Original masters of taekwondo
Original Masters of TaeKwonDo is a group of twelve South Korean martial art masters assembled by the Korea Taekwondo Association (KTA) in the early 1960s to promote the newly established art of taekwondo. In alphabetical order following Korean naming conventions, they are: Choi Chang Keun, Choi Kwang Jo, Han Cha Kyo, Kim Jong Chan, Kim Kwang Il, Kong Young Il, Park Jong Soo, Park Jung Tae, Park Sun Jae, Rhee Chong Chul, Rhee Chong Hyup, and Rhee Ki Ha.
The group came under the leadership of Choi Hong Hi (1918–2002), inaugural President of the KTA and later founder of the International Taekwon-Do Federation (ITF), and Nam Tae Hi (1929–2013), known as the Father of Vietnamese Taekwondo. Many of these men held senior positions in the ITF under Choi, but several left over time. Most of the men settled in North America, while others settled in Europe or Australia.
The phrase "original masters of taekwondo" is used to describe this group of men, but does not indicate that they were the first (or original) masters in the KTA. The leaders of the nine kwans that unified to form the KTA was a different group of men who, while perhaps senior to some of those listed as "original masters of taekwondo", were practising arts with other names, such as tae soo do, kong soo do, and others. Some of those leaders resisted using the name taekwondo. The men in the present group were among the first to adopt and promote the name taekwondo.
- 1 History
- 2 Biographies
- 3 See also
- 4 References
- 5 External links
Demonstrations and tours
The original masters of taekwondo featured in the earliest demonstrations of taekwondo as a Korean martial art outside South Korea. The following table summarises demonstrations or instructional tours for which references are available.
|March 1959||Far East: Taiwan · Vietnam||C. K. Han|||
|February 1964||Singapore||K. H. Rhee|||
|1964||Penang, Malaysia||C. K. Choi|||
|1964||Yugoslavia||S. J. Park|||
|c. 1964||Brunei · Hong Kong · Indonesia · Malaysia · Singapore||C. C. Rhee|||
|c. 1964–1965||Malaysia · Singapore||C. H. Rhee|||
|c. 1965||Adelaide, Australia||C. C. Rhee|||
|c. October 1965||United Arab Republic (now Egypt) · Italy · Malaysia · Singapore · Turkey · West Germany||C. K. Han, J. S. Park|||
|1965–1967||Vietnam||J. T. Park|||
|Early ITF: 1966–1980|
|1966||Netherlands||J. S. Park|||
|c. 1966–1967||Hong Kong · Indonesia · Malaysia · Singapore||K. J. Choi|||
|1967||Japan||C. K. Han|||
|1967||United Kingdom||K. H. Rhee|||
|1968||Hong Kong||C. K. Han|||
|1968||Canada||J. S. Park|||
|c. 1968–1969||Paris, France||K. I. Kim, S. J. Park, K. H. Rhee|||
|March 1970||Toronto, Canada||J. T. Park|||
|1970||Perth, Australia||C. C. Rhee|||
|1970||Vancouver, Canada||C. K. Choi|||
|1970||United States of America||K. J. Choi|||
|1971||Singapore||C. K. Han|||
|1971||United States of America||C. K. Han|||
|1972||Apollo Stadium, Adelaide, Australia||C. C. Rhee, C. H. Rhee|||
|November–December 1973||Africa · Europe · Far East · Middle East||C. K. Choi, Y. I. Kong, J. S. Park, S. J. Park, K. H. Rhee|||
|July 1974||Sydney, Australia||C. H. Rhee|||
|1974||Maple Leaf Gardens, Toronto, Canada||Y. I. Kong, J. S. Park, K. H. Rhee|||
|9 March 1975||Kelvin Halls, Glasgow, United Kingdom||C. K. Choi, K. I. Kim, Y. I. Kong, J. S. Park, J. T. Park, S. J. Park, K. H. Rhee|||
|c. early 1978||Kenya · Malaysia · Pakistan · South Africa||K. H. Rhee|||
|May 1978||Hungary · Poland · Sweden · Yugoslavia||C. K. Choi, J. T. Park, K. H. Rhee|||
|1979||Denmark · France · Greenland · Sweden · West Germany||K. H. Rhee|||
