Oriolus

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Orioles
Black-naped Oriole.jpg
Black-naped oriole (Oriolus chinensis)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Oriolidae
Genus: Oriolus
Linnaeus, 1766
Type species
Coracias oriolus
Linnaeus, 1758
Diversity
29 species
Synonyms
  • Analcipus
  • Broderipus
  • Mimeta
  • Psaropholus
  • Xanthonotus

Orioles are colourful Old World passerine birds in the genus Oriolus, the namesake of the corvoidean family Oriolidae. They are not related to the New World orioles, which are icterids (family Icteridae) that belong to the superfamily Passeroidea.

Taxonomy and systematics[edit]

The genus Oriolus was erected by Linnaeus in 1766 in the twelfth edition of his Systema Naturae.[1] The type species is the golden oriole (Oriolus oriolus).[2] In 1760 the French ornithologist Mathurin Jacques Brisson in his Ornithologie used Oriolus as a subdivision of the genus Turdus,[3] but the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature ruled in 1955 that "Oriolus Brisson, 1760" should be suppressed.[4] Linnaeus added more than a dozen additional genera when he updated his 10th edition but he generally based new genera on those that had been introduced by Brisson in his Ornithologie. Oriolus is now the only genus for which Linnaeus's 12th edition is cited as the original publication.[5][6] The name is derived from the old French word oriol which is echoic in origin, derived from the call of the bird[7] but others have suggested origins in classical Latin "aureolus" meaning golden. Various forms of "oriole" have existed in Romance languages since the 12th and 13th centuries.[8]

Extant species[edit]

 
 

szalayi

 

melanotis

flavocinctus

sagitattus
 

phaeochromus

 

bouroensis

forsteni

 
 
 
 

chlorocephalus

brachyrhynchus

xanthornus

 
 
 
 
 

nigripennis

percivali

larvatus

monacha

 
 
 

diffusus

 
 

oriolus

kundoo

 

chinensis (part)

melanisticus

maculatus

auratus

 
 

hosii

cruentus

 

mellianus

trailli

 

xanthonotus

 

steerei

 

albiloris

isabellae

Relatedness of species within the genus. Two forms that have not been included in the sequencing and analysis are crassirostris which is expected to be close to brachyrhynchus and tenuirostris which is expected to be close to diffusus[9]

The genus contains twenty-nine species:[6]

Former species[edit]

Formerly, some authorities also considered the following species (or subspecies) as species within the genus Oriolus:

Distribution and Habitat[edit]

The orioles are a mainly tropical group, although one species, the Eurasian golden oriole, breeds in temperate regions.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Linnaeus, Carl (1766). Systema naturae : per regna tria natura, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (in Latin). Volume 1, Part 1 (12th ed.). Holmiae (Stockholm): Laurentii Salvii. p. 160.
  2. ^ Mayr, Ernst; Greenway, James C. Jr, eds. (1962). Check-list of birds of the world. Volume 15. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. p. 122.
  3. ^ Brisson, Mathurin Jacques (1760). Ornithologie, ou, Méthode contenant la division des oiseaux en ordres, sections, genres, especes & leurs variétés (in French and Latin). Volume 2. Paris: Jean-Baptiste Bauche. p. 320.
  4. ^ I.C.Z.N. (1955). "Direction 21: Validation under the Plenary Powers of the generic names Bubo Dumeril, 1806, Coturnix Bonnaterre, 1790, Egretta Forster, 1817, and Oriolus Linnaeus, 1766 (class Aves), by the suppression of older homonyms published by Brisson in 1760 (validation of four erroneous entries on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology made by the ruling given in Opinion 67)". Opinions and Declarations Rendered by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 1 (Section C, Part C 12): 161–178.
  5. ^ Allen, J.A. (1910). "Collation of Brisson's genera of birds with those of Linnaeus". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 28: 317–335.
  6. ^ a b Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2017). "Orioles, drongos & fantails". World Bird List Version 7.3. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  7. ^ Jobling, James A. (2010). Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 284.
  8. ^ "Oriole". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  9. ^ Jønsson, Knud A; Bowie, Rauri C. K; Moyle, Robert G; Irestedt, Martin; Christidis, Les; Norman, Janette A; Fjeldså, Jon (2010). "Phylogeny and biogeography of Oriolidae (Aves: Passeriformes)". Ecography: no. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0587.2010.06167.x.
  10. ^ "Sphecotheres viridis - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-02-20.
  11. ^ "Hypsipetes amaurotis squamiceps - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-11-08.

External links[edit]