|ISO 15924||Osge (219), Osage|
The Osage script is a new script promulgated in 2006 and revised 2012–2014 for the Osage language. Because Latin orthographies were subject to interference from English conventions among Osage students who were more familiar with English than with Osage, in 2006 the director of the Osage Language Program, Herman Mongrain Lookout, decided to create a distinct script by modifying or fusing Latin letters. This Osage script has been in regular use on the Osage Nation ever since.
In 2012, while in the process of submitting the script to Unicode, a more precise representation of the sounds of Osage was formulated, and by the following year had been adequately tested. In February 2014, a conference on standardizing the reforms was held by Lookout and the staff at the Osage Nation Language Department along with UCS expert Michael Everson. The result included the introduction of case, the abolition of two ligatures and the addition of several derived characters for sounds that varied between dialects.
The Osage script was included in Unicode version 9.0 in June 2016 in the Osage block.
The 2014 vowel letters are as follows:
|𐒰 𐓘||A a||𐒰͘ 𐓘͘||Ą ą|
|𐒱 𐓙||Ai ai||𐒲 𐓚||Aį aį|
|𐒳 𐓛||Ə ə||𐒳͘ 𐓛͘||Ə̨ ə̨|
|𐒷 𐓟||E e||𐒸 𐓠||Eį eį|
|𐒻 𐓣||I i||𐒻͘ 𐓣͘||Į į|
|𐓂 𐓪||O o||𐓂͘ 𐓪͘||Ǫ ǫ|
|𐓎 𐓶||U u||𐓃 𐓫||Oį oį|
Long vowels are indicated with a macron, high tone by an acute accent, and a long vowel with high tone by a double acute accent: e.g. oral ⟨𐒰̄ 𐓘̄⟩ Ā ā, ⟨𐒰́ 𐓘́⟩ Á á, ⟨𐒰̋ 𐓘̋⟩ Ā́ ā́, nasal ⟨𐒰̄͘ 𐓘̄͘⟩ Ą̄ ą̄, ⟨𐒰́͘ 𐓘́͘⟩ Ą́ ą́, ⟨𐒰̋͘ 𐓘̋͘⟩ Ą̄́ ą̄́.
It is not clear how Ə is used, as it is not phonemic in Osage.
The a comes from Latin ⟨A⟩ (without the crossbar, as in the NASA "worm" logo), e from Latin cursive ⟨Ɑ⟩ (the 'long' sound of the English letter a is rather like Osage e). The source for i is obscure, though Latin ⟨I⟩ does appear inside ⟨Λ⟩ in the diphthong ai.
The 2014 consonant letters and digraphs are as follows. As in Latin orthography, the ejective consonants are written with a diacritic, and the strongly aspirated stops with digraphs. The pre-aspirated stops were originally written as digraphs with h, but since they vary by dialect with geminates, the 2014 revision included new letters for them derived by adding a cross-bar.
|𐒴 𐓜||Br br|
|𐓊 𐓲||C c (ts)||𐓊ʼ 𐓲ʼ||Cʼ cʼ||𐓌 𐓴||Ch ch||𐓋 𐓳||Hc hc|
|𐒵 𐓝||Č č||𐒶 𐓞||Hč hč|
|𐓍 𐓵||Ð ð|
|𐒹 𐓡||H h|
|𐒺 𐓢||Hy hy|
|𐒼 𐓤||K k||𐒼ʼ 𐓤ʼ||Kʼ kʼ||𐒼𐓸 𐓤𐓸||Kx kx||𐒽 𐓥||Hk hk|
|𐒾 𐓦||Ky ky||𐒼𐓯 𐓤𐓯||Kš kš|
|𐒿 𐓧||L l|
|𐓀 𐓨||M m|
|𐓁 𐓩||N n|
|𐓄 𐓬||P p||𐓄ʼ 𐓬ʼ||Pʼ pʼ||𐓄𐓸 𐓬𐓸||Px px||𐓅 𐓭||Hp hp|
|𐓄𐓯 𐓬𐓯||Pš pš|
|𐓆 𐓮||S s|
|𐓇 𐓯||Š š|
|𐓈 𐓰||T t||𐓈𐓸 𐓰𐓸||Tx tx||𐓉 𐓱||Ht ht|
|𐓏 𐓷||W w|
|𐓐 𐓸||X x|
|𐓑 𐓹||Ɣ ɣ (gh)|
|𐓒 𐓺||Z z|
|𐓓 𐓻||Ž ž|
Px and pš are allophones, as are kx ~ kš and tx ~ ch (tsh). Hy and ky are sequences rather than single consonants.
The source of p is Latin ⟨P⟩, that of t is Latin ⟨D⟩ (an alternative transcription of Osage t), č is from ⟨Ch⟩, k from ⟨K⟩. C is from ⟨Ts⟩ and the Osage s. S and z are the top halves of ⟨S⟩ and ⟨Z⟩; š and ž are derived from adding a tail to the full letters, much like Latin ⟨ʒ⟩. Br, st, sk are ligatures of the letters m, n and l, which themselves appear to have been from their cursive Latin forms, and ð is a ligature of ⟨Th⟩, which is how it is often transcribed. W is a partial ⟨w⟩. X might be from cursive ⟨x⟩; h is obscure.
Words are separated by a space. Syllables were originally separated by a full stop, but that practice has ceased with increasing literacy.
There are considerations for the script to be usable for other languages in the same Dhegiha group even as far as within the Siouan family.
The Osage alphabet was added to the Unicode Standard in June, 2016 with the release of version 9.0.
The Unicode block for Osage is U+104B0–U+104FF:
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
- ^ Osage Nation Language Department Archived 2011-11-20 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Michael Everson; Herman Mongrain Lookout; Cameron Pratt (2014-09-21). "Final proposal to encode the Osage script in the UCS" (PDF). ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2, Document N4619. Retrieved 2015-01-10.
- ^ Unicode version 9.0.0
- ^ Martucci, Brian (15 January 2014). "The Endangered Osage Language Gets a Unicode-Friendly Alphabet". The Line. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
- 2014 Language Presentation at Osage Nation, includes non-native sound files for some letters
- Presentation at Native-languages.org, along with various romanizations
- "Saving a language, a people". College of Design, University of Minnesota. October 30, 2013. Archived from the original on February 27, 2014. Retrieved February 21, 2014.
- Interview with Herman Mongrain Lookout on invention of the script on Invisible Nations, KOSU