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Holotype specimen
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
(unranked): Reptiliomorpha
Order: Diadectomorpha
Family: Diadectidae
Genus: Orobates
Species: O. pabsti

Orobates is an extinct genus of diadectid. It lived in the middle Permian, about 260 million years ago. Its remains were found in Germany.[1]


A combination of primitive and derived traits makes Orobates the sister group of all Diadectidae, the most primitive known member of the family of generally large bodies herbivorous reptile like amphibians. It appears to have been part of an upland fauna, browsing on high fibre plants.[1] The trace fossil species Ichniotherium sphaerodactylum, from Bromacker in Germany has been attributed to Orobates, showing no dragmarks from the tail.[2] The genus was characterized by a long body and tail, with fairly short legs and a short skull compared to the more derived Diadectes. This indicates Orobates was less specialised for long treks compared to Diadectes.[2] A three-dimensional digital reconstruction of the holotype specimen allowed further analysis of the postcranium:[3] The whole animal weighed about 4 kg and likely carried most of its weight on the hind limbs. Mobility of the hip joint of the reconstructed holotype suggests similar limb function as can be observed in modern salamanders.


  1. ^ a b Berman, D. Berman, D. S, Henrici, AC, Kissel, R., Sumida, SS, and Martens, T. S, Henrici, AC, Kissel, R., Sumida, SS, and Martens, T. (2004): A new diadectid (Diadectomorpha), Orobates pabsti, from the Early Permian of Central Germany. Bulletin of the Carnegie Museum of Natural History No 35: pp 1-37. abstract
  2. ^ a b Voigt, S.; Berman, D.S.; Henrici, A.C. (2007). "First well-established track-trackmaker association of Paleozoic tetrapods based on Ichniotherium trackways and diadectid skeletons from the Lower Permian of Germany". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 27 (3): 553–570. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2007)27[553:FWTAOP]2.0.CO;2.
  3. ^ Nyakatura, John A.; Allen, Vivian R.; Lauströer, Jonas; Andikfar, Amir; Danczak, Marek; Ullrich, Hans-Jürgen; Hufenbach, Werner; Martens, Thomas; Fischer, Martin S. (2015-09-10). "A Three-Dimensional Skeletal Reconstruction of the Stem Amniote Orobates pabsti (Diadectidae): Analyses of Body Mass, Centre of Mass Position, and Joint Mobility". PLoS ONE. 10 (9): e0137284. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0137284. PMC 4565719. PMID 26355297.