consisted of the following 13 dwarves; their quest in The Hobbit is the main impetus of the plot of that story. Their quest was joined by Bilbo Baggins (a hobbit) and occasionally by the wizard Gandalf.

Thorin II Oakenshield[edit]

Main article: Thorin Oakenshield

Thorin II Oakenshield (T.A. 2746 - 2941) was the King of Durin's Folk who led the expedition to destroy Smaug in T.A. 2941 and was slain in the Battle of Five Armies.

In Peter Jackson's The Hobbit film trilogy, Thorin is portrayed by Richard Armitage.

Balin[edit]

Main article: Balin (Middle-earth)

Balin (T.A. 2793 − 2994) was one of the twelve companions of Thorin and Bilbo Baggins on the Quest of Erebor. He wears a scarlet hood. He and his younger brother, Dwalin, were the sons of Fundin, and thus of the royal line of Durin. Many years after the death of Smaug, Balin led an expedition to recolonise Khazad-dûm. Although the colony began well, Balin was slain after only a few years, shot by Orcs as he looked into Kheled-zâram.

Thirty-four years later his tomb and the Book of Mazarbul that told of his expedition and death were discovered by the Fellowship of the Ring.

Balin is portrayed by Ken Stott in Peter Jackson's film version of The Hobbit. He is characterized as an advisor and fatherly friend to Thorin, and is also - along with Thorin - one of the only Dwarves who witnessed Smaug's attack on the Lonely Mountain firsthand. In the course of the film trilogy he also becomes very affectionate with Bilbo, who would on occasion turn to him for some advice on the Dwarves, and he was the one guiding him to the inside of the Lonely Mountain to try to find the Arkenstone.

Bifur[edit]

Bifur was one of the twelve companions of Thorin and Bilbo on the Quest of Erebor. Like other members of the company, his name comes directly from the Old Norse poem "Völuspá", part of the Poetic Edda. The forefathers of Bifur and his cousins Bofur and Bombur, who unlike the rest of Thorin's company are not of the royal line of Durin, come from Moria. Bifur was fond of raspberry jam and apple-tart at the unexpected party in Bag End, where he wore a yellow hood and played the clarinet. He gave the trolls quite a fight before getting sacked and helped trying to rescue Bilbo, and was set down uncomfortably near the fire as a reward. In The Fellowship of the Ring Glóin tells Frodo that Bifur and his cousins were all alive and well before the Council of Elrond.

In The Hobbit film series by Peter Jackson Bifur is portrayed by New Zealand actor William Kircher, who also played Tom the Troll in The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey. In the backstory of films, Bifur suffers an injury during a battle, which leaves him with an Orcish axe stuck in his head. As a result, Bifur is only able to speak in Khuzdul, the ancient Dwarvish language, though he remains capable as both a manic fighter and a gentle toymaker. Kircher himself embraced the idea on an injury, stating that it helped him develop a character: “I went and started researching what that kind of injury can do to you. It’s kind of like getting a stroke, so it can affect their speech and the way they think, and they zone out, so I thought, I’ll really go for it.” Kircher also interpreted Bifur's personal journey throughout the films as a quest to find the particular orc who gave him the injury, so that he can give it back.[1] Near the ending of The Hobbit: The Battle of the Five Armies, the axe in Bifur's head is gone. In the Extended edition of it, Bifur lunges himself at an orc, saving Bofur, getting the axe in his head stuck to the orc's head. Bofur and Bombur helped pull him off and pushed the orc off a cliff. Bombur pulls the orc down, releasing them both and the axe on Bifur's head is gone. Bofur and Bifur take notice and Bombur rushes to them and gives it to Bifur. Bifur looks at the axe and speaks in English, "You know where you can stick that." and throws the axe away.

In the 2003 video game adaptation of The Hobbit Bifur tasks Bilbo several optional side-quests, but his voice actor is not specified in the credits. In The Lord of the Rings Online (2007) Bifur appears during the Siege of Erebor by the Easterlings in the final days of the War of the Ring. The game also introduces Bifur's son Bósi and grandson Bori, who become prominent characters during the Mines of Moria expansion, leading an expedition to reclaim Moria for the dwarves on the orders of Dain Ironfoot.

Bofur[edit]

Bofur was one of the twelve companions of Thorin and Bilbo on the Quest of Erebor. Like other members of the company, his name comes directly from the Old Norse poem "Völuspá", part of the Poetic Edda. The forefathers of Bofur, his younger brother Bombur and their cousin Bifur, who unlike the rest of Thorin's company are not of the royal line of Durin, come from Moria. Bofur sported a yellow hood, liked mince-pies and cheese at tea and like his cousin Bifur played the clarinet at the unexpected party in Bag End. He didn't have as rough a barrel-ride as most of his companions, but was still too stiff to help unkeg the other dwarves following the escape from the Woodland Realm. Along with his brother Bombur he was nearly trapped at the bottom of a cliff on the Lonely Mountain after Smaug awoke before being rescued by the other dwarves. In The Fellowship of the Ring Glóin tells Frodo that Bofur was still alive and well before the Council of Elrond.

In The Hobbit film series by Peter Jackson Bofur is portrayed by Northern Irish actor James Nesbitt, whose daughters Mary and Peggy also portray Bard's daughters. Bofur's role is greatly expanded in the films, with him having multiple lines of dialogue and character scenes. Nesbitt described the character as being very protective over Bifur and Bombur, who have an injury and eating problem respectively. Since neither Bombur nor Bifur speak English throughout the three movies, Bofur also acts as a spokesman for all three of them, though in Nesbitt's words: "He can be deliberately very funny". In the extended version of The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey Bofur sings The Man in the Moon song while the company stays in Rivendell - the song was originally written by J. R. R. Tolkien and appeared in The Fellowship of the Ring, while Nesbitt wrote the music.[2] Bofur is also shown to be very fond of Bilbo because he understands the Hobbit's initial unwillingness to leave behind the safety and comfort of his home; key scenes for this include Bilbo's attempted retreat during their journey through the Misty Mountains in the first part, the aftermath of their fight with the giant spiders in Mirkwood in the second part, and when Bilbo departs the Lonely Mountain to deliver the Arkenstone to Gandalf, Bard and Thranduil in the third part. In a departure from the book, Bofur stays in Lake-Town with Oin, Fíli and Kíli while the rest of the company make the last leg of their journey towards Erebor, and he is the one to find a bundle of athelas which allows Tauriel to heal Kíli's poisoned wound in Desolation of Smaug. The four dwarves witness Smaug's destruction of Lake-Town and rejoin Thorin and the company shortly before the Battle of the Five Armies.

