|Plate from book Flora de Filipinas, Gran edicion, Atlas I. by Francisco Manuel Blanco, 1880-1883? where name is Bignonia quadripinnata, Blanco.|
(L.) Benth. ex Kurz
Oroxylum indicum is a monotypic species of flowering plant belonging to the genus Oroxylum (frequently spelled Oroxylon) and the family Bignoniaceae, commonly called midnight horror, oroxylum, or Indian trumpet flower. It is a tree which can reach a height of 12 metres (39 ft).
The large leaf stalks wither and fall off the tree and collect near the base of the trunk, appearing to look like a pile of broken limb bones. These twice pinnate leaves in life are up to 7' 10.5" (240 cm) in length and comparably wide,  borne on petioles or stalks up to 6' 7" (2 meters) in length, making this the largest of all dicot tree leaves. The tree is a night-bloomer and flowers are adapted to natural pollination by bats. They form enormous seed pods that hang down from bare branches. Those long fruits curve downward and resemble the wings of a large bird or dangling sickles or swords in the night.
The seeds are round with papery wings.
Oroxylum indicum is native to: the Indian subcontinent, the Himalayan foothills with a part extending to Bhutan and southern China, Indochina and the Malesia regions. In Vietnam the tree is called núc nác (sometimes sò đo) and specimens can be found in Cat Tien National Park.
It is visible in the forest biome of Manas National Park in Assam, India. It is found, raised and planted in large number in the forest areas of the Banswara district in the state of Rajasthan in India. It is reported in the list of rare, endangered and threatened plants of Kerala (South India).
It is also reported from Sri Lanka (Ceylon).
The large Oroxylum indicum pods sold at a market in downtown Bangkok, Thailand
In marriage rituals
It is a plant with edible leaves and stems. The very large young pods, known as Lin mai (ลิ้นไม้) or Lin fa (ลิ้นฟ้า) in Loei, are eaten especially in Isan (Thailand) and in Laos. They are first grilled over charcoal fire and then the somewhat bitter inner pulp is usually scraped and eaten along with lap.
In traditional medicines
The Oroxylum indicum seed is used in the traditional Indian ayurvedic medicine.
The bark of O. indicum is a traditional Chinese medicine ingredient, as well as is one of main ingredients in Sri Lankan indigenous medicine in decoctions as a remedy for pains in joints or rheumatism (Singhala / Sri Lanka: Totila, Totilla).
The leaf contains chrysin and baicalein. Tetuin, the 6-glucoside of baicalein, is reported in the seeds. Other flavonoids, known for their anti-inflammatory and anti-allergy effects, are also present, though it may need to be used in high doses to get a response. Oroxindin has also been isolated from Oroxylum indicum whereas oroxylin A is reported in the root bark.
- "The International Plant Names Index".
- "Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 31 Mar 2016 – via The Plant List.
- "USDA GRIN Taxonomy".
- Phillipps, Anthea (22 April 2012). "The Midnight Horror Tree". Retrieved 5 September 2012.
- "Oroxylum indicum in Dinghushan Plant Checklist1 @ efloras.org".
- Theobald, W.L. (1981). Bignoniace. In: Dassanayake, M.D. and Fosberg, F.R. (Eds.). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon. Amerind Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
- Gu, Qiang; Luo, Hongli; Zheng, Wen; Liu, Zhiheng; Huang, Ying (1 September 2006). "Pseudonocardia oroxyli sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from surface-sterilized Oroxylum indicum root". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 56 (Pt 9): 2193–2197. PMID 16957120. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.64385-0.
- O'Neill, Alexander; et al. (2017-03-29). "Integrating ethnobiological knowledge into biodiversity conservation in the Eastern Himalayas". Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 13 (21). doi:10.1186/s13002-017-0148-9. Retrieved 2017-05-11.
- Trees and Shrubs of Nepal and the Himalayas. A Storrs and J Storrs, 1990, page 200
- "ePIC - Detailed results from SEPASAL for oroxylum indicum".
- Thai Dishes, Central Part And South Archived March 30, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
- Doshi, K; Ilanchezhian, R; Acharya, R; Patel, B. R.; Ravishankar, B (2012). "Anti-inflammatory activity of root bark and stem bark of Shyonaka". Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine. 3 (4): 194–197. PMC . doi:10.4103/0975-9476.104434.
- Jayaweera, D.M.A. (1981). Medicinal Plants (Indigenous and Exotic) Used in Ceylon. Part I (Acanthaceae – Burseraceae). National Science Council of Sri Lanka, Colombo.
- Roy, M. Kumar; Nakahara, K.; Na, Thalang V.; Trakoontivakorn, G.; Takenaka, M.; Isobe, S.; Tsushida, T. (1 February 2007). "Baicalein, a flavonoid extracted from a methanolic extract of Oroxylum indicum inhibits proliferation of a cancer cell line in vitro via induction of apoptosis". Pharmazie. 62 (2): 149–153. PMID 17341037.
- Mehta C. R. and Mehta T. P., 1959. Journal of the Indian Chemical Society 36:468
- Nair, A. G. Ramachandran; Joshi, B. S. "Oroxindin—A new flavone glucuronide from Oroxylum indicum Vent". Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Chem. Sci.). 88 (5): 323–327. doi:10.1007/BF02844710.
- Shah, R. C.; Mehta, C. R.; Wheeler, T. S. (1 January 1936). "131. The constitution of oroxylin-A, a yellow colouring matter from the root-bark of Oroxylum indicum, vent". J. Chem. Soc.: 591. doi:10.1039/JR9360000591.
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- Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz Plant record
- Photos on www.flickr.com
- Pharmacographia indica. A history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin Author: William Dymock
- Caldecott, Todd (2006). Ayurveda: The Divine Science of Life. Elsevier/Mosby. ISBN 0-7234-3410-7. Contains a detailed monograph on Oroxylum indicum (Shyonaka), as well as a discussion of health benefits and usage in clinical practice. Available online at http://www.toddcaldecott.com/index.php/herbs/learning-herbs/333-shyonaka