|November 1979||Argentina||C. K. Choi, J. C. Kim, J. T. Park, K. H. Rhee|||
|Late ITF: 1981–2002|
|January 1981||Queensland, Australia||C. K. Choi|||
|1981||North Korea||J. T. Park|||
|October–November 1982||Austria · Czechoslovakia · Denmark · Finland · Greenland · Hungary · Poland · United Kingdom · West Germany · Yugoslavia||J. T. Park|||
|November 1984||New York, United States of America||J. T. Park|||
|November 1985||Norway||J. T. Park|||
|1987||Buenos Aires, Argentina||J. T. Park|||
|1990||USSR||K. H. Rhee|||
|Post-H. H. Choi: 2003–|
|25–27 April 2003||Solvalla Sports Institute, Espoo, Finland||K. H. Rhee|||
|2–4 May 2008||Vancouver, Canada||J. C. Kim, J. S. Park|||
|27–28 September 2008||Beijing, China||J. S. Park|||
|2–3 December 2009||Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia||K. H. Rhee|||
Relationship with H. H. Choi
Many of the original masters of taekwondo went on to prominent roles in the ITF in the late 1960s and 1970s. As time passed and many of these masters left the ITF, their photographs were removed from Choi's series of taekwondo textbooks and replaced with photographs of current ITF masters. One of the main reasons for their departure was Choi's insistence on initiating relationships with North Korea, during a period in which that country and South Korea were "technically at war" (Gillis, 2003, p. 104; C. K. Choi, 2010, p. 147), or at best, had "no diplomatic relations" (C. K. Choi, 2010, p. 147) or "no diplomatic ties" (World Taekwon-Do Alliance). At least one of the masters reported that it was with regret that he stopped supporting Choi. North and South Korea are still considered to be technically at war.
Seven of the masters settled in North America: Chang Keun Choi (Canada, 1970), Kwang Jo Choi (USA, 1970), Cha Kyo Han (USA, 1971), Jong Chan Kim (Canada), Young Il Kong (USA, c. 1968), Jong Soo Park (Canada, 1968), and Jung Tae Park (Canada, 1970). The leaders of the group also settled in North America: H. H. Choi moved to Canada and T. H. Nam settled in the USA. Three of the masters settled in Europe: Kwang Il Kim (West Germany, now Germany, c. 1970), Sun Jae Park (Italy, c. 1970), and Ki Ha Rhee (United Kingdom, 1967). Two of the masters settled in Australia: Chong Chul Rhee (c. 1965), and Chong Hyup Rhee (c. 1970).
C. K. Choi, J. C. Kim, Y. I. Kong, J. S. Park, and K. H. Rhee have maintained the strongest links with the ITF. H. H. Choi had personally promoted C. K. Choi to 8th dan (1981), Y. I Kong to 9th dan (1997), and K. H. Rhee to 9th dan (1997).
The following table summarises the status of the twelve original masters of taekwondo.
Choi Chang Keun
S.K.SULTAN KHAN was born around 1940 in Korea. He began his martial arts training in the South Korean army in 1956, studying taekwondo and karate. Choi taught taekwondo in Malaysia from 1964, and moved to Vancouver, Canada, in 1970. In 1973, he held the rank of 7th dan. Choi was promoted to 8th dan in 1981 by H. H. Choi, and attained the rank of 9th dan in 2002. He is still based in Vancouver.
Choi Kwang Jo
K. J. Choi was born on 2 March 1942, in Daegu, Korea. His martial art training began when he was still a child, learning kwon bup. Choi served in the South Korean military and came into contact with H. H. Choi there. Around 1966–1967, he taught taekwondo in Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. Choi moved to the United States of America in 1970 to seek medical treatment for injuries sustained from martial arts training. In 1987, he founded his own martial art system and organisation, Choi Kwang-Do. He is based in Atlanta. Choi holds the rank of 9th dan in his own martial art, Choi Kwang-Do.
