Orthetrum

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Skimmers
Orthetrum chrysostigma.jpg
Female Orthetrum chrysostigma
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Odonata
Infraorder: Anisoptera
Family: Libellulidae
Genus: Orthetrum
Newman, 1833[1]

Orthetrum is a large genus of dragonflies in the Libellulidae family.[2] They are commonly referred to as skimmers.

The size of adults within the genus ranges from small to large; in Africa, the hindwing ranges in length from 22 to 50 mm. The bodies of adult females and recently emerged males are yellow to brown with black markings; these may facilitate identification of individuals to species level. Mature males, however, develop blue-grey pruinosity over most of their bodies - this makes species identification difficult without the capture of a specimen and inspection of the shape of the hamule.[3]

Species[edit]

The genus Orthetrum includes the following species:[4]

Scientific name[a] Common name IUCN Red List Status Distribution Picture (Male) Picture (Female)
Orthetrum abbotti
Calvert, 1892
Abbott's skimmer LC IUCN[5] Sub-Saharan Africa, Jordan and Yemen.[6] Orthetrum abbotti 007672-2.jpg Orthetrum abbotti 008649-1.jpg
Orthetrum africanum
(Selys, 1887)
LC IUCN Central and Western Africa[7]
Orthetrum albistylum
Selys, 1848
White-Tailed Skimmer[8] LC IUCN Europe to China and Japan[9] White-tailed skimmer (Orthetrum albistylum albistylum) male Greece.jpg Orthetrum albistylum (young female) (1).JPG
Orthetrum anceps
(Schneider, 1845)
Europe, India, and northern Africa[10]
Orthetrum angustiventre
(Rambur, 1842)
Many-celled Skimmer[11] LC IUCN Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, and possibly Tanzania.
Orthetrum austeni
(Kirby, 1900)
Giant Skimmer LC IUCN[12]
Orthetrum austrosundanum
Lieftinck, 1953
Orthetrum azureum
(Rambur, 1842)
LC Madagascar Orthetrum azureum male.jpg Skimmer (Orthetrum azureum) female.jpg
Orthetrum balteatum
Lieftinck, 1933
Speckled Skimmer[13] NT IUCN[14] Orthetrum balteatum distribution map.svg
Orthetrum borneense
Kimmins, 1936
DD IUCN
Orthetrum boumiera
Watson & Arthington, 1978
Brownwater Skimmer NT IUCN[15] Orthetrum boumiera distribution map.svg
Orthetrum brachiale
(Palisot de Beauvois, 1805)
Tough Skimmer LC IUCN[16] Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Réunion, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, possibly Burundi, and possibly São Tomé and Príncipe Tough Skimmer Orthetrum brachiale 6484.jpg
Orthetrum brunneum
(Fonscolombe, 1837)
Southern Skimmer LC IUCN Europe [17] and the range extends to Mongolia and North Africa. Southern skimmer (Orthetrum brunneum) male Bulgaria.jpg Southern skimmer (Orthetrum brunneum) female Bulgaria.jpg
Orthetrum caffrum
(Burmeister, 1839)
Two-striped Skimmer, White-lined Skimmer LC IUCN[18] Angola, Cameroon, Chad, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia, Guinea, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, possibly Burundi, and possibly Gambia Orthetrum caffrum TWO-STRIPED SKIMMER.jpg
Orthetrum caledonicum
(Brauer, 1865)
