|Electron micrograph of infectious bronchitis virus|
|Illustration of the morphology of coronaviruses. The club-shaped viral spike peplomers, coloured red, create the look of a corona surrounding the virion, when viewed electron microscopically.|
A coronavirus is one of many viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In humans, coronaviruses cause respiratory tract infections that are typically mild, such as the common cold, though rarer forms such as SARS, MERS and COVID-19 can be lethal. Symptoms vary in other species: in chickens, they cause an upper respiratory tract disease, while in cows and pigs they cause diarrhea. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs to prevent or treat human coronavirus infections.
Coronaviruses comprise the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales. They are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genome size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 27 to 34 kilobases, the largest among known RNA viruses. The name coronavirus is derived from the Latin corona, meaning "crown" or "halo", which refers to the characteristic appearance of the virus particles (virions): they have a fringe reminiscent of a crown or of a solar corona.
Coronaviruses were discovered in the 1960s. The earliest ones discovered were infectious bronchitis virus in chickens and two viruses from the nasal cavities of human patients with the common cold that were subsequently named human coronavirus 229E and human coronavirus OC43. Other members of this family have since been identified, including SARS-CoV in 2003, HCoV NL63 in 2004, HKU1 in 2005, MERS-CoV in 2012, and SARS-CoV-2 (formerly known as 2019-nCoV) in 2019; most of these have been involved in serious respiratory tract infections.
Name and morphology
The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. The name refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a crown or of a solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins on the surface of the virus that determine host tropism.
Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M), and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).
Coronavirus genomes also encode a protein called RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), which allows the viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The RdRp is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the RdRp is translated, translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. Coronavirus non-structural proteins provide extra fidelity to replication, because they confer a proofreading function, which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.
The genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to cleave the polyprotein. This process is a form of genetic economy, allowing the virus to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.
- Genus: Alphacoronavirus
- Genus Betacoronavirus; type species: Murine coronavirus
- Species: Betacoronavirus 1, Human coronavirus HKU1, Murine coronavirus, Pipistrellus bat coronavirus HKU5, Rousettus bat coronavirus HKU9, Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus, Tylonycteris bat coronavirus HKU4, Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus, Human coronavirus OC43, Hedgehog coronavirus 1 (EriCoV)
- Genus Gammacoronavirus; type species: Infectious bronchitis virus
- Genus Deltacoronavirus; type species: Bulbul coronavirus HKU11
The most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of all coronaviruses has been placed at around 8000 BCE. The MRCAs of the Alphacoronavirus line has been placed at about 2400 BCE, the Betacoronavirus line at 3300 BCE, the Gammacoronavirus line at 2800 BCE, and the Deltacoronavirus line at about 3000 BCE. It appears that bats and birds, as warm-blooded flying vertebrates, are ideal hosts for the coronavirus gene source (with bats for Alphacoronavirus and Betacoronavirus, and birds for Gammacoronavirus and Deltacoronavirus) to fuel coronavirus evolution and dissemination.
Bovine coronavirus and canine respiratory coronaviruses diverged from a common ancestor in 1951. Bovine coronavirus and human coronavirus OC43 diverged around the 1890s. Bovine coronavirus diverged from the equine coronavirus species at the end of the 18th century. 
The MRCA of human coronavirus OC43 has been dated to the 1950s.
MERS-CoV, although related to several bat coronavirus species, appears to have diverged from these several centuries ago. The human coronavirus NL63 and a bat coronavirus shared an MRCA 563–822 years ago.
The most closely related bat coronavirus and SARS-CoV diverged in 1986. A path of evolution of the SARS virus and keen relationship with bats have been proposed. The authors suggest that the coronaviruses have been coevolved with bats for a long time and the ancestors of SARS-CoV first infected the species of the genus Hipposideridae, subsequently spread to species of the Rhinolophidae and then to civets, and finally to humans.
Alpaca coronavirus and human coronavirus 229E diverged before 1960.