Han Cha Kyo
C. K. Han was born on 20 July 1934 in Seoul, Korea. He trained under three martial art masters: Tae Hi Nam, Duk Sung Son, and Woon Kyu Um. Han was the first of the original masters of taekwondo to demonstrate overseas, participating in the March 1959 tour of Taiwan and Vietnam. Following a career in the South Korean military, he emigrated to the United States of America in 1971, settling in Chicago. Han founded his own organisation, the Universal Tae Kwon Do Federation, around 1980. He continued teaching taekwondo until his death in 1996.
Kim Jong Chan
J. C. Kim was born in 1936. 1953 Began studying martial arts with Kim Bong Gil 1955 General Choi announced and created the name TAEKWON-DO on April 11. 1956 Joined the Military Police Academy, studied various Martial Arts under Kim Sung Bok 1957 Under the direction of General Ha built the first TAEKWON-DO Academy of the 7th Infantry Division with Major Park. Introduced to General Choi. 1958 Attended the First Instructors course held under the First Army in Won Ju, Korea, led by Major Woo (2nd Dan Black Belt), Lieutenant Hong (1st Dan Black Belt) and Captain Nam (3rd Dan Black Belt)Appointed to the Special Security Mission for the Army Commander. Trained in all Martial Arts for 8 months. 1960 Promoted to 2nd Dan Black Belt in Tae Kwon-Do 1962 Appointed as Head Instructor of the Oh Do Kwan Headquarters school in Seoul. Organized the world's first TAEKWON-DO Championships, held in Wonju, Korea, where CK Choi became free sparring and patterns champion 1963 Promoted to Tae Soo Do (Karate) 3rd Degree Black Belt 1964 Trained directly under General Choi for four months, where the 24 Tae-Kwon Do patterns were formed. Assisted General Choi with the First TAEKWON-DO Book. Introduced Park Jong Soo to General Choi. Appointed as the first Instructor to Instructors for the Minister of Defense (Army, Navy, Air Force & Marine Corps.) 1965 Organized TAEKWON-DO as primary martial art trained in the Korean military. 1966 The International TAEKWON-DO Federation (ITF) was formed. Appointed as Chief Instructor and a founding member of the ITF. -Taught Tae-Kwon Do Patterns, Chon-Ji to Choong-Moo to instructor Jhoon Ree. Thereafter Jhoon Rhee went to USA and published the TAEKWON-DO Handbook.Taught Tae-Kwon Do Patterns Chon-Ji to Choong-Moo to instructor Kim Han Chan. Thereafter Kim Han Chan went to Argentina. Appointed as the first Tae Kwon Do Chief Instructor to the Korean National Police Force, by the Minister of Homeland Affairs 1967 Developed the first International Instructors course for the ITF, where the minimum student entrant would possess a 4th Dan black belt. 1968 Invited by the Singapore government to introduce TAEKWON-DO. Instructed in Malaysia Perak State. 1969 Organized the first Malaysian TAEKWON-DO Championships in Penang 1970 Arrived in Vancouver BC Canada to promote and demonstrate TAEKWON-DO with C.K. Choi at UBC, SFU, & various high schools. 1971 Organized with Han Cha Kyo, the first Asian TAEKWON-DO Championships, held in Hong Kong.Taught Army Cadets in New Westminster BC Arrived in Montreal Canada
