Oryza sativa

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Oryza sativa
Mature Rice (India) by Augustus Binu.jpg
Mature seed heads
Oryza sativa at Kadavoor.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Clade: Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Genus: Oryza
O. sativa
Binomial name
Oryza sativa
    • Oryza aristata Blanco
    • Oryza communissima Lour.
    • Oryza denudata (Desv.) Steud.
    • Oryza elongata (Desv.) Steud.
    • Oryza formosana Masam. & Suzuki
    • Oryza glutinosa Lour.
    • Oryza marginata (Desv.) Steud.
    • Oryza montana Lour.
    • Oryza mutica Steud.
    • Oryza palustris Salisb.
    • Oryza parviflora P.Beauv.
    • Oryza perennis Moench
    • Oryza plena (Prain) N.P.Chowdhury
    • Oryza praecox Lour.
    • Oryza pubescens (Desv.) Steud.
    • Oryza pumila Steud.
    • Oryza repens Buch.-Ham. ex Steud.
    • Oryza rubribarbis (Desv.) Steud.
    • Oryza sativa subsp. indica Shig.Kato
    • Oryza sativa subsp. japonica Shig.Kato
    • Oryza segetalis Russell ex Steud.

Oryza sativa, commonly known as Asian rice, is the plant species most commonly referred to in English as rice. It is the type of farmed rice whose cultivars are most common globally, and was first domesticated in the Yangtze River basin in China 13,500 to 8,200 years ago.[2][3][4][5]

Oryza sativa is a grass with a genome consisting of 430Mb across 12 chromosomes. It is renowned for being easy to genetically modify and is a model organism for cereal biology.


Oryza sativa contains two major subspecies: the sticky, short-grained japonica or sinica variety, and the nonsticky, long-grained indica rice [ja] variety. Japonica varieties are usually cultivated in dry fields (it is cultivated mainly submerged in Japan), in temperate East Asia, upland areas of Southeast Asia, and high elevations in South Asia, while indica varieties are mainly lowland rices, grown mostly submerged, throughout tropical Asia. Rice occurs in a variety of colors, including white, brown, black, purple, and red rices.[6][7] Black rice (also known as purple rice) is a range of rice types, some of which are glutinous rice. Varieties include Indonesian black rice and Thai jasmine black rice.

A third subspecies, which is broad-grained and thrives under tropical conditions, was identified based on morphology and initially called javanica, but is now known as tropical japonica. Examples of this variety include the medium-grain 'Tinawon' and 'Unoy' cultivars, which are grown in the high-elevation rice terraces of the Cordillera Mountains of northern Luzon, Philippines.[8]

Glaszmann (1987) used isozymes to sort O. sativa into six groups: japonica, aromatic, indica, aus, rayada, and ashina.[9]

Garris et al. (2004) used simple sequence repeats to sort O. sativa into five groups: temperate japonica, tropical japonica and aromatic comprise the japonica varieties, while indica and aus comprise the indica varieties.[10]

Nomenclature and taxonomy[edit]

Rice has been cultivated since ancient times and oryza is a classical Latin word for rice. Sativa means "cultivated".


See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Oryza sativa L." Plants of the World Online. Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2017. Retrieved December 21, 2020.
  2. ^ Normile, Dennis (1997). "Yangtze seen as earliest rice site". Science. 275 (5298): 309–310. doi:10.1126/science.275.5298.309. S2CID 140691699.
  3. ^ Vaughan, DA; Lu, B; Tomooka, N (2008). "The evolving story of rice evolution". Plant Science. 174 (4): 394–408. doi:10.1016/j.plantsci.2008.01.016.
  4. ^ Harris, David R. (1996). The Origins and Spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism in Eurasia. Psychology Press. p. 565. ISBN 978-1-85728-538-3.
  5. ^ Zhang, Jianping; Lu, Houyuan; Gu, Wanfa; Wu, Naiqin; Zhou, Kunshu; Hu, Yayi; Xin, Yingjun; Wang, Can; Kashkush, Khalil (December 17, 2012). "Early Mixed Farming of Millet and Rice 7800 Years Ago in the Middle Yellow River Region, China". PLOS ONE. 7 (12): e52146. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...752146Z. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052146. PMC 3524165. PMID 23284907.
  6. ^ Oka (1988)
  7. ^ Mohammadi Shad, Z; Atungulu, G. (March 2019). "Post-harvest kernel discoloration and fungi activity in long-grain hybrid, pureline and medium-grain rice cultivars as influenced by storage environment and antifungal treatment". Journal of Stored Products Research. 81: 91–99. doi:10.1016/j.jspr.2019.02.002.
  8. ^ CECAP, PhilRice and IIRR. 2000. "Highland Rice Production in the Philippine Cordillera."
  9. ^ Glaszmann, J. C. (May 1987). "Isozymes and classification of Asian rice varieties". Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 74 (1): 21–30. doi:10.1007/BF00290078. PMID 24241451. S2CID 22829122.
  10. ^ Garris; Tai, TH; Coburn, J; Kresovich, S; McCouch, S; et al. (2004). "Genetic structure and diversity in Oryza sativa L." Genetics. 169 (3): 1631–8. doi:10.1534/genetics.104.035642. PMC 1449546. PMID 15654106.

External links[edit]