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant proportion of all common colds in adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, such as fever and sore throat from swollen adenoids, primarily in the winter and early spring seasons. Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia – either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia – and may cause bronchitis – either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis. The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV, which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs to prevent or treat human coronavirus infections.
Seven strains of human coronaviruses are known:
- Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
- Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
- Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)
- Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
- Human coronavirus HKU1
- Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC
- Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), previously known as 2019-nCoV or "novel coronavirus 2019"
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.
|Detection date||December 2019||June 2012||November 2002|
|Detection place||Wuhan, China||Jeddah, Saudi Arabia||Guangdong, China|
|Case fatality rate||25[b] (2.9%)||858 (37%)||744 (10%)|
|Dry cough||31 (76%)||47%||29–75%|
Outbreaks of coronavirus types of relatively high mortality are as follows:
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after. The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person. However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health. In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission were reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus had trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus. By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.
After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.
In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside the Middle East. As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.
In December 2019, a pneumonia outbreak was reported in Wuhan, China. On 31 December 2019, the outbreak was traced to a novel strain of coronavirus, which was given the interim name 2019-nCoV by the World Health Organization (WHO), later renamed SARS-CoV-2 by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Some researchers have suggested that the Huanan Seafood Market may not be the original source of viral transmission to humans.
As of 18 February 2020, there have been 2,009 confirmed deaths and more than 75,200 confirmed cases in the coronavirus pneumonia outbreak. The Wuhan strain has been identified as a new strain of Betacoronavirus from group 2B with an ~70% genetic similarity to the SARS-CoV. The virus has a 96% similarity to a bat coronavirus, so an origin in bats is widely suspected.
Coronaviruses have been recognized as causing pathological conditions in veterinary medicine since the early 1970s. Except for avian infectious bronchitis, the major related diseases have mainly an intestinal location.
Coronaviruses primarily infect the upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tract of mammals and birds. They also cause a range of diseases in farm animals and domesticated pets, some of which can be serious and are a threat to the farming industry. In chickens, the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a coronavirus, targets not only the respiratory tract but also the urogenital tract. The virus can spread to different organs throughout the chicken. Economically significant coronaviruses of farm animals include porcine coronavirus (transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus, TGE) and bovine coronavirus, which both result in diarrhea in young animals. Feline coronavirus: two forms, feline enteric coronavirus is a pathogen of minor clinical significance, but spontaneous mutation of this virus can result in feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a disease associated with high mortality. Similarly, there are two types of coronavirus that infect ferrets: ferret enteric coronavirus causes a gastrointestinal syndrome known as epizootic catarrhal enteritis (ECE), and a more lethal systemic version of the virus (like FIP in cats) known as ferret systemic coronavirus (FSC). There are two types of canine coronavirus (CCoV), one that causes mild gastrointestinal disease and one that has been found to cause respiratory disease. Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) is a coronavirus that causes an epidemic murine illness with high mortality, especially among colonies of laboratory mice. Sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) is highly infectious coronavirus of laboratory rats, which can be transmitted between individuals by direct contact and indirectly by aerosol. Acute infections have high morbidity and tropism for the salivary, lachrymal and harderian glands.
Prior to the discovery of SARS-CoV, MHV had been the best-studied coronavirus both in vivo and in vitro as well as at the molecular level. Some strains of MHV cause a progressive demyelinating encephalitis in mice which has been used as a murine model for multiple sclerosis. Significant research efforts have been focused on elucidating the viral pathogenesis of these animal coronaviruses, especially by virologists interested in veterinary and zoonotic diseases.
In domestic animals
- Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes avian infectious bronchitis.
- Porcine coronavirus (transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus of pigs, TGEV).
- Bovine coronavirus (BCV), responsible for severe profuse enteritis in of young calves.
- Feline coronavirus (FCoV) causes mild enteritis in cats as well as severe Feline infectious peritonitis (other variants of the same virus).
- the two types of canine coronavirus (CCoV) (one causing enteritis, the other found in respiratory diseases).
- Turkey coronavirus (TCV) causes enteritis in turkeys.
- Ferret enteric coronavirus causes epizootic catarrhal enteritis in ferrets.