1972 Opened the first TAEKWON-DO School in Montreal. 1973 Appointed as the first Chairman of the Technical Committee of the International TAEKWON-DO Federation. Promoted to 7 Dan black belt. Organized the World's First TAEKWON-DO Masters Demonstration, at the Montreal Forum where 27 Masters attended. 1974 Organized the World's First TAEKWON-DO Championships held at the Montreal Forum. 24 countries participated. 1975 Invented the stretching machine “the Stretchersizer” 1976 Invited as the Instructor, of the European Instructors course held in Glasgow U K. 1977 Studied Bio Physical Education at Concordia University 1978 Moved to New Westminster BC 1979 Trained 21 TAEKWON-DO instructors in Argentina including Dr Hector Marano and Pablo Trajtenberg, and with an unprecedented move, promoted several of them directly from 2nd Dan to 4th Dan Black Belts. 1981 Promoted to 8th Dan Black Belt. Elected as the Secretary General of the ITF. Appointed as the Chairman of the Merging Committee for the ITF and WTF. As Chairman of the merging committee, negotiated the merging agreement between the ITF and the WTF, that was submitted to the International Olympic Committee by Un Yong Kim, in order to have Tae Kwon- Do accepted as an Olympic sport. 1982 Quietly resigned from the ITF and all Tae Kwon do duties, due to opposition to General Choi’s controversial political statements made in North Korea 1991 Promoted to 9th Dan Black Belt 2015 JC KIM`S two sons Rich Kim and Ed Kim are following in his footsteps, are currently and have been for over 30 years, teaching Tae Kwon-Do in Surrey, BC. In 1979, ranked 7th dan, he taught and demonstrated in Argentina along with C. K. Choi, J. T. Park, and K. H. Rhee. A letter by Kim published in the July 1985 issue of Black Belt magazine lists his title at the time as President of the 'World Tukido Council.' He is based in Vancouver, Canada.
Kim Kwang Il
K. I. Kim contributed to the introduction of taekwondo into West Germany. He was head instructor of the ITF in West Germany, but was relieved of this duty in October 1971. In 1975, Kim was ranked 6th dan. He promoted Rolf Becking, head of the ITF Germany Technical Committee, to the rank of 2nd dan in 1976 in Stuttgart, West Germany. Between 1974 and 1977 Kim had a restaurant in Stuttgart and had completed training as a Brewmeister prior to 1974.
Kong Young Il
Y. I. Kong was born in 1943 in Korea. He began training in the martial arts as a child in 1952, starting with Shotokan karate. From 1963 to 1967, Kong served in the South Korean army, attaining the rank of Sergeant. He participated in several demonstration tours across the world. Following a career in the South Korean military, Kong emigrated to the United States of America just before or in 1968. He and his younger brother, Young Bo Kong, founded the Young Brothers Taekwondo Associates in 1968. Kong was promoted to the rank of 9th dan in 1997 by H. H. Choi in Poland. He is based in Las Vegas.
Park Jong Soo
J. S. Park was born in 1941 in Chung-Nam, Korea. He trained in taekwondo under H. H. Choi. In 1965, he was invited to be the coach of the German Taekwon-Do Association, and moved from South Korea to West Germany. The following year, he moved to the Netherlands and founded the Netherlands Taekwon-Do Association. In 1968, Park settled in Toronto, Canada. Park holds the rank of 9th dan, and is still based in Toronto.
Park Jung Tae
J. T. Park was born in 1943 or 1944 in Korea. He began training in the martial arts as a child, starting with boxing before moving on to judo and then taekwondo. From 1965 to 1967, Park directed military taekwondo training in Vietnam. He emigrated to Canada where he met his future wife, Linda, in Toronto in 1970. In 1984, Park was ranked 8th dan in the ITF. He founded his own organisation, the Global Taekwon-Do Federation (GTF), on 14 June 1990—the year after his departure from the ITF due to North–South Korean political issues. Park was based in Mississauga until his death in 2002.
