Waltham Manufacturing Company

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Orient (automobile))
Jump to: navigation, search
Waltham Manufacturing Company
Automobile manufacturing
Industry Automotive
Fate 1908 take-over, 1910 absorbed
Founded 1893
Founder Charles Herman Metz
Prof. Herbert L. Thompson
Elmer G. Howe
Frank L. Howe
William Parrot
Defunct 1910
Headquarters Waltham, Massachusetts, United States
Area served
United States
Key people
Charles Herman Metz
Leonard B. Gaylor
Charles A. Coffin
John Robbins
Albert Champion
Leo Melanowsky
William H. Little
Products Bicycles
motorized tricycles & quadricycles
gasoline engines
automotive parts
Number of employees
ca. 200 in 1909
Late Waltham Orient Buckboard (1906)
1905 Orient 20 HP De Luxe Touring priced at $2250

Waltham Manufacturing Company (WMC) was a manufacturer of bicycles, motorcycles, motorized tricycles and quadricycles, buckboards, and automobiles in Waltham, Massachusetts. It sold products under the brand names Orient, Waltham, and Waltham-Orient. The company was founded in 1893, moving to self-propelled vehicles after 1898.


Waltham Manufacturing Company was founded by Waltham businessmen around engineer Charles Herman Metz (1863-1937). Metz encouraged two employees to build a steam car of their own in the company's premises, which led to the Waltham Steam. Metz imported French Aster engines, and secured the U.S. distributorship for De Dion-Bouton engines. Further, he imported this maker's tricycles and quadricycles. Using De Dion-Bouton patents, WMC started building their own Orient Autogo and Orient Autogo Quad in 1899.

An early investor in WMC, Charles A. Coffin (1844-1926), first president of General Electric, ordered an electric prototype in 1898, which went not in production. Metz experimented with engines mounted on bicycles. The evolving Orient Aster was one of the very first U.S.-built motorcycles.[citation needed] Metz was assisted by famed French bicycle racer Albert Champion (1878—1927) who arrived in the U.S. around 1899, becoming one of the first professional motorbike racers. Metz is even claimed to have found the expression "motor cycle" for his new vehicle, first used in a 1899 ad.[citation needed] Further, engines of Metz' design were developed and produced.

WMC's first car was a motor buggy called the Orient Victoriette, followed by two runabouts in 1902 and 1903. About 400 of the earlier model were sold; the younger Orient Runabout No. 9 was not a success with about 50 examples built.

In 1902, Metz left the company, founding Metz Motorcycle Company and C.H. Metz Company in town soon after. Engineer Leonard B. Gaylor succeeded him at WMC.[citation needed] The same year, Gaylor introduced a very light model with friction drive, sold as the Orient Buckboard.[citation needed] It seated 2 passengers and sold for just US$425, making it the lowest-priced automobile available.[citation needed] The vertically mounted air-cooled single-cylinder engine, situated at the rear of the car, produced 4 hp (3 kW). The car had tiller steering, weighed 500 lb (227 kg) and had a 100 mi (161 km) range,[citation needed] though minimal springing and the complete lack of any bodywork made it less than practical for a long journey. In the next years, it was offered in several models (including a diminutive delivery car), got an improved suspension, steering wheel, two chains instead of one belt to transmit the power to the rear wheels, and an optional 8 hp (6 kW) two cylinder engine. It remained in production until 1907.

Plant superintendent John Robbins left in 1904.[citation needed] He was replaced by Leo Melanowski. At WMC, he also had the position of a chief engineer.[citation needed]

More conventional cars came in 1905 with front-mounted, water cooled inline 4-cylinder engines of 16 or 20 hp (12 or 15 kW) and chain drive. They were made until 1908. These powerplants were of proprietary design and consisted of four singles mounted on a common crank. Although of good quality, the cars were too expensive to become a success.[citation needed]

Melanowski left in 1906, his position taken by William H. Little. Little developed a small runabout with a 10 hp (7.5 kW) V-twin engine and friction drive. Shortly before production started in 1908, WMC got into financial troubles. To avoid bankruptcy, their bank negotiated with Charles Metz. In July 1908, the C.H. Metz Company bought WMC, making Metz owner of the largest automobile manufacture in the U.S. Reorganisations followed in 1909 and 1910, when the C.H. Metz Co. and WMC together were reorganized as the Metz Company.[1]

Little's small car left became the Metz Two, sold by a completely new marketing in 14 batches and assembled by the customer. It worked, and the company was not only out of debt in less than a year but also sold its huge stock of parts.[citation needed]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Kimes, Beverly Rae; Clark Jr; Henry Austin (1996). Standard Catalog of American Cars: 1805–1942. Iola, WI: Krause Publications. p. 1511. ISBN 978-0-87341-428-9. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Hiscox, Gardner Dexter (1900), "Waltham Manufacturing Co.", Horseless vehicles, New York: N. W. Henley & co. 
  • G. N. Georgano (editor): Complete Encyclopedia of Motorcars, 1885 to the Present. New York: Dutton Press, 2nd edition (Hardcover) 1973, ISBN 0-525-08351-0
  • Beverly Rae Kimes: Pioneers, Engineers, and Scoundrels: The Dawn of the Automobile in America. editor SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) Permissions, Warrendale PA 2005, ISBN 0-7680-1431-X (hardcover)

External links[edit]

Bicycles, motorcycles, and Autogos[edit]