Oryza glaberrima

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Oryza glaberrima
Oryza glaberrima seeds.jpg
Seeds of Oryza glaberrima
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Angiosperms
Class: Monocots
Subclass: Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Bambusoideae
Tribe: Oryzeae
Genus: Oryza
Species: O. glaberrima
Binomial name
Oryza glaberrima
Steud.

Oryza glaberrima, commonly known as African rice, is a domesticated rice species. It is believed to have been domesticated 2000–3000 years ago in the inland delta of the Upper Niger River, in what is now Mali.[1] Its wild ancestor, which still grows wild in Africa, is Oryza barthii.

Oryza Glaberrima is domesticated by harvesting "when it is needed" and fried directly with fire "known as puff rice", fresh rice are fried and is eated. Through its number rice seeds are replanted again. Fried rice have browny color when fried this is because of the husk that is green in color when heated turns brown.

This species is grown in West Africa. African rice often shows more tolerance to fluctuations in water depth, iron toxicity, infertile soils, severe climatic conditions, and human neglect, and exhibits better resistance to various pests and diseases, such as nematodes (Heterodera sacchari and Meloidogyne spp.), African rice gall midge (Orseolia oryzivora), rice stripe necrosis virus, rice yellow mottle virus, and the parasitic plants Striga. The species shows several negative characteristics with respect to the Asian rice species O. sativa, such as brittle grain and cracking during industrial polishing.[2] More importantly, it consistently shows lower yields than O. sativa, which is due to its tendency to shatter grains easily.[3]

Scientists from the Africa Rice Center managed to cross-breed African rice with Asian rice varieties to produce a group of interspecific cultivars called New Rice for Africa (NERICA).[4]

The genome of O. glaberrima has been sequenced, and was published in 2014.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Linares 2002, African rice (Oryza glaberrima): History and future potential. PNAS 99:16360-16365
  2. ^ Carney 2009
  3. ^ Montcho, D.; Futakuchi, K.; Agbangla, C.; Fofana, M.; Dieng, I. (2013-01-01). "Yield loss of Oryza glaberrima caused by grain shattering under rainfed upland conditions". International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 7 (2): 535–543. doi:10.4314/ijbcs.v7i2.10. ISSN 1997-342X. 
  4. ^ Jones, Monty P.; Dingkuhn, Michael; Aluko/snm>, Gabriel K.; Semon, Mandé (1997-03-01). "Interspecific Oryza Sativa L. X O. Glaberrima Steud. progenies in upland rice improvement". Euphytica 94 (2): 237–246. doi:10.1023/A:1002969932224. ISSN 0014-2336. 
  5. ^ Zhang, QJ.; Zhu, T.; Xia, EH.; Shi, C.; Liu, YL.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, Y.; Jiang, WK.; et al. (Nov 2014). "Rapid diversification of five Oryza AA genomes associated with rice adaptation". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111 (46): E4954–E4962. doi:10.1073/pnas.1418307111. PMID 25368197. 

Further reading[edit]