The Oriflamme (from Latin aurea flamma, "golden flame"), a pointed, blood-red banner flown from a gilded lance, was the battle standard of the King of France in the Middle Ages. The oriflamme originated as the sacred banner of the Abbey of St. Denis, a monastery near Paris. When the oriflamme was raised in battle by the French royalty during the Middle Ages, most notably during the Hundred Years War, no prisoners were to be taken until it was lowered. Through this tactic they hoped to strike fear into the hearts of the enemy, especially the nobles, who could usually expect to be taken alive for ransom during such military encounters.
In French, the term "oriflamme" has come to mean any banner with pointed ends, by association with the form of the original.
The Oriflamme was mentioned in the eleventh-century ballad the Chanson de Roland (vv. 3093-5) as a royal banner, first called Romaine and then Montjoie. According to legend, Charlemagne carried it to the Holy Land in response to a prophecy regarding a knight possessing a golden lance, from which flames would burn and drive out the Saracens. This suggests that the lance was originally the important object, with the banner simply a decoration, but this changed over time.
Louis VI replaced the earlier banner of Saint Martin with the oriflamme of the Abbey of St. Denis, which floated about the tomb of St. Denis and was said to have been given to the abbey by King Dagobert. Until the 12th century the standard-bearer was the Comte de Vexin, who, as vowed to St. Denis, was the temporal defender of the abbey. Louis VI, having acquired Vexin, became standard-bearer; as soon as war began, Louis VI received Communion at St. Denis and took the standard from the tomb of the saint to carry it into combat.
Although the azure ground (from the blue cope of St. Martin of Tours) strewn with gold fleur-de-lis remained the symbol of royalty until the 15th century, the Oriflamme became the royal battle standard of the King of France, and it was carried at the head of the king's forces when they met another army in battle. It is recorded as having been carried at the following battles/campaigns:
- Bouvines 1214
- Seventh Crusade 1248
- Mons-en-Pévèle 1304
- Crécy 1346
- Poitiers 1356
- Roosebeke 1382
- Agincourt 1415 (disputed; see below)
Although the Oriflamme has often been depicted as present at the battle of Agincourt, modern historians have disputed this. The banner was given to Guillaume de Martel by Charles VI on September 10, 1415, and carried by Martel from Paris to Rouen.  This was likely an attempt to raise French morale and rally troops, however there is no evidence that the Oriflamme was then taken on campaign and unfurled at Agincourt. Modern historians agree that the Oriflamme was not carried by Guillaume de Martel at Agincourt, as the king was not present at the battle in person.
The surviving descriptions of the Oriflamme are in Guillaume le Breton (thirteenth century), in the "Chronicle of Flanders" (fourteenth century), in the "Registra Delphinalia" (1456) and in the inventory of the treasury of Saint-Denis (1536). They show that the primitive Oriflamme was succeeded in the course of the centuries by newer Oriflammes which bore little resemblance to one another except for their colour.
On the battlefield
The bearer of the standard, the porte-oriflamme, became an office (like that of Marshal or Constable) and a great honour, as it was an important and very dangerous job to take charge of such a visible symbol in battle. If things went badly, the bearer was expected to die, rather than relinquish his charge.
There Sir Geoffroi de Charny fought gallantly near the king (note: and his fourteen-year-old son). The whole press and cry of battle were upon him because he was carrying the king’s sovereign banner [the Oriflamme]. He also had before him his own banner, gules, three escutcheons argent. So many English and Gascons came around him from all sides that they cracked open the king’s battle formation and smashed it; there were so many English and Gascons that at least five of these men at arms attacked one [French] gentleman. Sir Geoffroi de Charny was killed with the banner of France in his hand, as other French banners fell to earth.
Notable Bearers of the Oriflamme
- Geoffroi de Charny – 14th-century knight and author of several works on chivalry. He first bore the Oriflamme during the failed attempt to relieve Calais in 1347.
- Arnoul d'Audrehem – 14th-century former Marshal of France. He held the office from 1368 to his death in 1370 but never carried the banner in action.
