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Temporal range: Carboniferous–recent
Carboniferous - Recent
Caloneura dowsoni.jpg
Caloneura dawsoni fossil
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Euarthropoda
Class: Insecta
Cohort: Polyneoptera
(unranked): Anartioptera
Magnorder: Polyorthoptera
Superorder: Orthopterida


The Orthopterida is a superorder of the Polyneoptera that represents the extant orders Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, and katydids), and Phasmatodea (stick insects and leaf insects). The Orthopterida also includes the extinct orders Titanoptera and Caloneurodea. There is general consensus of monophyly in this superorder, based on reduction of the second valvulae, an ovipositor derived from the gonoplac, and an enlarged precostal region on the forewing.

The two other superorders of the Polyneoptera are the Plecopterida, which represents the orders Plecoptera (stoneflies), Emboidea (Embioptera/Embiidina; webspinners), and Zoraptera (angel insects), and the Dictyoptera, which represents Blattodea (cockroaches & termites), and Mantodea (mantids). Two other orders, the Notoptera (ice-crawlers and gladiators) and Dermaptera (earwigs) are also placed in the Polyneoptera but outside the superorders discussed above.[1]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Grimaldi, D., and M.S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 191-194.