Blue Skimmer LC[19] Orthetrum caledonicum distribution map.svg Orthetrum caledonicum male.jpg Orthetrum caledonicum 5270.jpg
Orthetrum cancellatum
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Black-Tailed Skimmer Albania, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica, and mainland), Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Netherlands, North Macedonia, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkey (Turkey-in-Europe), Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan and in part of United Kingdom Black-tailed skimmer (Orthetrum cancellatum) male Estonia.jpg Black-tailed skimmer dragonfly (Orthetrum cancellatum) mature female.jpg
Orthetrum capense
Calvert, 1893
LC
Orthetrum chrysis
(Selys, 1891)
LC Brown-backed Red Marsh Hawk Orthetrum chrysis Male 2 by Kadavoor.jpg Orthetrum chrysis-Kadavoor-2016-03-26-001.jpg
Orthetrum chrysostigma
(Burmeister, 1839)
Epaulet Skimmer LC Orthetrum chrysostigma LC0207.jpg Orthetrum chrysostigma.jpg
Orthetrum coerulescens
(Fabricius, 1798)
Keeled Skimmer LC 2014.07.18.-16-Schwarzbach Woellnau--Kleiner Blaupfeil-Maennchen.jpg Orthetrum August 2017-1.jpg
Orthetrum glaucum
(Brauer, 1865)
Blue Marsh Hawk LC IUCN[20] Orthetrum glaucum-Silent Valley-2016-08-14-002.jpg Orthetrum glaucum-Silent Valley-2016-08-14-003.jpg
Orthetrum guineense
Ris, 1909
Guinea Skimmer LC IUCN[21] Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and possibly Burundi
Orthetrum guptai
Baijal, 1955
LC
Orthetrum helena
Buchholz, 1954
LC
Orthetrum hintzi
Schmidt, 1951
Hintz's Skimmer LC IUCN[22] Angola, Benin, Botswana, Central African Republic, the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and possibly Burundi
Orthetrum icteromelas
Ris, 1910
Spectacled Skimmer LC IUCN[23] Angola, Botswana, Cameroon, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and possibly Burundi Spectacled skimmer (Orthetrum icteromelas) male.jpg Spectacled skimmer (Orthetrum icteromelas) female.jpg
Orthetrum japonicum
(Uhler, 1858)
LC Orthetrum japonicum(Male,Japan,2018.05.25).jpg Orthetrum japonicum (female s2).jpg
Orthetrum julia
Kirby, 1900
Julia Skimmer LC IUCN[24] Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, São Tomé and Príncipe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, possibly Burundi, and possibly Madagascar Julia skimmer dragonfly (Orthetrum julia) male.jpg Julia Skimmer 2012 03 27 09 37 35 4742.jpg
Orthetrum kollmannspergeri
Buchholz, 1959
LC IUCN
Orthetrum kristenseni
Ris, 1911
LC IUCN Ethiopia
Orthetrum latihami
Pinhey, 1966
LC IUCN Central Africa
Orthetrum lemur
Ris, 1909
LC IUCN
Orthetrum lineostigma
(Selys, 1886)
LC IUCN
Orthetrum luzonicum
(Brauer, 1868)
LC IUCN Tri-coloured Marsh Hawk Orthetrum luzonicum Male by kadavoor.JPG Tri-coloured Marsh Hawk Orthetrum luzonicum Female by kadavoor.JPG
Orthetrum machadoi
Longfield, 1955
Machado's Skimmer LC IUCN[25] Angola, Botswana, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and possibly Burundi Orthetrum machadoi, highland skimmer 33117-1.jpg
Orthetrum macrostigma
Longfield, 1947