- Ferret systemic coronavirus causes FIP-like systemic syndrome in ferrets.
- Pantropic canine coronavirus.
- Rabbit enteric coronavirus causes acute gastrointestinal disease and diarrhea in young European rabbits. Mortality rates are high.
A new veterinary disease, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PED or PEDV), has emerged around the world. Its economic importance is unclear but shows high mortality in piglets.
Genomic cis-acting elements
In common with the genomes of all other RNA viruses, coronavirus genomes contain cis-acting RNA elements that ensure the specific replication of viral RNA by a virally encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The embedded cis-acting elements devoted to coronavirus replication constitute a small fraction of the total genome, but this is, it is presumed, a reflection of the fact that coronaviruses have the largest genomes of all RNA viruses. The boundaries of cis-acting elements essential to replication are fairly well-defined, and an increasingly well-resolved picture of the RNA secondary structures of these regions is emerging. However, we are in only the early stages of understanding how these cis-acting structures and sequences interact with the viral replicase and host cell components, and much remains to be done before we understand the precise mechanistic roles of such elements in RNA synthesis.
The assembly of infectious coronavirus particles requires the selection of viral genomic RNA from a cellular pool that contains an abundant excess of non-viral and viral RNAs. Among the seven to ten specific viral mRNAs synthesized in virus-infected cells, only the full-length genomic RNA is packaged efficiently into coronavirus particles. Studies have revealed cis-acting elements and trans-acting viral factors involved in coronavirus genome encapsidation and packaging. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of genome selection and packaging is critical for developing antiviral strategies and viral expression vectors based on the coronavirus genome.
- "Virus Taxonomy: 2018b Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2019. Archived from the original on 4 March 2018. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
- "2017.012-015S" (xlsx). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). October 2018. Archived from the original on 14 May 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
- Fan, Yi; Zhao, Kai; Shi, Zheng-Li; Zhou, Peng (2019). "Bat Coronaviruses in China". Viruses. 11 (3): 210. doi:10.3390/v11030210. ISSN 1999-4915. PMC 6466186. PMID 30832341.
- de Groot RJ, Baker SC, Baric R, Enjuanes L, Gorbalenya AE, Holmes KV, Perlman S, Poon L, Rottier PJ, Talbot PJ, Woo PC, Ziebuhr J (2011). "Family Coronaviridae". In AMQ King, E Lefkowitz, MJ Adams, EB Carstens (eds.). Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Elsevier, Oxford. pp. 806–828. ISBN 978-0-12-384684-6.
- International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (24 August 2010). "ICTV Master Species List 2009 – v10" (xls).
- Sexton, Nicole R.; Smith, Everett Clinton; Blanc, Hervé; Vignuzzi, Marco; Peersen, Olve B.; Denison, Mark R. (27 July 2016). "Homology-Based Identification of a Mutation in the Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase That Confers Resistance to Multiple Mutagens". Journal of Virology. 90 (16): 7415–7428. doi:10.1128/JVI.00080-16. ISSN 0022-538X. PMC 4984655. PMID 27279608.
CoVs also have the largest known RNA virus genomes, ranging from 27 to 34 kb (31, 32), and increased fidelity in CoVs is likely required for the maintenance of these large genomes (14).
- "Coronavirus: Common Symptoms, Preventive Measures, & How to Diagnose It". Caringly Yours. 28 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
- Geller C, Varbanov M, Duval RE (November 2012). "Human coronaviruses: insights into environmental resistance and its influence on the development of new antiseptic strategies". Viruses. 4 (11): 3044–3068. doi:10.3390/v4113044. PMC 3509683. PMID 23202515.
- Li F, Li W, Farzan M, Harrison SC (September 2005). "Structure of SARS coronavirus spike receptor-binding domain complexed with receptor". Science. 309 (5742): 1864–1868. Bibcode:2005Sci...309.1864L. doi:10.1126/science.1116480. PMID 16166518.