In the 2003 video game adaptation of The Hobbit Bofur tasks Bilbo with several optional side-quests, but his voice actor is not specified in the credits. In The Lord of the Rings Online (2007) Bofur appears during the Siege of Erebor by the Easterlings in the final days of the War of the Ring. The game also introduces Bofur's son Brogur and grandson Broin, who become prominent characters during the Mines of Moria expansion, leading an expedition to reclaim Moria for the dwarves on the orders of Dain Ironfoot.

Bombur[edit]

Bombur was one of the twelve companions of Thorin and Bilbo on the Quest of Erebor. His name comes from the Old Norse dwarf-name Bömburr (which aptly means tubby) in the poem "Völuspá", part of the Poetic Edda.[3] The forefathers of Bombur, his older brother Bofur and their cousin Bifur, who unlike the rest of Thorin's company are not of the royal line of Durin, come from Moria.

Of the thirteen dwarves in The Hobbit Bombur is the one with the most distinctive appearance. Described as "immensely fat and heavy", his weight was problematic at several points during the quest. He wears a pale green hood and displays a special passion for food; he played a drum during the unexpected party in Bag End. Bombur is frequently shown making mistakes and being the last in everything: he tumbled with Bifur and Bofur onto Thorin when they enter Bag End last, he entered Beorn's house last and yet earlier than intended, and he fell into the Enchanted River after complaining about always being last. Bombur slept through several key moments of the book, and after his fall into the Enchanted River in Mirkwood, he became entranced and slept for days, forcing his already despairing companions to carry his weight. When he finally awoke, Bombur had no recollection of anything that happened to the company after the party in Bag End. He was also asleep when his barrel was opened at Esgaroth after the escape from the Woodland Realm, and when Bilbo discovered the secret entrance to Erebor. Trusting neither mountain paths nor ropes to hold his weight, Bombur chose to stay and guard the company's camp while the others moved up to the hidden door to Erebor. Only Bofur stayed with him, and they were nearly trapped at the bottom of a cliff when Smaug awoke. The other dwarves were forced to use the ropes to lift them up swiftly just before the camp was destroyed by the rampaging dragon. During the siege of Erebor, Bilbo used Bombur's sleepiness to advantage, promising to take Bombur's midnight watch and allow him to sleep, while escaping with the Arkenstone unnoticed. Many years later, in The Fellowship of the Ring, Glóin told Frodo Baggins before the Council of Elrond that Bombur was still alive, but had grown so fat, it took six young dwarves to lift him, as he could no longer move from his bed.

In the 1977 Rankin/Bass version of The Hobbit, Bombur was voiced by Paul Frees; he is depicted as being stabbed by a goblin during the Battle of Five Armies and dies in Bilbo's arms. In the 2003 video game adaptation of The Hobbit Bombur is voiced by Daran Norris. Bombur is the only surviving member of Thorin's company not to appear in The Lord of the Rings Online; the only reference to him is the name of "Bombur's Beard Lager", a drink sold in a tavern in Ered Luin that is said to be his favorite in the years before the quest for Erebor.

In The Hobbit film series by Peter Jackson Bombur is portrayed by New Zealand actor Stephen Hunter. Bombur's interaction in all three movies is entirely non-verbal except the extended edition of the third movie; Jackson suggested to Hunter that Bombur could have more physical comedy moments at the expense of the lines and the actor embraced the idea.[4] As a result, Bombur is often seen with his mouth full when a response is expected. Originally armed with only a kitchen utensil, Bombur is shown cooking for the entire company. Despite his immense weight and size, Bombur is quite agile. During the chase in Goblin-Town he manages to keep running despite goblins hanging on top of him; and when startled by Beorn, he quickly outruns the entire company. Bombur's most iconic scene in the book (sinking into deep sleep after falling into the Enchanted River) is omitted from the theatrical release of The Hobbit: The Desolation of Smaug but restored in the extended edition. (Bombur speaks briefly during the battle in the extended edition of The Hobbit: The Battle of the Five Armies.)

Dori[edit]

Dori was one of the twelve companions of Thorin and Bilbo on the Quest of Erebor. Like other members of the company, his name comes directly from the Old Norse poem "Völuspá", part of the Poetic Edda. Along with Nori and Ori, he was of Durin's House, a distant relative of Thorin Oakenshield. Dori is described as "a decent fellow, despite his grumbling", while Thorin mentions him as being the strongest member of the company. Dori wore a purple hood when he arrived at Bag End and played the flute at the Unexpected Party. Dori was held responsible for the well-being of the burglar several times; he carried Bilbo in the goblin-tunnels of the Misty Mountains, but unfortunately dropped the burglar, for which the other dwarves later blamed him. During the escape from the Wargs, Dori climbed down from a tree to help Bilbo, who could not get up on his own. Later, Bilbo grabbed Dori's legs as the company was carried off by the Eagles, saving them from a fire lit by Goblins. When Gandalf was telling the story of the company's adventures to Beorn, Dori and Thorin were the first two Dwarves to show up. In The Fellowship of the Ring Glóin tells Frodo that Dori was still alive and well before the Council of Elrond.

In The Hobbit film series by Peter Jackson Dori is portrayed by New Zealand actor Mark Hadlow, who also played Bert the Troll in The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey. The movies establish Dori, Nori and Ori as half-siblings, sharing the same mother but three different fathers.[5] As the eldest of the three, Dori acts as the partiarch of the family and is very overprotective of the youngest, Ori, whom he had mothered all his life.[6] Dori holds a bit of resentment against Nori, who is a thieving character and not at all uptight, having spent most of the time apart from his family and only rejoining them shortly before the quest.[7] Dori has the best manner of all the dwarves, always addressing Gandalf politely as "Mister" even despite the danger. During the attack by Azog's warg-pack, Dori and Ori fall from the tree and are the first to be saved by the Eagles.