Park Sun Jae
S. J. Park is a pioneer of taekwondo in Italy. In 1964, he visited Croatia to present seminars on his art. He introduced taekwondo to Italy around 1968. In 1968, he was ranked 5th dan, and in 1975, he was ranked 7th dan. He was elected Vice-President (Italy) in the European Tae Kwon Do Union (within the World Taekwondo Federation) at the union's inaugural meeting in 1976. In 2002, he was a member of the arbitration board for the WTF's World Cup Taekwondo championship in Tokyo. On 15 February 2004, the Executive Council of the WTF elected him as Acting President of the WTF following Un Yong Kim's resignation from the presidency of the organisation. He is Vice President (Italy) of the WTF. Park was President of the Federazione Italiana Taekwondo (Italian Taekwondo Federation) around 1998, and still held the position as of 2008 and 2009.
Rhee Chong Chul
C. C. Rhee was born around 1935 in Korea. As a youth, he trained in martial arts, basketball, boxing, gymnastics, and weights. Later, he was an instructor in the Korean Marines for three years, teaching unarmed combat to the Marine Commandoes, Marine Brigade Headquarters, and the Marine 2nd Infantry Division. Rhee helped introduce the art of taekwondo to Southeast Asia—most notably in Malaysia and Singapore, but also in Hong Kong, Indonesia, and Brunei. He founded his own organisation, Rhee Taekwon-Do, in Adelaide, Australia, around 1965. Rhee came to be known as the Father of Australian Taekwondo. He is based in Sydney.
Rhee Chong Hyup
C. H. Rhee was born around 1940 in Korea. In the mid-1960s, he contributed to the introduction of taekwondo to Malaysia and Singapore. He arrived in Australia in 1970 and settled in Melbourne, Australia. Rhee is in charge of Rhee Taekwon-Do operations in Melbourne.
Rhee Ki Ha
K. H. Rhee was born on 20 March 1938 in Seoul, Korea. His martial arts training began when he was around 7 or 8 years of age, learning judo from his father. He later learned karate from one of his schoolteachers. When Rhee served in the South Korean military forces, he came into contact with H. H. Choi and learned taekwondo in the 35th Infantry Division. From February 1964, he taught taekwondo to Royal Air Force personnel in Singapore. He emigrated to London on 2 July 1967. He attained the rank of 8th dan in 1981, and was promoted to 9th dan by H. H. Choi on 1 July 1997 in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Rhee came to be known as the Father of British Taekwondo, as well as the Father of Irish Taekwondo. He is now based in Glasgow.
- Choi, H. H. (1972): Taekwon-Do: The Korean art of self-defence. Mississauga: International Taekwon-Do Federation.
- Park, S. H. (1993): "About the author." In H. H. Choi: Taekwon-Do: The Korean art of self-defence, 3rd ed. (Vol. 1, pp. 241–274). Mississauga: International Taekwon-Do Federation.
- A tribute to the original masters (c. 2007). Retrieved 13 June 2007; link has expired, as at 1 July 2011. Archived 25 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine. retrieved on 7 November 2011.
- United Confederation of Taekwon-Do: ITF and history Retrieved on 5 January 2010.
- Early Masters of Tae Kwon Do (DVD). Directed by D. Warrener (2005). Rising Sun Productions.
- Taekwon-Do Pioneers: Historic footage of the original Taekwon-Do Masters (DVD). Compiled by P. McPhail (c. 2007). PaulM Taekwon-Do.
- World Taekwon-Do Alliance: Grand Master Nam Tae Hi Archived 19 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 22 February 2009.
- Grandmaster Van Binh Nguyen, IX degree Archived 17 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 8 January 2010.
- Burdick, D. (1990): A history of Taekwondo Retrieved on 8 January 2010.
- Van Binh Self Defense Academy: History of Taekwon-Do Archived 8 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 8 January 2010.
- Vitale, G. (2009): A history of Taekwon-Do demo's (sic) Archived 15 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Totally Tae Kwon Do, 5:41–45.
- International Taekwon-Do Association Slovenia: ITF history Archived 31 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 3 February 2010.
- Republic of Ireland Taekwon-Do Association: Grand Master Rhee Ki Ha, 9th degree black belt Retrieved on 30 January 2010.
