Autologous conditioned serum

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Autologous conditioned serum, also known as Orthokine and Regenokine, is an experimental procedure in which a person's own blood is extracted, manipulated, and then reintroduced with claims benefit in osteoarthritis.[1] There is limited evidence on safety and effectiveness as of 2017.[1] It is not included in medical guidelines as of 2017.[1] It is a type of autologous blood therapy.[1]

Medical use[edit]

There is limited evidence on safety and effectiveness as of 2017.[1] There is tentative evidence in osteoarthritis.[2] Its use has not been recommended or considered by the Osteoarthritis Research Society International.[1]

Process[edit]

The process removes about 2 US fluid ounces (59 ml) of blood from a patient's arm, which is then incubated at a slightly raised temperature.[citation needed] The liquid is then placed in a centrifuge until its constituent parts are separated. That serum is injected into the patient's affected area.

History[edit]

Autologous conditioned serum is a patented method developed by molecular biologist Julio Reinecke and Peter Wehling, a spinal surgeon in Düsseldorf, Germany.[3][4] Orthokine was first approved for use in Germany in 2003.[5] Orthokine differs from a similar procedure with platelet-rich plasma (PRP),[6] where platelets are targeted instead of the interleukin antagonist. Also, PRP does not require the blood to be heated as Orthokine does.[citation needed]

As of August 2012, about 60,000 patients worldwide have received the treatment.[5] Americans have traveled to Germany for the treatment, which has not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).[7][4] Two offices, one in New York and another in Los Angeles, have licenses to provide a similar treatment, but they cannot advertise due to the lack of FDA approval. Dr. Freddie Fu, a professor of orthopedic surgery at the University of Pittsburgh, said more high-quality independent trials proving the procedure's effectiveness are needed before the FDA approves.National Basketball Association star Kobe Bryant, who traveled to Germany to have the procedure performed by Wehling, is one famous case based on his recovery from his previously poor knees.[7][3]Some basketball fans refer to the procedure as the "Kobe Procedure".[3]

The procedure cost €6,000 (about $7,400) as of July 2012. The treatment is not covered by health insurance. Chris Renna, a Los Angeles based, preventive medicine specialist who has referred American patients to Wehling since 2003, said that "because of its expense and status, the treatment is for the 1 and 2 percent of our society."

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Wehling, P; Evans, C; Wehling, J; Maixner, W (August 2017). "Effectiveness of intra-articular therapies in osteoarthritis: a literature review". Therapeutic advances in musculoskeletal disease. 9 (8): 183–196. doi:10.1177/1759720X17712695. PMID 28835778. Limited data due to less expanded use and nonconsideration in guidelines.
  2. ^ "Osteoarthritis Emerging Therapies Epocrates Online". online.epocrates.com. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  3. ^ a b c Kyler, Steve (August 15, 2012). "NBA AM: The Next Nightmare In The NBA". hoopsworld.com. USA Today. Archived from the original on August 16, 2012.
  4. ^ a b Thompson, Teri (December 31, 2011). "A-Rod doc has pal who dealt 'cream'". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on August 14, 2012.
  5. ^ a b Mitchell, John N. (August 18, 2012). "Bynum's knee treatment gains acceptance in U.S." The Philadelphia Inquirer. Archived from the original on August 24, 2012.
  6. ^ Torrero, JI; Martinez, C (July 2015). "New developments in the treatment of osteoarthritis – focus on biologic agents". Open Access Rheumatology (7): 33&ndash, 43. doi:10.2147/OARRR.S50058. PMC 5045124. PMID 27790043.
  7. ^ a b Lehrer, Jonah (April 11, 2012). "Why Did Kobe Go to Germany?". grantland.com. ESPN Internet Ventures. Archived from the original on August 14, 2012.