In the 2003 video game adaptation of The Hobbit, Dori tasks Bilbo with several optional side-quests, but his voice actor is not specified in the credits. Dori makes several appearances in The Lord of the Rings Online (2007): In the year TA 3016 Dori travels from Erebor to the Dwarf stronghold in the Ered Luin as part of Dwalin's company on the orders by Dáin II Ironfoot to reclaim those lands from the unsavory clan of Dourhand dwarves, corrupted by the influence of evil. Two years later, during the events of The Fellowship of the Ring, Dori is inspecting a Dwarf mining outpost in the North Downs, where he is captured by the Dourhands, forcing the player to rescue him, after which Dori joins Gildor Inglorion and Halbarad of the Dunedain to form the Council of the North, focused on opposing the rising threat of Angmar. By the next year TA 3019 Dori has made his way back to Erebor, where he participates in the siege during the final days of the War of the Ring.

Dwalin[edit]

Dwalin (T.A. 2772 - Fourth Age 91/92) was one of the twelve companions of Thorin and Bilbo on the Quest of Erebor. He and his older brother, Balin, were the sons of Fundin, and thus of the royal line of Durin. Dwalin was born during the wanderings of his people, following the sack of Erebor. His father was killed in the Battle of Azanulbizar, and three years later Dwalin and his other surving family settled in the Ered Mithrin (Blue Mountains), where he resided until the Quest of Erebor. During that quest, he was the first Dwarf to arrive at Bag End. He wore a dark green hood and a golden belt, had a blue beard so long he had to tuck it into his belt, and like his brother Balin, he played the viol. Dwalin lent a hood and cloak to Bilbo when they set out on their journey. After the Quest he lived the rest of his life in Erebor. There he was fabulously wealthy, a far cry from his early childhood. When he died in the year 91 of the Fourth Age he was aged 340, very old even for a Dwarf.

His name is taken from Dvalin, a dwarf from the Poetic Edda and other Norse mythology.

Dwalin appeared in the 1977 adaptation of The Hobbit, voiced by Jack DeLeon. He only has one line in the entire film.

Dwalin is portrayed by Graham McTavish in Peter Jackson's The Hobbit film adaptation.[8] He is the first dwarf to appear at Bilbo's home in the first film. He is more taciturn[9] compared to his brother, Balin.[10] Recognisable by his bald head, scalp tattoos and black beard, Dwalin is one of Thorin's fiercest warriors. In flashback, he is seen during the War of the Dwarves and Orcs fighting against Azog's Orcs at Moria, and after rallying their kin against the Orcs at the end of the third film, he is one of only three dwarves, along with Kili and Fili, who join Thorin to pursue Azog. He wields a war hammer.

Fíli[edit]

Fíli (T.A. 2859 − 2941) was one of the twelve companions of Thorin and Bilbo on the Quest of Erebor. He and his brother Kíli were nephews of Thorin, sons of Thorin's sister Dís. The two brothers were born in the Ered Luin (Blue Mountains), and lived there until the Quest. Fíli had a blue cloak and a yellow beard. The two brothers are described as being younger than the other dwarves of Thorin's company by some fifty years. They also had the best eyesight and so were often sent scouting or searching. The brothers are consistently described as cheerful, the only two to have come out of the barrels at Lake-town "more or less smiling."

Although Chapter 8 of The Hobbit describes Fíli as the youngest, in Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings his birth year is given as T.A. 2859, whereas Kíli's is 2864. Both brothers fell at the Battle of Five Armies, defending their uncle Thorin, and were buried with honour.

Fíli is portrayed by Dean O'Gorman in Peter Jackson's The Hobbit film adaptation. Rob Kazinsky was originally cast in the role but dropped out citing personal issues. In the film, he is the older brother. In the film The Hobbit: The Desolation of Smaug Thorin says to Fíli, "One day you will be King, and you will understand", an indication that Fíli is older than Kíli. In The Battle of the Five Armies, Fíli and Kíli join Thorin and Dwalin in a commando operation to kill Azog. Separated from his brother, Fíli is captured by Azog and helplessly killed before the eyes of his shocked kinsmen and Bilbo, driving Kíli into a berserk rage.

Glóin, son of Gróin[edit]

Glóin (T.A. 2783 − Fourth Age 15), son of Gróin, was one of the twelve companions of Thorin and Bilbo Baggins on the Quest of Erebor, as was his older brother Óin. The two brothers were direct descendants of Durin the Deathless. Many years after the Quest, Glóin and his son Gimli were sent to Rivendell as an embassy from King Dáin II to bring news of Erebor, Moria, and what they knew of Sauron's plans; they arrived in time to attend the Council of Elrond.[11] He wears a white hood. The name Gloin is found in the Völuspá.

He was born during the wanderings of the Dwarves following the sack of Erebor, but after the Quest he lived in the restored kingdom virtually the rest of his life.

Glóin was a playable hero in the Dwarven Faction in the Electronic Arts Real-Time Strategy game The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth II, and specialized in attacks that would either destroy or disable the opponents' buildings.

He is portrayed by Peter Hambleton in Peter Jackson's The Hobbit film trilogy. In The Desolation of Smaug, Glóin is shown to be something of a miser who withholds his personal stash of money from the Company's payment to Bard until he first beholds the Lonely Mountain, whereupon he surrenders it all.

Kíli[edit]

Kíli (T.A. 2864 − 2941) was one of the twelve companions of Thorin and Bilbo on the Quest of Erebor. He and his brother Fíli were the sons of Dís, Thorin's sister; they were born in the Ered Luin (Blue Mountains) and resided there until the Quest. He had a blue cloak and a yellow beard. The two brothers were described as being young in Dwarf terms, younger than the rest by some fifty years. They also had the best eyesight and so were often sent scouting or searching. The brothers are consistently described as having been cheerful, and the only two to have come out of the barrels at Lake-town "more or less smiling."

Although Fíli is described as being the youngest in Chapter 8 of The Hobbit, in Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings his birth year is given as T.A. 2859, whereas Kíli's is 2864. Both brothers fell at the Battle of Five Armies, defending their uncle Thorin, and were buried with honour.

In Peter Jackson's film adaptation of The Hobbit, Kíli is portrayed by Aidan Turner. He is the archer of Thorin's company, and is the only Dwarf in the film to not have a full-grown beard, only stubble. In this portrayal, despite their vastly differing backgrounds, he and the elven warrior Tauriel begin to form a bond, as they recognize each other as kindred spirits. During the Battle of Five Armies, he joins Thorin's commando team to take down Azog on Ravenhill, and when Tauriel arrives to aid him, she is confronted and almost killed by Azog's son Bolg. Kíli leaps to her defense, causing Bolg to kill him instead. Tauriel is left mourning his loss, showing that her love for the dwarf was genuine.