- Guillaume de Martel – Seigneur de Bacqueville. He carried the Oriflamme at Agincourt and died there.
- Sir Pierre de Villiers carried the Oriflamme at the Battle of Roosebeke against the Flemish rebels of Ghent led by Philip van Artvelde in 1382.
The Oriflamme in literature
In canto XXXI of Paradiso, Dante describes the Virgin Mary in the Empyrean as pacifica oriafiamma (Musa's translation, "oriflame of peace"):
so there, on high, that oriflame of peace
lit up its center while on either side
its glow was equally diminishing
The 19th-century poet Robert Southey refers to the Oriflamme and its reputation in his poem Joan of Arc:
The Maid of Orleans answered, "to act well
Brings with itself an ample recompense.
I have not reared the oriflamme of death —
Now God forbid! The banner of the Lord
Is this; and, come what will, me it behooves,
Mindful of Him whose minister I am,
To spare the fallen foe: that gracious God
Sends me a messenger of mercy forth,
Sends me to save this ravaged realm of France,
To England friendly as to all the world;
Only to those an enemy, whose lust
Of sway makes them the enemies of man."— Robert Southey, Joan of Arc. Book VIII
The 20th-century Martiniquais poet and politician, Aimé Césaire (1913–2008) invokes the Oriflamme in his poem "Your Hair" ("Chevelure"). By invoking the Oriflamme, Césaire also invokes the French Colonial Empire, war, and oppression. The poem is included in The Collected Poetry of Aimé Césaire. An excerpt reads:
all the juices rising in the lust of the earth
all the poisons distilled by the nocturnal alembics in the involucres of the Malvaceae
all the thundering of the Saponaria
are like these discordant words written by the flames of pyres
over the sublime oriflammes of your revolt— Aime Cesaire, Solar Throat Slashed
- "Oriflamme Society". Archived from the original on 2005-10-28. Retrieved 2005-10-25.
- Robert Southey (1841) Joan of Arc: a poem, Longman et autres. p. 280
- Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. .
- Barbara Tuchman (1978). A Distant Mirror. Penguin. p. 148. ISBN 0140054073.
- Richard W. Barber (1984) The Penguin guide to medieval Europe. Penguin Books. p. 224
- Stephen Slater (2002). The Complete Book of Heraldry. Hermes House. p. 30. ISBN 1846819601.
- Kelly DeVries (2006) : Infantry Warfare in the Early Fourteenth Century. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press. p. 40.
- Jonathon Sumption (1990). Trial by Battle. London: Faber & Faber. p. 530. ISBN 0-571-20095-8.
- David Green (2004). The Battle of Poitiers 1356. p. 56. ISBN 0-7524-2557-9.
- Edward Cowan (2012) The Wallace Book, Birlinn
- "The Oriflamme". The Baronage Press. 2000.
- Barker (2005).[clarification needed]
- Anne Curry (2000). ‘’The Battle of Agincourt: Sources and Interpretations’’. p. 353.
- Matthew Strickland[clarification needed], in A. Curry, M. Mercer (eds.). ‘’The Battle of Agincourt’’ (2015). p. 36–37.
- Stephen Cooper (2014). ‘’Agincourt: Myth and Reality, 1915–2015’’. p. 37–38.
- Stephen Slater (2002). The Complete Book of Heraldry. Hermes House. p. 33. ISBN 1846819601.
- Maurice Keen (1965). The laws of War in the late Middle Ages. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. p. 105-106.
- Jean Froissart; trans Geoffrey Brereton, Chronicles ( Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, UK, 1978), p. 247.
- Barker (2005), p. 323.[clarification needed]
- Dante Alighieri (1986). The Divine Comedy, Volume 3: Paradise. Translated by Musa, Mark. New York: Penguin Classics. p. 369. ISBN 9780140444438.
- Robert Southey, The Poetical Works of Robert Southey: With a Memoir of the Author, in X Volumes, Volume I, Boston: Little Brown and Company, New York, 1860, p. 181, 307
- Aime Cesaire, The Collected Poetry of Aime Cesaire. Berkely and Los Angeles. University of California Press, Berkeley, 1983.