- Fehr, Anthony R.; Perlman, Stanley (2015), Maier, Helena Jane; Bickerton, Erica; Britton, Paul (eds.), "Coronaviruses: An Overview of Their Replication and Pathogenesis; Section 4.1 Attachment and Entry", Coronaviruses: Methods and Protocols, Methods in Molecular Biology, Springer, pp. 1–23, doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-2438-7_1, ISBN 978-1-4939-2438-7, PMC 4369385, PMID 25720466, retrieved 23 February 2020CS1 maint: PMC format (link)
- Fehr, Anthony R.; Perlman, Stanley (2015), Maier, Helena Jane; Bickerton, Erica; Britton, Paul (eds.), "Coronaviruses: An Overview of Their Replication and Pathogenesis; Section 2 Genomic Organization", Coronaviruses: Methods and Protocols, Methods in Molecular Biology, Springer, pp. 1–23, doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-2438-7_1, ISBN 978-1-4939-2438-7, PMC 4369385, PMID 25720466, retrieved 23 February 2020CS1 maint: PMC format (link)
- Sexton NR, Smith EC, Blanc H, Vignuzzi M, Peersen OB, Denison MR (August 2016). "Homology-Based Identification of a Mutation in the Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase That Confers Resistance to Multiple Mutagens". Journal of Virology. 90 (16): 7415–7428. doi:10.1128/JVI.00080-16. PMC 4984655. PMID 27279608.
Finally, these results, combined with those from previous work (33, 44), suggest that CoVs encode at least three proteins involved in fidelity (nsp12-RdRp, nsp14-ExoN, and nsp10), supporting the assembly of a multiprotein replicase-fidelity complex, as described previously (38).
- Fehr AR, Perlman S (2015). "Coronaviruses: an overview of their replication and pathogenesis". Coronaviruses. Methods in Molecular Biology. 1282. pp. 1–23. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-2438-7_1. ISBN 978-1-4939-2437-0. PMC 4369385. PMID 25720466.
- "Transmission of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) | CDC". www.cdc.gov. 31 January 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
- Wertheim JO, Chu DK, Peiris JS, Kosakovsky Pond SL, Poon LL (June 2013). "A case for the ancient origin of coronaviruses". Journal of Virology. 87 (12): 7039–7045. doi:10.1128/JVI.03273-12. PMC 3676139. PMID 23596293.
- Woo PC, Lau SK, Lam CS, Lau CC, Tsang AK, Lau JH, Bai R, Teng JL, Tsang CC, Wang M, Zheng BJ, Chan KH, Yuen KY (April 2012). "Discovery of seven novel Mammalian and avian coronaviruses in the genus deltacoronavirus supports bat coronaviruses as the gene source of alphacoronavirus and betacoronavirus and avian coronaviruses as the gene source of gammacoronavirus and deltacoronavirus". Journal of Virology. 86 (7): 3995–4008. doi:10.1128/JVI.06540-11. PMC 3302495. PMID 22278237.
- Bidokhti MR, Tråvén M, Krishna NK, Munir M, Belák S, Alenius S, Cortey M (September 2013). "Evolutionary dynamics of bovine coronaviruses: natural selection pattern of the spike gene implies adaptive evolution of the strains". The Journal of General Virology. 94 (Pt 9): 2036–2049. doi:10.1099/vir.0.054940-0. PMID 23804565.
- Vijgen L, Keyaerts E, Moës E, Thoelen I, Wollants E, Lemey P, Vandamme AM, Van Ranst M (February 2005). "Complete genomic sequence of human coronavirus OC43: molecular clock analysis suggests a relatively recent zoonotic coronavirus transmission event". Journal of Virology. 79 (3): 1595–1604. doi:10.1128/jvi.79.3.1595-1604.2005. PMC 544107. PMID 15650185.
- Lau SK, Lee P, Tsang AK, Yip CC, Tse H, Lee RA, So LY, Lau YL, Chan KH, Woo PC, Yuen KY (November 2011). "Molecular epidemiology of human coronavirus OC43 reveals evolution of different genotypes over time and recent emergence of a novel genotype due to natural recombination". Journal of Virology. 85 (21): 11325–11337. doi:10.1128/JVI.05512-11. PMC 3194943. PMID 21849456.