Nori[edit]

Nori was one of the twelve companions of Thorin and Bilbo on the Quest of Erebor. He was of Durin's House, a distant relative of Thorin Oakenshield. He wears a purple hood, like Dori.

He is portrayed by Jed Brophy in Peter Jackson's The Hobbit film adaptation. He sports a distinct triple mohawk hairstyle and fights with a long spiked staff, along with numerous concealed weapons. He is also a longtime thief who shares a strained relationship with his two brothers.

Óin, son of Gróin[edit]

Óin (T.A. 2774 - 2994), elder son of Gróin, was one of the twelve companions of Thorin and Bilbo on the Quest of Erebor. He and his younger brother Glóin were both born during the wanderings of their people, which followed the sack of Erebor. In 2802 they and their family settled in the Ered Luin (Blue Mountains). Nearly forty years later the two brothers joined the Quest of Erebor; they were counted on to start the campfires, though the brothers bickered over the task. Óin wears a brown hood. After the Quest he lived in Erebor for forty-seven years, until he joined Balin's expedition to Moria. There, as recorded in the Book of Mazarbul, he was killed by the Watcher in the Water while trying to escape via Moria's Western Door.

In Peter Jackson's movie The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey, Óin is played by John Callen.[12] He wields a staff and uses an ear trumpet.[citation needed] In addition to his skill at lighting fires, Óin is the group's healer.[13]

Ori[edit]

Ori was one of the twelve companions of Thorin and Bilbo on the Quest of Erebor. He was of Durin's House, a distant relative of Thorin Oakenshield. He was also one of the Dwarves who entered Moria with Balin. He wears a grey hood, and loves the arts. He was among the last members of Balin's colony to be killed (T.A. 2994), as is known by his entering the last records in the Book of Mazarbul before their final hopeless stand against the Orcs. This book was later discovered by the Fellowship of the Ring.

Ori's penmanship in the Book of Mazarbul suggests he was probably the scribe of Thorin & Co.'s letter at the start of the Quest of Erebor.

He is portrayed by Adam Brown in Peter Jackson's The Hobbit film adaptation. In this adaptation, Ori uses a slingshot as his trademark weapon and serves as the group's scribe. Ori has a chinstrap beard and bowl cut[citation needed] and a cable knit scarf.[14]

In the Hobbit film trilogy, it is Ori instead of Fíli that is the youngest of Thorin Oakenshield's company.[citation needed]

Balin's colony[edit]

Main article: Balin (Middle-earth)

Many years after re-establishment of the kingdom of Erebor, some of its Dwarves turned their thoughts to Moria. In T.A. 2989 Balin led an expedition to recolonise Moria, in defiance of King Dáin's wishes. Among those who followed him included Óin and Ori (who like Balin had been members of Thorin's company), and Flói, Frár, Lóni, and Náli. At first all went well, but after five years the colony was destroyed by Orcs, and all its Dwarves were killed.

Balin was lord of Moria from T.A. 2989 to 2994. Thirty-four years later, his tomb and the Book of Mazarbul that told of his expedition and death were discovered by the Fellowship of the Ring.

The Fellowship[edit]

Two dwarves attended the Council of Elrond, and were present at the founding of the Fellowship of the Ring. They were Glóin, son of Gróin, and his son Gimli. Of those, only Gimli became a member of the Fellowship...

Broadbeam dwarves[edit]

The dwarf clan known as the Broadbeams, made their home in the city of Belegost, which Dwarves called Gabilgathol. This city was located in the east face of the Blue Mountains (Erud Luin), in the far west of the region known as Eriador (the Lone-lands).

Azaghâl[edit]

Azaghâl was the King of the Broadbeam Dwarves of Belegost during the First Age. He was slain by the dragon Glaurung after wounding him in the Battle of Unnumbered Tears. The helmet later known as the Helm of Hador was originally made for Azaghâl by Telchar, the master craftsman of the neighbouring Dwarf-realm of Nogrod.[15] Azaghâl gave the helmet to Maedhros in gratitude for saving his life.

Durin's folk[edit]

Durin's emblem as inscribed on the Doors of Durin

Durin's folk, also known as the Longbeards, were the most important clan of dwarves in Middle-earth. Their name comes from that of their first king, Durin I "the Deathless". They were the eldest and greatest of the seven dwarf-clans.

They originally inhabited the Misty Mountains as a home, until they were driven out by Orcs. Their strongholds in the Misty Mountains included Khazad-dûm (Moria), their first city, and Mount Gundabad. During the Second Age, Durin's folk entered into friendship with the Noldor of Celebrimbor in Eregion. During the War of the Last Alliance, Durin's folk allied with the elves and the Dúnedain.

In the Third Age, after being driven out of Moria by the Balrog Durin's Bane, most of Durin's Folk fled north and established cities in Erebor and the Ered Mithrin. Both the Ered Mithrin and Erebor were later occupied by Dragons, and they then became a wandering folk in exile. Most of them settled in the Iron Hills, while others under Thráin II wandered west, till they came to the Ered Luin and settled there. Finally, the Dwarf-kingdom of Erebor was restored when Dáin II, Lord of the Iron Hills, became King of Erebor in T.A. 2941 after Smaug's death.

Durin I was succeeded by many generations of kings, among whom[16] appeared six others also named Durin. These six were believed by the dwarves to be reincarnations (or even reanimations) of Durin I, with memories of his earlier lives.[17] Durin VI was killed by Durin's Bane in 1980 of the Third Age. Durin did not again return to his people until Durin VII appeared in the Fourth Age, a descendant of Thorin III son of Dáin II Ironfoot, and a descendant in direct line from Durin the Deathless. Durin VII would become known as Durin the Last.