- Derby School of Taekwon-Do: Forty years of Taekwon-Do in the United Kingdom Archived 3 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 13 January 2010; link updated on 25 January 2012.
- World Taekwon-Do Alliance: Grand Master C. K. Choi Archived 9 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 5 January 2010.
- Hawkins, P. (2005): An interview with Grandmaster C. K. Choi Archived 15 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Totally Tae Kwon Do, 4:6–13.
- Tae Kwon Do Pioneers: Grand Master C. K. Choi Archived 11 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 5 January 2010.
- Tae Kwon Do Times: Anto Nobilo – A mover and shaker (c. 2009). Retrieved 20 May 2010.
- Rhee Tae Kwon Do: Perth Region – Father of Australian Tae Kwon Do Archived 14 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 13 June 2007.
- Anonymous (2007): "In the words of a master: GM Rhee Ki Ha, 9th Dan," Australasian Taekwondo, 16(3):50–54.
- An interview with World Master Chong Chul Rhee, 8th Dan, the Father of Australian Taekwon-Do Archived 3 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Australasian Fighting Arts (March 1985). Retrieved 13 June 2007.
- Rhee Taekwondo: South Australia – History of Rhee Taekwondo Archived 9 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 3 November 2007.
- Han's Tae Kwon Do: Grandmaster Han Cha Kyo Retrieved on 22 February 2009.
- Universal Taekwon-Do Federation Madison: Grandmaster Han Cha Kyo Archived 17 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 13 January 2010.
- Grand Master Jong Soo Park: Biography Archived 11 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 22 February 2009.
- Taekwondo Homepage: Geschichte des Taekwondo (in German). Retrieved 5 January 2010.
- ITF Phoenix Group: Biography of Master John Tompkins Retrieved on 16 February 2009.
- Clifton, P. (1991): Choi Kwang-Do's Grandmaster Choi answers to Combat Archived 20 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Combat Magazine (January 1991). Retrieved 22 January 2010.
- Choi Kwang Do International: Our Founder, Grandmaster Kwang Jo Choi Retrieved on 13 January 2010.
- Grand Master Rhee Ki Ha, 9th Dan Archived 15 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 29 July 2007; link has expired, as at 25 January 2010. New version Archived 20 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine. retrieved on 25 January 2010.
- Cox, S. (c. 2004): The history of Taekwon-Do and its founder Archived 4 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 3 February 2010.
- Hawkins, P. (2004): An interview with Grandmaster Lee Yoo Sun Archived 15 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Totally Tae Kwon Do, 5:9–15.
- Taking the Wheel: More with Grandmaster Linda Park Tae Kwon Do Times (March 2009). Retrieved 14 February 2009.
- Fricke, H. J. (2004): 35 years down memory lane … with Rhee International Tae Kwon Do (1970–1979)[permanent dead link] Retrieved on 1 January 2005; link has expired, as at 26 July 2007. New version retrieved on 24 July 2009.
- Choi Kwang Do Martial Art International: Grand Master Kwang Jo Choi Retrieved on 22 February 2009.
- Anonymous (1974): "International Tae Kwon Do demo held in Canada." Black Belt, 12(12):13–14.
- Pioneers of Taekwon-Do: Grand Master Rhee Ki Ha Retrieved on 13 January 2010.
- Adrogué, M. E. (2008): The persons and events that shaped Taekwondo in Argentina Retrieved on 6 February 2010.
- ITF Taekwon-Do International Instructors' seminar: Conducted by Grand Master Rhee Ki Ha, IX Dan Retrieved on 12 February 2010.
- Legacy Taekwon-Do: Taekwon-Do Pioneers seminar Retrieved on 10 February 2010.
- China International Taekwon-Do Federation: 2008 International ITF Taekwon-Do seminar in China Retrieved on 19 January 2010.
- Tae Kwon-Do Kidokwan: International Taekwon-Do Instructor training course by legendary pioneer First Grand Master Rhee Ki Ha (2 October 2009). Retrieved 12 February 2010.
