# Orthorhombic crystal system

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In crystallography, the orthorhombic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems. Orthorhombic lattices result from stretching a cubic lattice along two of its orthogonal pairs by two different factors, resulting in a rectangular prism with a rectangular base (a by b) and height (c), such that a, b, and c are distinct. All three bases intersect at 90° angles, so the three lattice vectors remain mutually orthogonal.

## Bravais lattices

Rectangular vs rhombic unit cells for the 2D orthorhombic lattices. The interchanging of centering type when the unit cell is changed also applies for the 3D orthorhombic lattices

### Two-dimensional

There are two orthorhombic Bravais lattices in two dimensions: Primitive rectangular and centered rectangular. The primitive rectangular lattice can also be described by a centered rhombic unit cell, while the centered rectangular lattice can also be described by a primitive rhombic unit cell.

### Three-dimensional

There are four orthorhombic Bravais lattices: primitive orthorhombic, base-centered orthorhombic, body-centered orthorhombic, and face-centered orthorhombic.

Bravais lattice Primitive
orthorhombic
Base-centered
orthorhombic
Body-centered
orthorhombic
Face-centered
orthorhombic
Pearson symbol oP oS oI oF
Standard unit cell
Right rhombic prism unit cell

In the orthorhombic system there is a second choice of crystal axes that results in a unit cell with the shape of a right rhombic prism,[1] although this axis setting is very rarely used; this is because the rectangular two-dimensional base layers can also be described with rhombic axes. In this axis setting, the primitive and base-centered lattices interchange in centering type, while the same thing happens with the body-centered and face-centered lattices.

## Crystal classes

The orthorhombic crystal system class names, examples, Schönflies notation, Hermann-Mauguin notation, point groups, International Tables for Crystallography space group number,[2] orbifold notation, type, and space groups are listed in the table below.

# Point group Type
(Example)
Space groups
Name Schön. Intl Orb. Cox.
16-24 sphenoidal [3] D2 222 222 [2,2]+ enantiomorphic
(epsomite)
P222, P2221, P21212, P212121
C2221, C222
F222
I222, I212121
25-46 pyramidal [3] C2v mm2 *22 [2] polar
(hemimorphite, bertrandite)
Pmm2, Pmc21, Pcc2, Pma2, Pca21, Pnc2, Pmn21, Pba2, Pna21, Pnn2
Cmm2, Cmc21, Ccc2
Amm2, Aem2, Ama2, Aea2
Fmm2, Fdd2
Imm2, Iba2, Ima2
47-74 bipyramidal [3] D2h mmm *222 [2,2] centrosymmetric
(olivine, aragonite, marcasite)
Pmmm, Pnnn, Pccm, Pban, Pmma, Pnna, Pmna, Pcca, Pbam, Pccn, Pbcm, Pnnm, Pmmn, Pbcn, Pbca, Pnma
Cmcm, Cmca, Cmmm, Cccm, Cmme, Ccce
Fmmm, Fddd
Immm, Ibam, Ibca, Imma