Durin's family tree[edit]


Durin I Other Dwarf Clan
Durin II
Durin III
Durin IV
Durin V
Durin VI
Náin I
Thráin I
Thorin I
Glóin
Óin
Náin II
Dáin I Borin
Frór Thrór Grór Farin
Thráin II Náin Fundin Gróin
Dís Thorin II Oakenshield Dáin II Ironfoot Dwalin Balin Glóin Óin Ori, Dori, Nori Bifur, Bofur, Bombur
Fili, Kili Thorin III Stonehelm Gimli
Durin VII

* Names in italics are Thorin and his company from The Hobbit

Succession of kings of Durin's folk[edit]

Durin, and his reincarnations[edit]

Main article: Durin
Durin the Deathless eventually died, and was succeeded through thousands of years by a long line of Kings of Khazad-dûm, father to son. Some of these kings were named Durin: Dwarves believed them to be reincarnations of Durin the Deathless.
  • Durin II (circa S.A. 750) was King of the Dwarves of Khazad-dûm. The name of Durin inscribed on the eponymous Doors of Durin (the West-gate of Moria) may refer to Durin II[18] or Durin III.[19]
  • Durin III (fl. S.A. 1500) was King of Khazad-dûm during the making of the Rings of Power, and was the first bearer of one of the Seven Rings, although this was not known to outsiders until the end of the Third Age. In S.A. 1697 Celebrimbor, the lord of Eregion and a great friend of Khazad-dûm, was killed in the War of the Elves and Sauron, both Durin and Elrond sent armies into the conflict.[20] Although Eregion was destroyed, Elrond and many Elves escaped. Durin withdrew his people into Khazad-dûm and shut the gates. They remained closed for many years.
  • Durin IV was King of the Dwarves of Khazad-dûm.
  • Durin V was King of the Dwarves of Khazad-dûm.
  • Durin VI (T.A. 1793 − 1980) was King of the Dwarves of Khazad-dûm when the Balrog was aroused deep beneath the city and killed Durin.
  • Durin VII (fl. Fourth Age or later) was a descendant of Thorin III Stonehelm of Durin's folk, who was King of the Dwarves of Erebor and lord of the Iron Hills.

Náin I[edit]

Náin I (T.A. 1832 − 1981) was briefly the King of Durin's folk and King of Khazad-dûm. In 1980 his father, Durin VI, was slain by the Balrog; Náin succeeded as King, but the Balrog, now named Durin's Bane, remained a threat. Náin attempted to continue the kingdom, but the following year he was also killed by the Balrog. The remainder of Durin's Folk fled Khazad-dûm, and the city was renamed Moria. Náin was succeeded as king by his son Thráin I.

Thráin I[edit]

Thráin I (T.A. 1934 - 2190), sometimes called Thráin the Old, was a King of Durin's folk: the last King of Khazad-dûm, and the first King under the Mountain. He was born in Khazad-dûm, the son of Náin I. In T.A. 1980 his grandfather Durin VI was slain by the Balrog, and Thráin became crown prince. The following year his father was also slain by the Balrog, and Thráin, now the King, fled Khazad-dûm together with the remainder of Durin's folk, migrating to Erebor, which he founded in T.A. 1999. Thráin's new realm prospered, he found the Arkenstone, and his son Thorin I and grandson were born during his long reign. On his death he was succeeded by Thorin.

Tolkien created the character to resolve an inconsistency between the text of The Hobbit and the map published with it. When creating the first typescript copy of The Hobbit, he added one line which referred to Thorin's father as Thror and his grandfather as Thrain, the reverse of the published names, probably inadvertently.[21] Remarkably, he then changed all other references in the text to use this reversed genealogy, and then later changed them all back again.[22] In the confusion, the map that he produced for The Hobbit contained text naming Thrain as "King under the Mountain", but Thorin's grandfather was the last King under the Mountain. This discrepancy was noticed by readers, so in the second (1951) edition of The Hobbit, Tolkien added a prefatory note, explaining that the Thrain referred to on the map was not Thorin's father or grandfather, but a distant ancestor, Thrain I.

Thorin I[edit]

Thorin I (T.A. 2035 - 2289) was a King of Durin's folk and briefly King under the Mountain. He became crown prince upon his birth in Erebor, the son of Thráin I; there also his son Glóin was born; and there too he succeeded his father, in T.A. 2190. But shortly thereafter he left Erebor with the greater part of his folk, and founded a new realm in the Ered Mithrin (Grey Mountains). There he saw the birth of his grandson. After leaving Erebor he had remained King of Durin's folk; upon his death his son, Glóin, succeeded to this kingship and the realm of Ered Mithrin.

Óin, son of Glóin[edit]

Óin (T.A. 2238 - 2488), son of Glóin, was a King of Durin's folk. He had become crown prince in 2289, and in 2385 succeeded his father as King. He spent his whole life in the Ered Mithrin (Grey Mountains): there he was born, ruled and died; there his son (Náin II) was born, and he lived to see the birth of his grandsons. He was succeeded by Náin II.

Glóin, son of Thorin[edit]

Glóin (T.A. 2136 − 2385) was a King of Durin's folk. He was born in Erebor the son of Thorin I. In 2190 his father became King, and Glóin became crown prince. Shortly thereafter they moved to the Ered Mithrin (Grey Mountains), where he remained the rest of his life. In 2289 he succeeded his father as the King. He expanded the mines of the Ered Mithrin, and further abandoned Erebor. His son Óin was born in the Grey Mountains, and his grandson was born there during his reign. On his death he was succeeded by Óin.

Náin II[edit]

Náin II (T.A. 2338 − 2585) was a King of Durin's Folk, son of Óin. He became crown prince in 2385, and succeeded his father as King in 2488. Under Náin's kingship, the Dwarves lived peacefully in the Ered Mithrin (Grey Mountains) until they were attacked by dragons. Náin was born in the Grey Mountains, as were his sons and grandsons, whom he lived to see. He was succeeded by his elder son, Dáin I. Several of the companions of Thorin Oakenshield were descended Nain's younger son Borin, as was Gimli.

Dáin I[edit]

Dáin I (T.A. 2440 − 2589), the son of Náin II, was the last King of Durin's Folk united. Dáin and his younger brother Borin were born in their grandfather's realm in the Ered Mithrin (Grey Mountains). He became crown prince in 2488, and in 2585 succeeded his father as King. Attacks by dragons on their mines in the Ered Mithrin continued, and after a reign of only four years he was killed by a cold-drake in T.A. 2589, together with his son Frór. He was succeeded by his two surviving sons: Thrór, who refounded the kingdom of Erebor, and Grór, who became the lord of the Iron Hills.

Thrór[edit]

Thrór (T.A. 2542 − 2790) was a King of Durin's folk. He was born in the Ered Mithrin (Grey Mountains), the eldest son of Dáin I; his brothers Frór and Grór were also born there. He became king in 2589 when a cold-drake killed Dáin I and Frór. The following year he returned to reoccupy Erebor as King under the Mountain, but many of his people followed his brother Grór to settle instead in the Iron Hills farther east.