LC Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, and possibly Zambia
Orthetrum malgassicum
Pinhey, 1970
LC Skimmer (Orthetrum malgassicum) female.jpg
Orthetrum martensi
Asahina, 1978
LC
Orthetrum melania
(Selys, 1883)
LC
Orthetrum microstigma
Ris, 1911
LC Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia
Orthetrum migratum
Lieftinck, 1951
Rosy Skimmer LC IUCN[26] Orthetrum migratum distribution map.svg Orthetrum migratum 3239.jpg
Orthetrum monardi
Schmidt, 1951
LC Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, the Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia Orthetrum monardi 2017 11 28 7618.jpg
Orthetrum nitidinerve
(Selys, 1841)
Yellow-Veined Skimmer LC
Orthetrum poecilops
Ris, 1916
Mangrove Skimmer VU[27]
Orthetrum pruinosum
(Burmeister, 1839)
Crimson-tailed Marsh Hawk LC[28] Orthetrum pruinosum at Kadavoor.jpg Orthetrum pruinosum female by kadavoor.jpg
Orthetrum ransonneti
(Brauer, 1865)
LC
Orthetrum robustum
Balinsky, 1965
Robust Skimmer LC[29]
Orthetrum rubens
Barnard, 1937
Elusive Skimmer CR IUCN[30] South Africa
Orthetrum sabina
(Drury, 1770)
Slender Skimmer LC Orthetrum sabina distribution map.svg Green Marsh Hawk (Orthetrum sabina), Burdwan, West Bengal, India 22 09 2012.JPG Orthetrum sabina (4187624054).jpg
Orthetrum saegeri
Pinhey, 1966
LC Cameroon, Central African Republic, the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gambia, Togo, Uganda, and Zambia
Orthetrum sagitta
Ris, 1915
Arrow Skimmer LC[31] Sierra Leone
Orthetrum serapia
Watson, 1984
Green Skimmer LC Orthetrum serapia distribution map.svg Orthetrum serapia 2997.jpg Green Skimmer (17249184676).jpg
Orthetrum signiferum
Lieftinck, 1926
LC
Orthetrum silvarum
Lieftinck, 1934
LC
Orthetrum stemmale
(Burmeister, 1839)
Stemmale Skimmer LC IUCN[32] Angola, Benin, Botswana, Cameroon, Central African Republic, the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and possibly Burundi Male Orthetrum stemmale 004990-1.jpg Skimmer (Orthetrum stemmale) female.jpg
Orthetrum taeniolatum
(Schneider, 1845)
Small Skimmer LC[33] Orthetrum taeniolatum male.jpg
Orthetrum testaceum
(Burmeister, 1839)
LC India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.[34] Scarlet skimmer (Orthetrum testaceum testaceum) male B.jpg
Orthetrum translatum
Bartenev, 1929
LC
Orthetrum triangulare
(Selys, 1878)
Blue-tailed Forest Hawk[35] LC [36] Dragon Fly (Orthetrum triangulare) (7976467260).jpg Orthetrum triangulare by Rohit George.jpg
Orthetrum trinacria
(Selys, 1841)
Long Skimmer LC Algeria, Angola, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Egypt, Ethiopia, France (Corsica), Gambia, Ghana, Italy (Sicily and Sardinia), Kenya, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Somalia, South Africa, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and possibly Burundi Long Skimmer. mature male. Orthetrum trinacria (24800785117).jpg Long skimmer (Orthetrum trinacria) female.jpg
Orthetrum villosovittatum
(Brauer, 1868)
Fiery Skimmer LC[37] Orthetrum villosovittatum distribution map.svg Orthetrum villosovittatum 9268.jpg Fiery Skimmer (female) 3067.jpg

