Oryzaephilus surinamensis

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Oryzaephilus surinamensis
Oryzaephilus surinamensis-AndyBrookes.jpg
Not evaluated (IUCN 3.1)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Coleoptera
Subfamily: Silvanidae
Genus: Oryzaephilus
Species: O. surinamensis
Binomial name
Oryzaephilus surinamensis[1]
(Linnaeus, 1758)

Oryzaephilus surinamensis, the sawtoothed grain beetle,[1] is a beetle in the superfamily Cucujidae[2]. It is a common, worldwide pest of grain and grain products as well as fruit, chocolate, drugs, and tobacco[2]. The specie's binomial name- meaning "rice-lover from Surinam- was coined by Carl Linnaeus, who received specimens of the beetle from Surinam[3].

Description and Identification[edit]

O. surinamensis is a slender, dark brown beetle 2.4–3 mm in size, with characteristic "teeth" running down the side of the prothorax[4]. It is nearly identical to Oryzaephilus mercator, or the Merchant Grain Beetle[2], however, O. surinamensis has smaller eyes and a broader, more triangular head[2]; O. surinamensis unlike O. mercator are unable to fly[4].

Distribution[edit]

O. surinamensis can be found worldwide[2]. The beetle is one of the most commonly encounted stored product pests[2] and is widespread within the food industry and can be found in food manufacturing, storage, and retail facilities[5], as well as in home pantries[2]. O. surinamensis is less common in colder climates such as Canada and the Northern United State[2]

Life Cycle[edit]

Eggs[edit]

A female can produce 43-285 eggs in their six to ten month average lifespan which are deposited on a food mass[6]. The ideal temperature range for larvae development within eggs is about 27-29°C (80-85°F[6]), under such conditions they hatch in three to five days[6].

Larva[edit]

Larva are yellow-white with brown heads and grow up to 3mm[2]. They crawl freely around the food mass and feed on broken pieces of grain or grain kernels damaged by other insects[2], larger larvae may bore into kernals[6]. Larvae account for the majority of damage done to grain[5]. Larvae molt two to four times before pupation[2]

Pupa[edit]

Larvae pupate by constructing cocoon-like coverings using broken pieces of grain[2][6]. Emergence as adults occurs after about one week[6]

Adults[edit]

Adults can live on average six to ten months, though they can live as long as three years[6]. The total life cycle is 27 – 51 days at 85–95 °F (29–35 °C).[4]. Adults seek out new sources of food for breeding[2]. In areas which have severe infestations of O. surinamensis adults have been reported to nibble on the skin of people, however, these bites are not harmful[2].

Role as a Stored Product Pest and Control of Infestations[edit]

O. surinamensis is one of the most commonly encountered insects in grain, pet foods, and seeds[2]. Feeding results in shrinkage of the dry mass of the infested product and in increased water content due to the metabolic activity of the insects which can result in mold growth[6]. In grain, insect damage decreases value and can make it unfit for use; sufficient numbers of insect fragments or live insects can result in rejection by the purchaser[6].

In the home, infestations can be avoided by storing dried food products in sealed containers[2]. To control already present infestations, the infested material needs to be identified and disposed of[4], or frozen- as all life stages of the beetle can be killed by being frozen for six days[2]. In food processing operations and warehouses other means of control may be necessary and fumigation is commonly used[2], in large-scale grain storage operations a pesticide application may be needed for storage over six months[6]. Fumigation is commonly used to control stored product pests in food and grain, this involves the treatment of product with gasses which are able to diffuse throughout the treated area[2]. The gasses used in fumigation (most often phosphine[7]) are highly toxic to both insects and mammals (including humans)[7] but when applied properly, no fumigant will remain in product after treatment is complete[2]. Because of the high toxicity of fumigants, their use is restricted to qualified applicators[2][6] and areas which can be tightly sealed[2].

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Oryzaephilus surinamensis". Catalogue of Life. ITIS. Species 2000. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Hedges, Stoy A.; Dr. Lacey, Mark S. (1996). PTC Field Guide for the Management of Structure Infesting Beetles Volume II: Stored Product Beetles/ Occasional & Overwintering Beetles. G.I.E., Inc. pp. 124–127. ISBN 1-883751-03-9. 
  3. ^ Crawford, Rob. "Sawtoothed Grain Beetle". crawford.tardigrade.net. 
  4. ^ a b c d Lyon, William F., Sawtoothed and Merchant Grain Beetles, Ohio State University Extension, Entomology 
  5. ^ a b "Sawtoothed Grain Beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis". Entomology and Plant Pathology. Oklahoma State University Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. Retrieved 26 October 2017. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Sawtoothed and Merchant Grain Beetle". Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences Department of Entomology. The Pennsylvania State University. Retrieved 26 October 2017. 
  7. ^ a b Harein, Phil; Subramanyam, Bh. "Fumigating stored grain". University of Minnesota Extension. University of Minnesota. Retrieved 1 November 2017. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Oryzaephilus surinamensis at Wikimedia Commons