- Lau SK, Li KS, Tsang AK, Lam CS, Ahmed S, Chen H, Chan KH, Woo PC, Yuen KY (August 2013). "Genetic characterization of Betacoronavirus lineage C viruses in bats reveals marked sequence divergence in the spike protein of pipistrellus bat coronavirus HKU5 in Japanese pipistrelle: implications for the origin of the novel Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus". Journal of Virology. 87 (15): 8638–8650. doi:10.1128/JVI.01055-13. PMC 3719811. PMID 23720729.
- Huynh J, Li S, Yount B, Smith A, Sturges L, Olsen JC, Nagel J, Johnson JB, Agnihothram S, Gates JE, Frieman MB, Baric RS, Donaldson EF (December 2012). "Evidence supporting a zoonotic origin of human coronavirus strain NL63". Journal of Virology. 86 (23): 12816–12825. doi:10.1128/JVI.00906-12. PMC 3497669. PMID 22993147.
- Vijaykrishna D, Smith GJ, Zhang JX, Peiris JS, Chen H, Guan Y (April 2007). "Evolutionary insights into the ecology of coronaviruses". Journal of Virology. 81 (8): 4012–4020. doi:10.1128/jvi.02605-06. PMC 1866124. PMID 17267506.
- Gouilh MA, Puechmaille SJ, Gonzalez JP, Teeling E, Kittayapong P, Manuguerra JC (October 2011). "SARS-Coronavirus ancestor's foot-prints in South-East Asian bat colonies and the refuge theory". Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 11 (7): 1690–702. doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2011.06.021. PMID 21763784.
- Cui J, Han N, Streicker D, Li G, Tang X, Shi Z, Hu Z, Zhao G, Fontanet A, Guan Y, Wang L, Jones G, Field HE, Daszak P, Zhang S (October 2007). "Evolutionary relationships between bat coronaviruses and their hosts". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 13 (10): 1526–1532. doi:10.3201/eid1310.070448. PMC 2851503. PMID 18258002.
- Crossley BM, Mock RE, Callison SA, Hietala SK (December 2012). "Identification and characterization of a novel alpaca respiratory coronavirus most closely related to the human coronavirus 229E". Viruses. 4 (12): 3689–3700. doi:10.3390/v4123689. PMC 3528286. PMID 23235471.
- Liu P, Shi L, Zhang W, He J, Liu C, Zhao C, Kong SK, Loo JF, Gu D, Hu L (November 2017). "Prevalence and genetic diversity analysis of human coronaviruses among cross-border children". Virology Journal. 14 (1): 230. doi:10.1186/s12985-017-0896-0. PMC 5700739. PMID 29166910.
- Forgie S, Marrie TJ (February 2009). "Healthcare-associated atypical pneumonia". Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 30 (1): 67–85. doi:10.1055/s-0028-1119811. PMID 19199189.
- Habibzadeh P, Stoneman EK (2020). "The Novel Coronavirus: A bird's eye view". International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 11 (2): 65–71. doi:10.15171/ijoem.2020.1921. PMID 32020915.
- Corman VM, Muth D, Niemeyer D, Drosten C (2018). "Hosts and Sources of Endemic Human Coronaviruses". Advances in Virus Research. 100: 163–188. doi:10.1016/bs.aivir.2018.01.001. ISBN 978-0-12-815201-0. PMID 29551135.
- Wang, Chen; Horby, Peter W.; Hayden, Frederick G.; Gao, George F. (24 January 2020). "A novel coronavirus outbreak of global health concern". The Lancet. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30185-9.
- Smith, Richard D (2006). "Responding to global infectious disease outbreaks: Lessons from SARS on the role of risk perception, communication and management". Social Science & Medicine. 63 (12): 3113–23. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.08.004. PMID 16978751.