- Choi, H. H. (1993): Taekwon-Do: The Korean art of self-defence (3rd ed.). Mississauga: International Taekwon-Do Federation.
- Gillis, A. (2003): Tiny master Toro, June–July 2003:100–107. Retrieved 31 January 2010.
- Choi, C. K. (2010): The Korean martial art of Tae Kwon Do & early history (rev. ed.). Vancouver: Choi Chang Keun.
- Koreas agree to military hotline CNN (4 June 2004). Retrieved 2 December 2010.
- Choi Kwang Do Brown's Bay: About Grandmaster Kwang Jo Choi Retrieved on 22 January 2010.
- Anslow, S. (2004): An interview with Grand Master Kong Young Il, IX degree Retrieved on 8 January 2010.
- Young Brothers Tae Kwon-Do Institute: History Retrieved on 29 January 2010.
- TaeKwonDo Times: Taking the Wheel – More with Grandmaster Linda Park Retrieved on 14 February 2009.
- World Taekwon-Do Alliance: Grand Master Kong Retrieved on 22 February 2009.
- Pioneers of Taekwon-Do: Grand Master Kong Young Il Retrieved on 13 January 2010.
- Spiegel, A. B. (1995): Grandmaster Han Cha Kyo: The humble giant Tae Kwon Do Times (January 1995). Retrieved 22 January 2010.
- Han's Tae Kwon Do: History of Tae Kwon Do Retrieved on 22 January 2010.
- Han's Tae Kwon Do: About Han's Tae Kwon Do Retrieved on 22 February 2009.
- Grandmaster Jong Kim Retrieved on 15 September 2014.
- The Greats of Tae Kwon Do: GM Lim Ching Sing Retrieved on 5 January 2010.
- Kim, J. C. (1985): "All for one." Black Belt, 23(7):6, 108.
- Kampfsportclub Dojang 78: Wir über uns (in German). Retrieved 15 January 2010.
- International Taekwon-Do Federation Deutschland: Rolf Becking (in German). Retrieved 5 January 2010.
- Pioneers of Taekwon-Do: Grand Master Park Jong Soo Archived 13 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 13 January 2010.
- Younglai, R. (2002): Obituary of Grand Master Park Retrieved on 14 February 2009.
- Malaysian Global Taekwondo Federation: GTF Founder/History Archived 9 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 14 February 2009.
- IIMA: Bernie Korent Archived 24 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 16 February 2009.
- Global Taekwon-Do Federation: GTF Archived 2 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 14 February 2009.
- NP Tae Kwon Do Academy: History of Global Tae Kwon Do Federation Archived 14 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 14 February 2009.
- Lee, K.-M. (2000): Taekwondo on the world stage Koreana: A quarterly on Korean art and culture, 14(4):20–23. Retrieved 18 January 2010.
- Fumarola, M. (c. 1998): Taekwondo Magazine: Il Taekwondo in Italia Archived 22 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. (in Italian). Retrieved 18 January 2010.
- Sport & Recreation in Croatia: Taekwondo Retrieved on 17 May 2010.
- Anonymous (1977): "European Tae Kwon Do Union inaugurated at first European meet." Black Belt, 15(1):11.
- World Taekwondo Federation: 2002 World Cup Taekwondo (2002). Retrieved 22 April 2010.
- World Taekwondo Federation: History (2009). Retrieved 17 May 2010.
- World Taekwondo Federation: Council (2009). Retrieved 17 May 2010.
- Roma 2008: European Taekwondo Championships (24 April 2008). Retrieved 20 May 2010.
- Kang, S.-W. (2009): Choue re-elected as WTF head The Korea Times (14 October 2009). Retrieved 20 May 2010.
- Anonymous (2005): Crunch time for students Archived 6 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Latrobe Valley Express (29 August 2005). Retrieved 5 January 2010.
- Rhee Taekwon-Do (Victoria): Training centres and times Retrieved on 5 January 2010.