Thrór's son, Thráin II, and grandchildren were born in his reign in Erebor. There his people prospered, but their success attracted the attention of Smaug the dragon, who in 2770 attacked the mountain and drove the surviving Dwarves away. Thrór and his people then wandered abroad, becoming increasingly poor and desperate. In 2790 Thrór committed the heirlooms of his house to his son (Thráin II), and with his companion Nár sought to re-enter Moria. He was captured there by Azog the Orc, who tortured him and chopped off his head. His body was thrown out the east gate, hacked to pieces and fed to the ravens in full view of Nár. This started the War of the Dwarves and Orcs.

The heirlooms which Thrór handed on to Thráin included a Ring of Power, and items relating to a secret entrance to Erebor: a map (later called Thrór's map) and a key.

Tolkien derived the name Thrór from the Old Norse dwarf-name Þrór, which means thrive, an allusion to Thrór's prosperity.[23]

Thrór is portrayed by Jeffrey Thomas in Peter Jackson's film version of The Hobbit. In this version Azog beheads him at the Battle of Azanulbizar.

Thráin II[edit]

Main article: Thráin II

Thráin II (T.A. 2644 - 2850) was the father of Thorin Oakenshield and the son of Thrór. In revenge for his father's death he started the War of the Dwarves and Orcs. Later he went wandering, and was captured by the Necromancer in Dol Guldur at which time the last of the Seven Rings of Power was taken from him.

He is portrayed by Mike Mizrahi in Peter Jackson's The Hobbit film adaptation.

Thorin II Oakenshield[edit]

Main article: Thorin Oakenshield

Thorin II Oakenshield (T.A. 2746 - 2941) was the King of Durin's Folk who led the expedition to destroy Smaug in T.A. 2941 and was slain in the Battle of Five Armies.

In Peter Jackson's The Hobbit film trilogy, Thorin is portrayed by Richard Armitage.

Dáin II Ironfoot[edit]

Main article: Dáin II Ironfoot

Dáin II Ironfoot (T.A. 2767 − 3019) was a descendant of Grór and lord of the Dwarves of the Iron Hills. Dáin joined his father's contingent in the Battle of Azanulbizar, at which time he slew Azog. After Thorin's death in the Battle of Five Armies, Dáin was proclaimed king of Durin's Folk. He fell in the Battle of Dale and was succeeded by his son Thorin III Stonehelm.

Thorin III Stonehelm[edit]

Thorin III Stonehelm (T.A. 2866 - Fourth Age) was born the son and heir of Dáin II Ironfoot, the lord of the Iron Hills. In 2941 Dáin succeeded as King under the Mountain and King of Durin's Folk, and Thorin simultaneously became crown prince. Thorin himself succeded to the kingships when his father was killed during the War of the Ring in T.A. 3019. Thorin III helped rebuild Erebor and Dale, and prospered. His realm became a close ally of the Reunited Kingdom of King Elessar.

During his rule, Gimli led a number of Dwarves south to Aglarond, where a new lordship was established, most likely a colony of Durin's Folk under the vassalage of the King of Erebor. Thorin III had a descendant, Durin VII the Last, who was held to be the final reincarnation of Durin the Deathless.

Gimli[edit]

Main article: Gimli (Middle-earth)

Gimli (T.A. 2879 − Fourth Age 100), the son of Glóin, of the royal line of Durin. He was chosen by Elrond to be one of the nine members of the Fellowship of the Ring. He remained with Aragorn and Legolas throughout the War of the Ring, fighting at the Hornburg, Pelargir, and Pelennor Fields. His friendship with Legolas and love for Galadriel earned him the title of Elf-friend. He was played by John Rhys-Davies in Peter Jackson's film series The Lord of the Rings.

Other dwarves of Durin's Line[edit]

The royal family of the Longbeards included its kings; Thorin Oakenshield and many of his Company (namely Balin & Dwalin, Fíli & Kíli, Óin & Glóin, and Ori, Nori & Dori); and Gimli of the Fellowship of the Ring; all listed above. The following are miscellaneous members of the royal family.

Borin[edit]

Borin (T.A. 2450 − 2711) was a Dwarf of Durin's Line, the younger son of King Náin II. He was born in the Ered Mithrin (Grey Mountains), as was his son Farin. After his brother King Dáin I was killed, Borin and his son moved to Erebor when it was refounded in 2590, and there he lived the rest of his life. He lived to see the births of his grandsons, and was the ancestor of both Balin of Thorin's Company and Gimli of the Fellowship of the Ring.

Dís[edit]

Dís (born T.A. 2760) was a female Dwarf, daughter and youngest child of Thráin II. She and her siblings were born in Erebor while their grandfather Thrór was King under the Mountain. They escaped the sack of Erebor and went into wandering. Eventually she and her surviving family settled in the Ered Luin (Blue Mountains), where she was the mother of Fíli and Kíli. In 2941 both her sons joined her brother Thorin Oakenshield on the quest to regain Erebor. She was the only dwarf-woman ever named in the annals, in respect of the valiant deaths of her sons.

Farin[edit]

Farin (T.A. 2560 − 2803) was the son of Borin. He was born in the Ered Mithrin (Grey Mountains), during the reign of his grandfather King Náin II. After his uncle King Dáin I was killed in 2589, the Dwarves left the Grey Mountains, and Farin followed his cousin Thrór to refound the kingdom of Erebor. There his sons Fundin and Gróin were born, and his oldest grandson Balin. They all left Erebor when it was sacked by Smaug, and went into wandering. His elder son Fundin was killed in the Battle of Azanulbizar; three years later Farin and his surviving family settled in the Ered Luin (Blue Mountains), where he lived the last year of his life.

Frerin[edit]

Frerin (T.A. 2751 − 2799) was the second of the three children of Thráin II: he had an older brother, Thorin Oakenshield, and a younger sister, Dís. All three were born in Erebor while their grandfather Thrór was King under the Mountain. When Erebor was sacked they survived, and went with their people into wandering. However Frerin perished when he was still young by Dwarf standards: he joined in the Battle of Azanulbizar, the climactic battle of the War of the Dwarves and Orcs, and was killed beneath the East-gate of Moria.

Frór[edit]

Frór (T.A. 2552 − 2589) was a Dwarf of the line of Durin who was killed with his father Dáin I by a cold-drake in the Grey Mountains. The kingship of Durin's folk clan then passed on to Frór's elder brother Thrór, who refounded the kingdom of Erebor. However, the greater part of Durin's folk followed their younger brother Grór to the Iron Hills.

