Origin recognition complex
|Origin recognition complex subunit 2|
|Origin recognition complex (ORC) subunit 3 N-terminus|
|Origin recognition complex subunit 6 (ORC6)|
In molecular biology, origin recognition complex (ORC) is a multi-subunit DNA binding complex (6 subunits) that binds in all eukaryotes and archaea in an ATP-dependent manner to origins of replication. The subunits of this complex are encoded by the ORC1, ORC2, ORC3, ORC4, ORC5 and ORC6 genes. ORC is a central component for eukaryotic DNA replication, and remains bound to chromatin at replication origins throughout the cell cycle.
ORC directs DNA replication throughout the genome and is required for its initiation. ORC bound at replication origins serves as the foundation for assembly of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC), which includes Cdc6, Tah11 (a.k.a. Cdt1), and the Mcm2-Mcm7 complex. Pre-RC assembly during G1 is required for replication licensing of chromosomes prior to DNA synthesis during S phase. Cell cycle-regulated phosphorylation of Orc2, Orc6, Cdc6, and MCM by the cyclin-dependent protein kinase Cdc28 regulates initiation of DNA replication, including blocking reinitiation in G2/M phase.
In yeast, ORC also plays a role in the establishment of silencing at the mating-type loci Hidden MAT Left (HML) and Hidden MAT Right (HMR). ORC participates in the assembly of transcriptionally silent chromatin at HML and HMR by recruiting the Sir1 silencing protein to the HML and HMR silencers.
Both Orc1 and Orc5 bind ATP, though only Orc1 has ATPase activity. The binding of ATP by Orc1 is required for ORC binding to DNA and is essential for cell viability. The ATPase activity of Orc1 is involved in formation of the pre-RC. ATP binding by Orc5 is crucial for the stability of ORC as a whole. Only the Orc1-5 subunits are required for origin binding; Orc6 is essential for maintenance of pre-RCs once formed. Interactions within ORC suggest that Orc2-3-6 may form a core complex.
The following proteins are present in the ORC:
|S. cerevisiae||S. pombe||D. melanogaster||Vertebrates|
|ORC 1-6||ORC 1-6||ORC 1-6||ORC 1-6|
Archaea feature a simplified version of the ORC, Mcm, and as a consequence the combined pre-RC. Instead of using six different mcm proteins to form a pseudo-symmetrical heterohexamer, all six subunits in the archaeal MCM are the same. They usually have multiple proteins that are homologous to both Cdc6 and Orc1, some of which perform the function of both. Unlike eukaryotic Orc, they do not always form a complex. In fact, they have divergent complex structures when these do form. Sulfolobus islandicus also uses a Cdt1 homologue to recognize one of its replication origins.
Autonomously replicating sequences
Autonomously Replicating Sequences (ARS), first discovered in budding yeast, are integral to the success of the ORC. These 100-200bp sequences facilitate replication activity during S phase. ARSs can be placed at any novel location of the chromosomes of budding yeast and will facilitate replication from those sites. A highly conserved sequence of 11bp (known as the A element) is thought to be essential for origin function in budding yeast. The ORC was originally identified by its ability to bind to the A element of the ARS in budding yeast.
Animal cells contain a much more cryptic version of an ARS, with no conserved sequences found as of yet. However, in animal cells, replication origins gather into bundles called replicon clusters. Each cluster's replicons are similar in length, but individual clusters have replicons of varying length. These replicons all have similar basic residues to which the ORC binds, which in many ways mimic the conserved 11bp A element. All of these clusters are simultaneously activated during S phase.
Role in pre-RC assembly
The ORC is essential for the loading of MCM complexes (Pre-RC) onto DNA. This process is dependent on the ORC, Cdc6, and Cdt1 – involving several ATP controlled recruiting events. First, the ORC and Cdc6 form a complex on origin DNA (marked by ARS type regions). New ORC/Cdc6 complexes then recruit Cdt1/Mcm2-7 molecules to the site. Once this massive ORC/Cdc6/Cdt1/Mcm2-7 (OCCM) complex is formed, the ORC/Cdc6/Cdt1 molecules work together to load Mcm2-7 onto the DNA itself by hydrolysis of ATP by Cdc6. Cdc6's phosphorylative activity is dependent on both the ORC and origin DNA. This leads to Cdt1 having decreased stability on the DNA and falling off of the complex leading to Mcm2-7 loading on to the DNA. The structure of the ORC, MCM, as well as the intermediate OCCM complex has been resolved.
Origin binding activity
Although the ORC is composed of six discrete subunits, only one of these has been found to be significant - ORC1. In vivo studies have shown that Lys-263 and Arg-367 are the basic residues responsible for faithful ORC loading. These molecules represent the above-mentioned ARS. ORC1 interacts with ATP and these basic residues in order to bind the ORC to origin DNA. It has been established that this occurs far before replication, and that the ORC itself is already bound to Origin DNA by the time any Mcm2-7 loading occurs. When Mcm2-7 is first loaded it completely encircles the DNA and helicase activity is inhibited. In S phase, the Mcm2-7 complex interacts with helicase cofactors Cdc45 and GINS to isolate a single DNA strand, unwind the origin, and begin replication down the chromosome. In order to have bidirectional replication, this process happens twice at an origin. Both loading events are mediated by one ORC via an identical process as the first.
- Origin+Recognition+Complex at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
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