- "Case‐control study to assess potential risk factors related to human illness caused by the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV)" (PDF). World Health Organization. 28 March 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- "Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – Republic of Korea". World Health Organization. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- Pandemic Epidemic Diseases news: Infectious disease outbreaks reported in the Eastern Mediterranean region in 2018 Between 12 January through 31 May 2018, the National IHR Focal Point of The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia reported 75 laboratory confirmed cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS_CoV), including twenty-three (23) deaths. Date www.emro.who.int, accessed 29 January 2020
- "Tracking coronavirus: Map, data and timeline". BNO News. 10 February 2020. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
- Doucleef M (26 September 2012). "Scientists Go Deep On Genes Of SARS-Like Virus". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 27 September 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2012.
- Falco M (24 September 2012). "New SARS-like virus poses medical mystery". CNN Health. Archived from the original on 1 November 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- "New SARS-like virus found in Middle East". Al-Jazeera. 24 September 2012. Archived from the original on 9 March 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- Kelland K (28 September 2012). "New virus not spreading easily between people: WHO". Reuters. Archived from the original on 24 November 2012. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- Nouveau coronavirus – Point de situation : Un nouveau cas d’infection confirmé Archived 8 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine (Novel coronavirus – Status report: A new case of confirmed infection) 12 May 2013, social-sante.gouv.fr
- CDC (2 August 2019). "MERS Transmission". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 7 December 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
- "Novel coronavirus infection – update". World Health Association. 22 May 2013. Archived from the original on 7 June 2013. Retrieved 23 May 2013.
- CDC (2 August 2019). "MERS in the U.S." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 15 December 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
- Sang-Hun, Choe (8 June 2015). "MERS Virus's Path: One Man, Many South Korean Hospitals". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 15 July 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
- "Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)". WHO. Archived from the original on 18 October 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
- The Editorial Board (29 January 2020). "Is the World Ready for the Coronavirus? - Distrust in science and institutions could be a major problem if the outbreak worsens". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
- "WHO Statement Regarding Cluster of Pneumonia Cases in Wuhan, China". www.who.int. 9 January 2020. Archived from the original on 14 January 2020. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
- "Laboratory testing of human suspected cases of novel coronavirus (nCoV) infection. Interim guidance, 10 January 2020" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 January 2020. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
- "Novel Coronavirus 2019, Wuhan, China | CDC". www.cdc.gov. 23 January 2020. Archived from the original on 20 January 2020. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
- "2019 Novel Coronavirus infection (Wuhan, China): Outbreak update". Canada.ca. 21 January 2020.
- Cohen, Jon (26 January 2020). "Wuhan seafood market may not be source of novel virus spreading globally". ScienceMag American Association for the Advancement of Science. (AAAS). Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
- Eschner, Kat (28 January 2020). "We're still not sure where the COVID-19 really came from". Popular Science. Archived from the original on 29 January 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
- "Operations Dashboard for ArcGIS". gisanddata.maps.arcgis.com. The Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) is a research collective housed within the Department of Civil and Systems Engineering (CaSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU). 28 January 2020. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
- "Coronavirus Toll Update: Cases & Deaths by Country of Wuhan, China Virus - Worldometer". www.worldometers.info. Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
- "ClinicalKey". www.clinicalkey.com. Archived from the original on 25 April 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
- Eschner, Kat (28 January 2020). "We're still not sure where the COVID-19 really came from". Popular Science. Archived from the original on 29 January 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
- Murphy, FA; Gibbs, EPJ; Horzinek, MC; Studdart MJ (1999). Veterinary Virology. Boston: Academic Press. pp. 495–508. ISBN 978-0-12-511340-3.
- Bande F, Arshad SS, Bejo MH, Moeini H, Omar AR (2015). "Progress and challenges toward the development of vaccines against avian infectious bronchitis". Journal of Immunology Research. 2015: 1–12. doi:10.1155/2015/424860. PMC 4411447. PMID 25954763.
- Murray J (16 April 2014). "What's New With Ferret FIP-like Disease?" (xls). Archived from the original on 24 April 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Weiss SR, Navas-Martin S (December 2005). "Coronavirus pathogenesis and the emerging pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 69 (4): 635–664. doi:10.1128/MMBR.69.4.635-664.2005. PMC 1306801. PMID 16339739.
