The Orlan-10 (Russian: Орлан-10) is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) developed by the Special Technological Centre (STC) in Saint Petersburg for the Russian Armed Forces. The price of one drone is reportedly between US$87,000 and US$120,000. The drone is usually used in a group of two or three, where the first one is used for reconnaissance in a height of 1-1.5 km, the second one for electronic warfare and the third one as a transponder that transmits intelligence information to the control center. One system can include up to 5 vehicles. More than 1000 Orlan-10's have been produced, with 11 different variations. The Orlan-10 features a composite hull that reduces its radar signature. It has seen action in Ukraine, Syria and Libya. According to media reports, an updated variant of Orlan-10 tactical UAV is to enter service with the Russia’s ground forces in 2020. The updated variant is expected to have a laser designator to allow it to pinpoint targets for precision-guided artillery and aircraft munitions.
The Orlan-10 is reportedly used in the War in Donbass. In this conflict, aerial reconnaissance by unmanned aerial vehicle is banned by the Minsk agreements. Ukrainian officials have claimed to have had shot down or captured several UAVs of this type since 2014:
- In May 2014, Ukrainian officials reported to have shot down an Orlan-10 in Ukraine.
- In July 2014, Ukrainian forces have shot down two UAVs of this type – No. 10212 near Zelenopillia and No. 10237 near Amvrosiivka.
- In August 2014, another Orlan-10 (No. 10215) was shot down by the Ukrainian forces with Strela-10 SAM system.
- In April 2016, the Security Service of Ukraine (SBU) published a video of the UAV (No. 10264) which it claimed to have shot down near Avdiivka.
- In November 2016, Ukrainian officials stated they had retrieved an Orlan-10 (No. 10332) drifting on the Azov Sea near Mariupol.
- In September 2017, an Orlan-10 (No. 11057) fell down on Ukrainian territory and was captured by Ukrainian forces.
- On 28 December 2017, Ukrainian troops shot down another Orlan-10 near Toretsk.
- On 10 January 2018, Ukrainian troops shot down another Orlan-10.
- On 14 January 2018, Ukrainian air defenses shot down another Orlan-10.
- On 16 August 2018, an unidentified UAV, similar to the Orlan-10, was shot down by Ukrainian anti-aircraft fire over Pervomaisk.
- On 13 October 2018, Orlan-10 was shot down by a Ukrainian Mi-24 helicopter using gunfire near Lysychansk.
- On 19 November 2018, in the morning an Orlan-10 UAV was shot down by Ukrainian air defense forces.
The Orlan-10 is being actively used by the Russian Ground Forces in the Syrian Civil War for either reconnaissance, collecting aerial imagery or 3D-mapping in support of humanitarian convoys and S&R operations.
- Take-off weight: 15 kg
- Payload weight: 6 kg
- Engine: engine (gasoline A-95)
- Launch method: folding catapult
- Landing method: via parachute recovery
- Airspeed: 90–150 km/h
- Max. flight duration: 16 hours
- Max. complex range of application: up to 140 km from the ground control station (up to 600 km off-line)
- Max. altitude above sea level: 5,000 m
- Max. wind speed at the start: 10 m/s
- Operating temperature range near the ground: from −30 to +40 °C
- "Russia to produce its own unmanned vehicles". unmanned.co.uk. July 20, 2011. Archived from the original on May 31, 2014. Retrieved May 31, 2014.
- Simon Ostrovsky (30 May 2014). "Ukraine Says it Shot Down a Russian Spy Drone". Vice. Archived from the original on 31 May 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
- Ukrainian troops shoot down Russian drone in ATO zone, UNIAN (29 December 2017)
- "Уникальная отечественная разработка: эксклюзивные кадры с испытаний "Орланов" под Петербургом". Zvezda (TV channel). 2018-03-09. Archived from the original on 2019-03-21. Retrieved 2019-05-18.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2019-03-22. Retrieved 2019-05-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2019-05-03. Retrieved 2019-05-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Russia to bring new Orlan UAV variant into service next year". Jane's 360. 3 October 2019. Retrieved 4 October 2019.
- "У зоні проведення АТО припинено несанкціонований політ російського безпілотника" (in Ukrainian). Security Service of Ukraine. 30 May 2017. Archived from the original on 17 September 2017. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- "Бойцы АТО сбили беспилотник, проводивший наблюдения в районе Зеленополья, - Селезнев" (in Russian). 112.ua. 13 July 2014. Archived from the original on 17 September 2017. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- Seleznev, Vladislav (2014-07-13). "(Facebook post by SBU official regarding a shot down Orlan-10)". Facebook (in Russian). Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- "Під Амвросіївкою військові збили черговий російський безпілотник" (in Ukrainian). Espreso.tv. 23 July 2017. Archived from the original on 17 September 2017. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- "(Official Facebook post)" (in Ukrainian). Press-centre of the Anti-Terrorist Operation (ATO) of Ukraine. 2014-08-01. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- "У районі Авдіївки збито безпілотник російських військових" (in Ukrainian). Security Service of Ukraine. 8 April 2017. Archived from the original on 13 October 2017. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- Russian drone retrieved from Azov Sea near Mariupol coast (photos, video) Archived 2016-11-07 at the Wayback Machine, UNIAN (7 November 2016)
- "Украина опубликовала фото упавшего "российского беспилотника"" (in Russian). Дождь. 17 September 2017. Archived from the original on 17 September 2017. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- Another Russian drone downed by Ukraine troops in Donbas, second since Christmas truce, UNIAN (12 January 2018)
- Ukrainian soldiers shot down the Russian UAV in Donbas conflict zone Archived 2019-02-10 at the Wayback Machine (14 January 2018)
- "ООС: сводные данные – 17 августа 2018". mediarnbo.org. 17 August 2018. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
- "Засобами ППО Об'єднаних сил збито російський безпілотний літальний апарат". Операція об'єднаних сил / Joint Forces Operation (official channel) (in Ukrainian). 17 Aug 2018.
- "Official Facebook post" (in Ukrainian). Press-centre of Joint Forces Operation of Ukraine. Archived from the original on 14 October 2018. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-12-09. Retrieved 2019-05-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2019-04-28. Retrieved 2019-05-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Russian UAVs in Syria". bmpd.livejournal.com. 3 May 2017. Archived from the original on 27 October 2017. Retrieved 14 December 2018.