Orphans of the Sky
First US edition
(publ. G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1964)
|Author||Robert A. Heinlein|
|Cover artist||Irv Docktor|
|Publisher||Victor Gollancz Ltd (UK)|
|Media type||Print (Paperback)|
|Followed by||Time Enough for Love|
Orphans of the Sky is a science fiction novel by American writer Robert A. Heinlein, consisting of two parts: "Universe" (Astounding Science Fiction, May 1941) and its sequel, "Common Sense" (Astounding Science Fiction, October 1941). The two novellas were first published together in book form in 1963. "Universe" was also published separately in 1951 as a 10¢ Dell paperback. These works contain one of the earliest fictional depictions of a generation ship.
The gigantic, cylindrical generation ship Vanguard, originally destined for "Far Centaurus", is cruising without guidance through the interstellar medium as a result of a long-ago mutiny that killed most of the officers. Over time, the descendants of the surviving loyal crew have forgotten the purpose and nature of their ship and lapsed into a pre-technological culture marked by superstition. They come to believe the "Ship" is the entire universe, so that "To move the ship" is considered an oxymoron, and references to the Ship's "voyage" are interpreted as religious metaphor. They are ruled by an oligarchy of "officers" and "scientists". Most crew members are simple illiterate farmers, seldom or never venturing to the "upper decks" where the "muties" (an abbreviation of "mutants" or "mutineers") dwell. Among the crew, all identifiable mutants are killed at birth.
The story centers upon a young man of insatiable curiosity, Hugh Hoyland, who is selected as an apprentice by a scientist. The scientists ritualistically perform the tasks required to maintain the Ship (such as putting trash into its energy-converter to generate power) while remaining ignorant of their true functions.
On a hunt for muties, Hugh is captured by them. He barely avoids getting eaten, and instead becomes the slave of Joe-Jim Gregory, the two-headed leader of a powerful mutie gang. Joe and Jim have separate identities, but both are highly intelligent, and between them have come to a crude understanding of the Ship's true nature.
Having become convinced of the Ship's true purpose, Hugh persuades Joe-Jim to complete the Vanguard's mission of colonization, having noticed that there is a nearby star that Joe-Jim remember as growing larger over the years. Intent on this mission, he returns to the lower levels of the Ship to convince others to help him, but is arrested by his former boss Bill Ertz and sentenced to death. He is viewed as either insane or a previously unrecognized mutant – he was a borderline case at birth, with a head viewed as too large.
Hugh persuades his old friend Alan Mahoney to enlist Joe-Jim's gang in rescuing him. He shows the captured Bill and Alan the long-abandoned command center and a view of the stars. Convinced, Bill then enlists the captain's aide, Phineas Narby, to Hugh's crusade.
Inspired by one of Joe-Jim's favorite books, The Three Musketeers, they manufacture swords, superior to the daggers everyone else has, and overthrow the captain and install Narby in his place. They embark on a campaign to bring the entire Ship under their control.
But then things go wrong. Narby never believed Hugh and was only playing along as a means to gain power. Once in control, he treacherously sets out to eliminate the muties. Joe is killed in the fighting. Jim sacrifices himself to hold off their pursuers long enough for Hugh, Bill, Alan and their wives to get to a highly automated lifeboat. Hugh manages to land on the habitable moon of a gas giant. The colonists disembark to uneasily explore their alien surroundings.
Avram Davidson described Orphans of the Sky as "a modern classic", praising "the magnitude and magnificence of Orphans' concepts" despite expressing disappointment in "the limitations of its conclusion". Damon Knight said "Nobody has ever improved on Universe, although a good many reckless people have tried, because Heinlein said it all." Algis Budrys said that "Many hands have worked at improving Heinlein's impeccable statement of this theme", with none succeeding until James White's The Watch Below.
Links to other Heinlein stories
A paragraph at the start of the novel shows an excerpt from "The Romance of Modern Astrography", explaining that the ship was part of the "Proxima Centauri Expedition, sponsored by the Jordan Foundation in 2119". (A timeline produced by Heinlein to link different stories in his Future History places the launch of the Vanguard in the early 22nd century.) A discovered ship's log begins in June 2172, a few days before the mutiny breaks out.
In Heinlein's later novel Time Enough for Love, the Vanguard is briefly mentioned as the sister ship of the New Frontiers, which was commandeered by the Howard Families in the novel Methuselah's Children. It is revealed that the vessel had been bound for Alpha Centauri, but never landed colonists there. The Vanguard has been discovered, with its crew long dead due to some unexplained failure in its mechanisms, and its records destroyed or illegible. Its path is traced back, and the descendants of Hugh's people are found, flourishing as highly intelligent savages, on a planet which scientists dub "Pitcairn Island". This was apparently the only star where settlement was possible on the Vanguard's path. This conversation takes place in 4291, and it is mentioned that the settlers have been there for 800 years.
Another reference to Heinlein's Future History is a passage describing Joe-Jim's enthusiasm for the works of "Rhysling, the blind singer of the spaceways", a poet and the central character of the Heinlein story "The Green Hills of Earth".
"Universe" was also performed as a radio play on the NBC Radio Network programs Dimension X (on November 26, 1951) and X Minus One (on May 15, 1955). These versions have several drastic changes to the story, especially in their conclusions in which Hugh is killed showing the crew of the Vanguard the true nature of the Ship.
The physics of The Ship are also correct: it spins to give artificial gravity, which is absent at the centre. The ship's "Converter" reflects an early 1940s viewpoint of atomic power, with atoms of any element "ripped apart" in an unspecified manner.
The notion of a giant planet with a habitable moon went against theories of planetary formation as they stood before the discovery of Hot Jupiter planets. It was thought that planets large enough to have an Earth-sized moon would only form above the "snowline", too far from the sun for life. It is now believed that such worlds can migrate inwards, and habitable moons seem likely. The existence of exomoons has not been confirmed, though there are candidates.
The idea of a generation ship goes back at least to the 1920s, but Heinlein popularised it. It has been used extensively since then, along with other ideas such as passengers in deep sleep and an automated craft carrying frozen embryos.
- Non-Stop, by Brian W. Aldiss (titled Starship in its US release)
- Captive Universe, by Harry Harrison
- "Proxima Centauri", by Murray Leinster
- "The Oceans are Wide", a story by Frank M. Robinson about a generation ship whose inhabitants have not forgotten its purpose
- The Book of the Long Sun, by Gene Wolfe
- "For the World Is Hollow and I Have Touched the Sky", an episode of the original Star Trek with a similar premise
- "Mission of the Darians", an episode of Space: 1999 with a similar premise
- The Starlost, a Canadian-produced science fiction television series devised by writer Harlan Ellison and broadcast in 1973
- Pandorum, a 2009 German-British science fiction film
- "If the Stars Should Appear", an episode of science fiction television series The Orville written by Seth MacFarlane and broadcast in September 28, 2017
- Metamorphosis Alpha, a role-playing game by James Ward
- "Books", The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction, October 1964, pp.37–38
- Knight, Damon (1956). In Search of Wonder. Advent.
- Budrys, Algis (August 1966). "Galaxy Bookshelf". Galaxy Science Fiction. pp. 186–194.
- Timeline for Heinlein's Future History
- Conjoined twins Abigail and Brittany Hensel
- Why Don't We Have Artificial Gravity?
- NASA Supercomputer Assists the Hunt for Exomoons
- Bernal, John (1929). "The World, the Flesh & the Devil: An Enquiry into the Future of the Three Enemies of the Rational Soul". Retrieved 2018-01-19.