Fundin[edit]

Fundin (T.A. 2662 − 2799) was a Dwarf of the royal line of Durin. He was the son of Farin, and the elder brother of Gróin. The brothers were born in Erebor when Thrór (their father's cousin) was King under the Mountain. Fundin survived the sack of Erebor together with his seven-year-old son Balin, and they went wandering with their people. His younger son Dwalin was born during this time.

Fundin fought in the War of the Dwarves and Orcs, which began in 2793. He was killed beneath the East Gate of Moria in the climactic Battle of Nanduhirion. In the aftermath of the battle, all the bodies of those who fell were stripped of their armour and weaponry by their kinsmen, and were burnt upon pyres of wood, Fundin among them.

Years later his sons Balin and Dwalin joined Thorin Oakenshield on the quest to regain Erebor.

Gróin[edit]

Gróin (T.A. 2671 − 2923) was a Dwarf of the royal line of Durin. He and his elder brother Fundin were the sons of Farin, and were born in Erebor during the reign of King Thrór, their father's cousin. In 2770 Gróin and his family escaped the sack of Erebor and wandered Middle-earth. During that time his sons Óin and Glóin were born. From 2793 to 2799 he participated in the War of the Dwarves and Orcs; his brother Fundin was killed in the final battle. In 2802 Gróin and his family settled in the Ered Luin (Blue Mountains), where he dwelt the rest of his days. He lived to see the birth (T.A. 2879) and childhood of his grandson Gimli.

Grór[edit]

Grór (T.A. 2563 − 2805) was born in the Ered Mithrin (Grey Mountains), the youngest son of King Dáin I. After his father and brother Frór were killed by a dragon in 2589, the Dwarves left the Grey Mountains. His eldest brother Thrór went to refound the King of Erebor, but the majority of Durin's folk followed Grór to the Iron Hills. There he ruled as an autonomous lord for the rest of his life, under the nominal kingship of the Kings of Durin's folk. His son Náin and his grandson Dáin Ironfoot were born during his lordship. Nain was killed in the Battle of Azanulbizar (T.A. 2799), so Dain succeeded to the lordship on Grór's death.

Náin, son of Grór[edit]

Náin (T.A. 2665 − 2799), son of Grór, was heir to the Dwarf-lordship of the Iron Hills and a descendant of the royal line of Durin. He was killed at the Battle of Nanduhirion when Azog the Orc Chieftain broke his neck. Náin died before his father, and his son, Dáin Ironfoot, became heir to the lordship. Dáin avenged his father's death by killing Azog. (Dáin later succeeded to the lordship, and eventually succeeded to the kingship of Erebor.)

Other dwarves of Durin's folk[edit]

This section comprises those of Durin's folk who are not recorded as being members of the royal family. There were also three famous Longbeards who were explicitly not of the royal line: Bifur, Bofur and Bombur of Thorin's Company.

Flói[edit]

Flói was one of the Dwarves who joined Balin in his attempt to recolonize Moria. In the first year of the colony, T.A. 2989, the Dwarves were fighting Orcs in the Dimrill Dale, and Flói slew one of their champions. But he was killed in the battle by an orc-arrow, one of first of Balin's followers to be killed. He was buried in the Dale under the grass at Mirrormere. His valour and death were recorded in the Book of Mazarbul.

Frár[edit]

Frár was one of the Dwarves who entered Moria with Balin. His death in 2994, while defending the bridge of Khazad-dûm, was recorded in the Book of Mazarbul.

Lóni[edit]

Lóni was one of the Dwarves who entered Moria with Balin. His death there in T.A. 2994 was recorded in the Book of Mazarbul.

Náli[edit]

Náli was one of the Dwarves who entered Moria with Balin. His death there in T.A. 2994 was recorded in the Book of Mazarbul.

Nár[edit]

Nár was the companion of Thrór during his ill-fated attempt to reclaim Moria. After Thrór's death (T.A. 2790), Nár bore the ill tidings to Thrór's son Thráin II.

Tolkien derived the name Nár from the Old Norse dwarf-name Nár, which means corpse.[24] Thus the Dwarf's name alludes to his gruesome news.

Narvi[edit]

Narvi was a great craftsman of the Dwarf-realm of Khazad-dûm who built its West-gate in the Second Age. The gate was built under the authority of his king, Durin, whose name was inscribed over the doors. This is most likely to have been Durin II.

The gateway was co-built with the neighbouring Elf-realm of Eregion, founded circa S.A. 750. Celebrimbor, the lord of Eregion, and a great friend of Narvi,[25] made the inscriptions on the doors, writing in Sindarin. His inscription is partly on behalf of Narvi: Im Narvi hain echant: Celebrimbor o Eregion teithant i thiw hin ("I, Narvi, made them [the Doors]: Celebrimbor of Eregion drew these signs").

Firebeards[edit]

The dwarf clan known as the Firebeards made their home in the city of Nogrod, which Dwarves called Tumunzahar.

Gamil Zirak[edit]

Gamil Zirak was a Dwarvish smith in the First Age. He was a great craftsman, and master of Telchar of Nogrod. Gamil's work was found in the treasuries of Thingol.[26]

The element Zirak also appears in the Dwarvish mountain-name Zirakzigil (Silvertine). Tolkien prevaricated as to whether zirak in Zirakzigil meant silver or tine (spike),[27] but both could be applicable to Gamil, a smith.

Telchar[edit]

Telchar was a Dwarf of Nogrod in the Blue Mountains in the First Age. Taught by Gamil Zirak, he was one of the greatest smiths of Middle-earth. Among his works were Angrist,[28] Narsil,[29] and the Dragon-Helm of Dor-lómin.[30]

Petty dwarves[edit]

The Petty-dwarves only existed in the First Age.

Mîm[edit]

Mîm was one of the last of the Petty-dwarves. He lived together with his two sons, Ibûn and Khîm, at Amon Rûdh in west Beleriand, where he kept a secret treasury. Although he harboured the company of Túrin, he also betrayed them to Orcs, as a man of Túrin's company had slain his son Khîm. Mîm was eventually slain by Húrin at Nargothrond.

During Túrin's time with the Outlaws, Mîm and sons were seen as they snuck past the outlaws carrying heavy sacks. Mîm was captured, and arrows were shot at his sons Ibûn and Khîm.

