Oroqen language

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Native toChina
RegionInner Mongolia and Heilongjiang
Native speakers
1,200 (2009)[1]
  • Northern
    • Evenki
      • Oroqen
Language codes
ISO 639-3orh

Oroqen (/ˈɒrəɛn, ˈɒr-/; also known as Orochon, Oronchon, Olunchun, Elunchun or Ulunchun) is a Northern Tungusic language spoken in the People's Republic of China. Dialects are Gankui and Heilongjiang. Gankui is the standard dialect.[2] It is spoken by the Oroqen people of Inner Mongolia (predominantly the Oroqin Autonomous Banner) and Heilongjiang in Northeast China.

Since the 1980s, Oroqen-language materials were produced by teachers in Oroqen-speaking areas. They based the language's orthography either on IPA or Pinyin. A majority of Oroqen speakers use Chinese as a literary language and some also speak Daur.

Geographic distribution[edit]

Oroqen is spoken in the following counties of China (Ethnologue).


The Gankui dialect is used as the standard dialect for the Oroqen language.



Bilabial Alveolar Post-
Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
voiceless p t t͡ʃ k
voiced b d d͡ʒ ɡ
Fricative ɸ ʃ x [ɣ] [h]
Rhotic r
Approximant l j w
  • Allophones of /x/ are heard as [ɣ], [h].
  • A bilabial /ɸ/ can also be heard as a labio-dental [f].
  • A rhotic trill /r/ tends to sound as a tap [ɾ], when occurring word-finally.


Front Central Back
High i iː y u uː
Near-high ɪ ɪː ʊ ʊː
High-mid ə əː o oː
Low-mid ɛː ɔ ɔː
Low ɑ ɑː
  • /ə, əː/ are often heard as lower sounds [ɐ, ɐː].
  • Short allophones of /o, u/ are heard as [ɵ, ʉ].[3]


  1. ^ "Oroqen". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2018-05-07.
  2. ^ Raymond G. Gordon Jr., ed. 2005, Ethnologue: Languages of the World. 15th edition. Dallas Summer Institute of Linguistics.
  3. ^ Hu, Zengyi (1986). Elunchun-yu jianzhi [Concise grammar of Oroqen]. Beijing: National Minorities Publ. pp. 3–19.

External links[edit]