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ A binomial authority in parentheses indicates that the species was originally described in a genus other than Orthetrum.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Newman, Edward (1833). "Entomological notes". Entomological Magazine. London. 1: 505–514 [511] – via Biodiversity Heritage Library.
  2. ^ "Genus Orthetrum Newman, 1833". Australian Faunal Directory. Australian Biological Resources Study. 2012. Retrieved 27 February 2017.
  3. ^ Dijkstra, K.-D. B. "ADDO -- African Dragonflies and Damselflies Online". www.zoology.uct.ac.za. Retrieved 11 May 2017.
  4. ^ Martin Schorr; Martin Lindeboom; Dennis Paulson. "World Odonata List". University of Puget Sound. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
  5. ^ Clausnitzer, V.; Suhling, F. & Dijkstra, K.-D.B. (2009). "Orthetrum abbotti". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2009. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  6. ^ http://www.zobodat.at/pdf/DENISIA_0014_0309-0317.pdf
  7. ^ Clausnitzer, V. & Dijkstra, K.-D.B. (2010). "Orthetrum africanum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2010: e.T184246A8252508. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-3.RLTS.T184246A8252508.en. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  8. ^ "Checklist, English common names". DragonflyPix.com. Archived from the original on 4 December 2012. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
  9. ^ Dow, R.A. 2010. Orthetrum albistylum. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
  10. ^ Catalogue of Life. Retrieved 15 January 2014.
  11. ^ Clausnitzer, V.; Dijkstra, K.-D.B. & Suhling, F. (2010). "Orthetrum angustiventre". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2010: e.T59949A12179210. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-3.RLTS.T59949A12179210.en. Retrieved 24 December 2017.
  12. ^ Clausnitzer, V.; Dijkstra, K.-D.B. & Suhling, F. (2009). "Orthetrum austeni". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2009. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  13. ^ Theischinger, G.; Hawking, J. (2006). The Complete Field Guide to Dragonflies of Australia. CSIRO Publishing. ISBN 0-643-09073-8.
  14. ^ Dow, R.A. (2017). "Orthetrum balteatum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2017: e.T163903A87528450. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-1.RLTS.T163903A87528450.en. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
  15. ^ Dow, R.A. (2017). "Orthetrum boumiera". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2017: e.T87535148A87540029. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-1.RLTS.T87535148A87540029.en.
  16. ^ Clausnitzer, V. & Dijkstra, K.-D.B. (2009). "Orthetrum brachiale". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2009. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  17. ^ Fauna europaea
  18. ^ Suhling, F. & Clausnitzer, V. (2008). "Orthetrum caffrum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  19. ^ Dow, R.A. (2017). "Orthetrum caledonicum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2017: e.T83369732A83383908. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-1.RLTS.T83369732A83383908.en. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
  20. ^ Dow, R.A. (2009). "Orthetrum glaucum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2009: e.T163780A5650496. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2009-2.RLTS.T163780A5650496.en.
  21. ^ Clausnitzer, V.; Dijkstra, K.-D.B. & Suhling, F. (2009). "Orthetrum guineense". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2009. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  22. ^ Clausnitzer, V.; Dijkstra, K.-D.B. & Suhling, F. (2009). "Orthetrum hintzi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2009. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  23. ^ Clausnitzer, V.; Dijkstra, K.-D.B. & Suhling, F. (2009). "Orthetrum icteromelas". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2009. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  24. ^ Clausnitzer, V.; Dijkstra, K.-D.B. & Suhling, F. (2009). "Orthetrum julia". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2009. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  25. ^ Clausnitzer, V.; Dijkstra, K.-D.B. & Suhling, F. (2009). "Orthetrum machadoi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2009. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  26. ^ Hawking, J. (2009). "Orthetrum migratum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2009: e.T163524A5611321. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2009-2.RLTS.T163524A5611321.en. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
  27. ^ Wilson, K. D. P. (2009). "Orthetrum poecilops". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2009: e.T60302A12340184. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2009-2.RLTS.T60302A12340184.en. Retrieved 24 December 2017.
  28. ^ Sharma, G. (2010). "Orthetrum pruinosum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2010: e.T167097A6301540. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-4.RLTS.T167097A6301540.en.
  29. ^ Suhling, F. (2010). "Orthetrum robustum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2010: e.T63204A12629389. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-3.RLTS.T63204A12629389.en. Retrieved 24 December 2017.
  30. ^ Samways, M.J. (2007). "Orthetrum rubens". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2007. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  31. ^ Clausnitzer, V. & Dijkstra, K.-D.B. (2010). "Orthetrum sagitta". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2010: e.T169242A6596337. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-3.RLTS.T169242A6596337.en. Retrieved 24 December 2017.
  32. ^ Clausnitzer, V.; Dijkstra, K.-D.B. & Suhling, F. (2009). "Orthetrum stemmale". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2009. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  33. ^ Mitra, A. (2013). "Orthetrum taeniolatum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2013: e.T163664A5632305. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T165506A17533964.en. Retrieved 15 February 2017.{{cite iucn}}: error: |doi= / |page= mismatch (help)
  34. ^ Wilson, K.D.P. 2013. Orthetrum testaceum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 03 July 2015.
  35. ^ Subramanian, K. A. (2005). Dragonflies and Damselflies of Peninsular India (PDF).
  36. ^ Dow, R.A. (2010). "Orthetrum triangulare". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2010: e.T163664A5632305. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-4.RLTS.T167098A6301833.en. Retrieved 15 February 2017.{{cite iucn}}: error: |doi= / |page= mismatch (help)
  37. ^ Dow, R.A. (2017). "Orthetrum villosovittatum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2017: e.T83369839A83383913. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-1.RLTS.T83369839A83383913.en. Retrieved 17 December 2017.

External links[edit]

Media related to Orthetrum at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Orthetrum at Wikispecies