In exchange for his life, Mîm was forced to lead the outlaws to his secret halls in Amon Rûdh. There, it turned out Khîm had been killed by an arrow loosed by Andróg, who was then forced to break his bow and arrows, and Túrin repenting offered his service to Mîm. For this reason Mîm tolerated the outlaws, and although he never loved Túrin, the dwarf at least came to respect him.

When Beleg Cúthalion arrived at Amon Rûdh, Mîm was angry: he hated elves, especially the Sindar. Nevertheless, he had to tolerate the elf in his halls. This hatred toward Beleg led Mîm to betray Amon Rûdh to Morgoth. After Amon Rûdh was betrayed to Morgoth, all the outlaws were slain, save Túrin and Beleg. Beleg was left tied up on the summit of Amon Rûdh by the orcs, and there Mîm found him and attempted to kill him but was scared away by a dying outlaw called Andróg. Mîm escaped, but it seems Ibûn was killed by orcs. Eventually Mîm made his way to ruined Nargothrond after Túrin had killed Glaurung, and took the treasure for his own.

Húrin Thalion, who had seen all that had happened to Túrin with Morgoth's eyes, came across Mîm in Nargothrond, and killed him, deeming him partially responsible for Túrin's fate. Húrin took the Nauglamir, the Necklace of the Dwarves, and brought it to Thingol. The Necklace was later the cause of the ruin of Doriath.

In the earlier conception of the mythology, found in The Book of Lost Tales but abandoned before the Silmarillion was written, Mîm was set as the guardian of the gold of Nargothrond by Glaurung. When Húrin killed Mîm, the latter cursed the gold with his dying words. Húrin and his band of outlaws then transported the treasure to Thingol, and the cursed gold was the cause of ruin of Doriath. The curse also caused the destruction of the Dwarven army which invaded Doriath by the hands of a host of wood-elves led by Beren, who took the Nauglamir and gave it to Luthien. The curse on the necklace cause Luthien to fade quicker. The curse also caused the sons of Fëanor to attack Dior, son of Beren.

Ibûn[edit]

Ibûn, the son of Mîm, was one of the last of the Petty-dwarves.

Khîm[edit]

Khîm, the son of Mîm, was one of the last of the Petty-dwarves. He was slain by Andróg, a man of Túrin's company.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Noelene Clark (13 December 2012). "'Hobbit': William Kircher speaks Dwarvish, talks Bifur's injury". herocomplex.latimes.com. LA Times. Retrieved 17 December 2014. 
  2. ^ Ian Nathan (2012). "The Hobbit Interviews: James Nesbitt On Bofur". empireonline.com. Empire Online. Retrieved 17 December 2014. 
  3. ^ John D. Rateliff (2005), The History of the Hobbit, volume 2 Return to Bag-End, Appendix III 'The Dvergatal; ISBN 0-00-725066-5.
  4. ^ Seanna Cronin (23 December 2013). "The Desolation of Smaug star without lines: Stephen Hunter". sunshinecoastdaily.com. Retrieved 17 December 2014. 
  5. ^ The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey Blu-Ray Appendices Part 7: The Company of Dwarves
  6. ^ Ian Nathan (2012). "The Hobbit Interviews: Mark Hadlow On Dorir". empireonline.com. Empire Online. Retrieved 30 December 2014. 
  7. ^ "The 12 Days of Dori – The Full Mark Hadlow Interview". middleearthnews.com. February 1, 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2014. 
  8. ^ "TORN Exclusive: Graham 'Dwalin' McTavish Interview". TheOneRing.net. December 9, 2010.
  9. ^ Tharoor, Ishaan (December 12, 2012). "TIME's Guide to The Hobbit's 13 Dwarves". Time. p. 3
  10. ^ Tharoor, Ishaan (December 12, 2012). "TIME's Guide to The Hobbit's 13 Dwarves". Time. p. 4
  11. ^ Tolkien, J.R.R. "The Council of Elrond". The Lord of the Rings. 
  12. ^ "EXCLUSIVE: Getting to know John Callen aka Óin". TheOneRing.net. November 20, 2010.
  13. ^ Ian Nathan. "The Hobbit Interviews: John Callen Talks Oin". Empire. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  14. ^ (Untitled) The Hobbit Blog. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  15. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien (1980), Unfinished Tales, George Allen & Unwin part 1 ch. II p. 75; ISBN 0-04-823179-7
  16. ^ The Peoples of Middle-earth, pp. 275, 279, 383
  17. ^ The Peoples of Middle-earth, pp. 383-4
  18. ^ Robert Foster (1971), The Complete Guide to Middle-earth, Unwin Paperbacks edition (1978); ISBN 0-04-803001-5
  19. ^ Hammond and Scull, The Lord of the Rings, A Reader's Companion, p. 281: reference to p. 306 in LOTR.
  20. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien (1980), Unfinished Tales, George Allen & Unwin, part 2 ch. IV p.238; ISBN 0-04-823179-7
  21. ^ John D. Rateliff (2007), The History of The Hobbit, Part One Mr. Baggins, p.456; ISBN 0-618-96847-4
  22. ^ Christopher Tolkien (1989), The History of Middle-Earth, The Treason of Isengard, p.159; ISBN 0-395-51562-9
  23. ^ John D. Rateliff (2005), The History of the Hobbit, volume 2 Return to Bag-End, Appendix III 'The Dvergatal; ISBN 0-00-725066-5.
  24. ^ John D. Rateliff (2005), The History of the Hobbit, volume 2 Return to Bag-End, Appendix III 'The Dvergatal; ISBN 0-00-725066-5.
  25. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien (1980), Unfinished Tales, Allen & Unwin, part 2 ch. IV p. 235; ISBN 0-04-823179-7
  26. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien (1980), Unfinished Tales, George Allen & Unwin, part 1 ch. 2 p.76; ISBN 0-04-823179-7
  27. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien (1989), The Treason of Isengard (volume 7 of The History of Middle-earth), Unwin Hyman, ch. VII note 22 p.174-175
  28. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien (1977), The Silmarillion, George Allen & Unwin, ch. 19 p. 177; ISBN 0 04 823139 8
  29. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien (1954), The Two Towers, 2nd edition (1966), George Allen & Unwin, book 3 ch. 6 p. 115; ISBN 0 04 823046 4
  30. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien (1985), The Lays of Beleriand (volume 3 of The History of Middle-earth), George Allen & Unwin, part 1 second version ch. 2 p. 115 line 678; ISBN 0 04 823277 7

Other sources[edit]