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A large orthalicid from eastern Peru (probably of the genus Sultana), recovering from substantial shell damage
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Heterobranchia

clade Euthyneura
clade Panpulmonata
clade Eupulmonata
clade Stylommatophora
informal group Sigmurethra

Superfamily: Orthalicoidea
Family: Orthalicidae
Albers, 1860[1]
83 species

Orthalicidae (orthalicid land snails) are a family of tropical air-breathing land snails, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks are classified in the informal group Sigmurethra of the clade Stylommatophora. They are medium-sized to large snails, from about 3 cm (about 1.2 inches) to 9 cm (about 3.5 inches) in shell length.


In former times, this family was often known as the Bulimulidae, but this term may also denote what today is the subfamily Bulimulinae. The subfamily Bulimulinae replaces the former family Bulimulidae Crosse & P. Fischer, 1873.

2005 taxonomy[edit]

The Orthalicidae belong to the Orthalicoidea, a superfamily in the clade Sigmurethra. Like other stylommatophorans, the Sigmurethra belong to the suborder Eupulmonata. Among the three subfamilies of Orthalicidae, the Bulimulinae are the most diverse, consisting of three tribes:[3]

  • subfamily Amphibuliminae P. Fischer, 1873 - synonym Peltellinae Gray, 1855 (check decision of International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature for Peltellinae) - 17 species[2]
  • subfamily Bulimulinae Tryon, 1867 - 1243 species[2]
    • tribe Bulimulini Tryon, 1867 - synonyms: Bulimidae Guilding, 1828 (inv.); Berendtiinae P. Fischer & Crosse, 1872; Bothiembryontidae Iredale, 1937
    • tribe Odontostomini Pilsbry & Vanatta, 1898 - 125 species[2]
    • tribe Simpulopsini Schileyko, 1999 - synonym: Tomogeridae Jousseaume, 1877
  • subfamily Orthalicinae Albers, 1850 - synonym: Liguidae Pilsbry, 1891 - 83 species[2]

2010 taxonomy[edit]

Breure et al. (2010)[4] elevated Bulimulinae to Bulimulidae, Odontostomini to Odontostomidae, Amphibuliminae to Amphibulimidae.[4]

2012 taxonomy[edit]

Breure & Romero (2012)[5] confirmed previous results from 2010, additionally they elevated Simpulopsini to Simpulopsidae.[5]


Genera within the family Orthalicidae include:


  1. ^ Albers J. C. 1860. (Manuscript edited by Eduard von Martens) Die Heliceeen nach natürlicher Vervandtschaft systematisch geordnet. Edition 2, Engelmann, Leipzig, xviii + 359 pp., Orthalicidae is at page 209.
  2. ^ a b c d e Breure A., Groenenberg D. & Schilthuizen M. (2010). "Gondwana revisited: New insights in the phylogenetic relationships within the Orthalicoidea (Mollusca, Stylommatophora)". poster. PDF.
  3. ^ a b Bouchet P.; Rocroi J.-P.; Frýda J.; Hausdorf B.; Ponder W.; Valdés Á. & Warén A. (2005). "Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families". Malacologia: International Journal of Malacology. Hackenheim, Germany: ConchBooks. 47 (1-2): 1–397. ISBN 3-925919-72-4. ISSN 0076-2997. 
  4. ^ a b Breure A. S. H., Groenenberg D. S. J. & Schilthuizen M. (2010). "New insights in the phylogenetic relations within the Orthalicoidea (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora) based on 28S sequence data". Basteria 74(1-3): 25-31.
  5. ^ a b c d e Breure A. S. H. & Romero P. (2012). "Support and surprises: molecular phylogeny of the land snail superfamily Orthalicoidea using a three-locus gene analysis with a divergence time analysis and ancestral area reconstruction (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora)". Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology 141(1): 1-20. doi:10.1127/arch.moll/1869-0963/141/001-020.
  6. ^ Breure A. S. H. & Mogollón Avila V. (2010). "Well-known and little-known: miscellaneous notes on Peruvian Orthalicidae (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora)". Zoologische Mededelingen 84. HTM.
  7. ^ a b c d Mónica Lucía Vera Ardila (2008). "Lista de los géneros de moluscos terrestres de Colombia (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Prosobranchia: Mesogastropoda y Pulmonata: Stylommatophora)" (PDF). Biota Colombiana. 9 (1): 39–62. 
  8. ^ Breure A. S. H. (2011) "Annotated type catalogue of the Orthalicoidea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the Royal Belgian Institute of Sciences, Brussels, with descriptions of two new species". ZooKeys 101: 1–50. doi:10.3897/zookeys.101.1133.

Further reading[edit]

  • (German) Neubert E. & Janssen R. (2004). "Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Senckenberg, 84: Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Orthalicoidea: Bulimulidae (2), Orthalicidae, Placostylidae". Archiv für Molluskenkunde 133: 193-297. abstract.
  • Ramirez J. & Ramírez R. (2010). "Análisis de la estructura secundaria del LSU rRNA mitocondrial de caracoles terrestres peruanos (Orthalicidae: Gastropoda) / Analysis of the secondary structure of mitochondrial LSU rRNA of Peruvian land snails (Orthalicidae: Gastropoda)." Revista Peruana de Biología 17(1): 53-57. PDF.
  • Ramirez J., Ramírez R., Romero P., Chumbe A. & Ramírez P. (2009). "Posición evolutiva de caracoles terrestres peruanos (Orthalicidae) entre los Stylommatophora (Mollusca: Gastropoda) / Evolutionary position of Peruvian land snails (Orthalicidae) among Stylommatophora (Mollusca: Gastropoda)". Revista Peruana de Biología 16(1): 51-56. PDF.

External links[edit]