- "Rat Coronavirus - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics". www.sciencedirect.com.
- Fatal swine acute diarrhoea syndrome caused by an HKU2-related coronavirus of bat origin Archived 31 May 2019 at the Wayback Machine, Peng Zhou, Hang Fan, Tian Lan, Xing-Lou Yang, Wei-Feng Shi, Wei Zhang, Yan Zhu, Ya-Wei Zhang, Qing-Mei Xie, Shailendra Mani, Xiao-Shuang Zheng, Bei Li, Jin-Man Li, Hua Guo, Guang-Qian Pei, Xiao-Ping An, Jun-Wei Chen, Ling Zhou, Kai-Jie Mai, Zi-Xian Wu, Di Li, Danielle E. Anderson, Li-Biao Zhang, Shi-Yue Li, Zhi-Qiang Mi, Tong-Tong He, Feng Cong, Peng-Ju Guo, Ren Huang, Yun Luo, Xiang-Ling Liu, Jing Chen, Yong Huang, Qiang Sun, Xiang-Li-Lan Zhang, Yuan-Yuan Wang, Shao-Zhen Xing, Yan-Shan Chen, Yuan Sun, Juan Li, Peter Daszak, Lin-Fa Wang, Zheng-Li Shi, Yi-Gang Tong & Jing-Yun Ma, Nature, 5 April 2018.
- Tirotta E, Carbajal KS, Schaumburg CS, Whitman L, Lane TE (July 2010). "Cell replacement therapies to promote remyelination in a viral model of demyelination". Journal of Neuroimmunology. 224 (1–2): 101–107. doi:10.1016/j.jneuroim.2010.05.013. PMC 2919340. PMID 20627412.
- Cruz JL, Sola I, Becares M, Alberca B, Plana J, Enjuanes L, Zuñiga S (June 2011). "Coronavirus gene 7 counteracts host defenses and modulates virus virulence". PLoS Pathogens. 7 (6): e1002090. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002090. PMC 3111541. PMID 21695242.
- Cruz JL, Becares M, Sola I, Oliveros JC, Enjuanes L, Zúñiga S (September 2013). "Alphacoronavirus protein 7 modulates host innate immune response". Journal of Virology. 87 (17): 9754–67. doi:10.1128/JVI.01032-13. PMC 3754097. PMID 23824792.
- "Merck Veterinary Manual". Merck Veterinary Manual. Archived from the original on 13 December 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
- "Enteric Coronavirus". Diseases of Research Animals. Archived from the original on 1 July 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
- Thiel V (editor). (2007). Coronaviruses: Molecular and Cellular Biology (1st ed.). Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-16-5.[page needed]
- Alwan A, Mahjour J, Memish ZA (2013). "Novel coronavirus infection: time to stay ahead of the curve". Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 19 Suppl 1: S3–4. doi:10.26719/2013.19.supp1.S3. PMID 23888787.
- Laude H, Rasschaert D, Delmas B, Godet M, Gelfi J, Charley B (June 1990). "Molecular biology of transmissible gastroenteritis virus". Veterinary Microbiology. 23 (1–4): 147–54. doi:10.1016/0378-1135(90)90144-K. PMID 2169670.
- Sola I, Alonso S, Zúñiga S, Balasch M, Plana-Durán J, Enjuanes L (April 2003). "Engineering the transmissible gastroenteritis virus genome as an expression vector inducing lactogenic immunity". Journal of Virology. 77 (7): 4357–69. doi:10.1128/JVI.77.7.4357-4369.2003. PMC 150661. PMID 12634392.
- Tajima M (1970). "Morphology of transmissible gastroenteritis virus of pigs. A possible member of coronaviruses. Brief report". Archiv für die Gesamte Virusforschung. 29 (1): 105–8. doi:10.1007/BF01253886. PMID 4195092.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Coronaviridae.|
|Look up coronavirus in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|