Osamu Tezuka

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Osamu Tezuka
手塚 治虫
Osamu Tezuka 1951 Scan10008-2.JPG
Tezuka in 1951
Born Tezuka Osamu (手塚 治?)
( 1928 -11-03)3 November 1928
Toyonaka, Osaka, Japan
Died 9 February 1989(1989-02-09) (aged 60)
Tokyo, Japan
Nationality Japanese
Area(s)
Notable works
Spouse(s) Etsuko Okada
(m. 1959–89)
Signature
Signature of Osamu Tezuka

Osamu Tezuka (Japanese: 手塚 治虫, born 手塚 治?, Hepburn: Tezuka Osamu, (1928-11-03)3 November 1928 – 9 February 1989) was a Japanese manga artist, cartoonist, animator, film producer, medical doctor and activist. Born in Osaka Prefecture, his prolific output, pioneering techniques, and innovative redefinitions of genres earned him such titles as "the father of manga", "the godfather of manga" and "the god of manga". Additionally, he is often considered the Japanese equivalent to Walt Disney, who served as a major inspiration during Tezuka's formative years.[1]

Born in Toyonaka Tezuka took an interest in art and animation at an early age when his father showed him his first Disney films. As a young child Tezuka began to practice drawing so much that his mother would have to erase pages in his notebook in order to keep up with his output. In elementary school he would develop his own comics and illustrations from which his skills would become formidable. During high school in 1944 Tezuka was drafted into the military service to work in a factory. Tezuka would begin studying medicine at the Osaka University in 1945, during which he would begin to publish his first professional works. Tezuka would begin what was known as the manga revolution in Japan with his New Treasure Island published in 1947. His legendary output would spawn some of the most influential, successful and well received manga series including Astro Boy, Jungle Emperor Leo, Black Jack, and Phoenix, all of which would win several awards.

During the 1960s Tezuka entered the animation industry in Japan by founding the production company Mushi Productions he would help innovate with industry with the broadcast of the animated version of Astro Boy in 1963. This series would create the first successful model for animation production in Japan and would also be the first Japanese animation dubbed into English for an American audience. Other series were also translated to animation including Jungle Emperor Leo, the first Japanese animated series produced in full color. In the 1970s Mushi Productions would collapse financially and the fallout would produce several influential animation production studios including Sunrise. After Mushi Production's failure Tezuka would found Tezuka Productions and continue experimenting with animation late into his life.

Tezuka died of stomach cancer in 1989. His death had an immediate impact on the Japanese public. A museum was constructed in Takarazuka dedicated to his memory and life works and Tezuka received many posthumous awards. Several animations were in production at the time of his death along with the final chapters of Phoenix which were never released.

Biography[edit]

Early life (1928–1946)[edit]

Tezuka was the eldest of three children in Toyonaka City, Osaka.[2][3] His nickname was gashagasha-atama (gashagasha is slang for messy, atama means head). His mother often comforted him by telling him to look to the blue skies, giving him confidence. His mother's stories inspired his creativity as well. Tezuka grew up in Takarazuka City, Hyōgo and his mother often took him to the Takarazuka Theatre. The Takarazuka Revue is performed by women, including the male characters. The Takarazuka Revue is known for its romantic musicals usually aimed at a female audience, thus having a large impact on the later works of Tezuka, including his costuming designs. He has said that he has a profound "spirit of nostalgia" for Takarazuka.[4] When Tezuka was young, his father showed him Disney films; he became obsessed with the films and began to replicate them. He also became a Disney movie buff seeing the films multiple times in a row, most famously seeing Bambi over a 80 separate times.[citation needed] Tezuka started to draw comics around his second year of elementary school. Around his fifth year he found a bug named "Osamushi". It so resembled his name that he adopted "Osamushi" as his pen name.[citation needed] He continued to develop his manga skills throughout his school career. During this period he created his first adept amateur works.[citation needed] In high school Tezuka began working for a factory in the Japanese war effort during World War II; he simultaneously continued writing manga. His time working for the military hardened Tezuka to the harsh reality of war, a theme that would become ever more clear in his manga in the future.[original research?] In 1945, Tezuka was accepted into Osaka University and began studying medicine.[citation needed]

Publishing career and early success (1946–1952)[edit]

Tezuka in 1952

Tezuka came to the realization that he could use manga as a means of helping to convince people to care for the world. After World War II, he created his first piece of work (at age 17), Diary of Ma-chan. Tezuka began talks with fellow manga artist Shichima Sakai who had pitched Tezuka a manga based around the famous story Treasure Island. Sakai would promise Tezuka a publishing spot from Ikuei Shuppan if he would work on the manga. Tezuka finished the manga only loosely basing it on the original work,[5] Shin Takarajima (New Treasure Island), was published and became an overnight success which began the golden age of manga, a craze comparable to American comic books at the time.[6]

With the success of New Treasure Island Tezuka traveled to Tokyo in search of a publisher for more of his work. After visiting Kobunsha Tezuka was turned down, publisher Shinseikaku however agreed to purchase The Strange Voyage of Dr. Tiger and Domei Shuppansha would purchase The Mysterious Dr. Koronko. Whilst continuing his study in medical school Tezuka published his first masterpieces: a trilogy of science fiction epics called Lost World, Metropolis and Next World.

Soon after Tezuka published his first major success Jungle Emperor Leo, it was serialized in Manga Shonen from 1950 to 1954.[7] In 1951 Tezuka graduated from the Osaka School of medicine.[8] and published Ambassador Atom, the first appearance of the Astro Boy character.

Astro Boy, national fame and early animation (1952–1960)[edit]

Tetsuwan Atom Cover Volume No. 8

By 1952 Ambassador Atom proved to be only a mild success in Japan; however, one particular character became extremely popular with young boys: a humanoid robot named Atom.[citation needed] Tezuka received several letters from many young boys requesting further appearances from the robot.[citation needed] Expecting success with a series based around Atom, Tezuka's producer suggested that he be given human emotions.[citation needed] One day while working at a hospital Tezuka was punched in the face by a frustrated American G.I. This encounter gave Tezuka the idea to make Atom a humanoid robot fighting evil and defending the innocent.[citation needed] On February 4, 1952 Tetsuwan Atom began serialization in Weekly Shonen Magazine. The character Atom and his adventures became an instant phenomenon in Japan.

Due to the success of Tetsuwan Atom, Tezuka became the most popular manga artist in Japan and would receive letters and even house calls from aspiring manga artists.[citation needed] Tezuka would often talk with his fans until late in the evening.[citation needed] In 1953 Tezuka published the revolutionary Shojo manga Ribon no Kishi (Princess Knight), serialized in Shojo Club from 1953 to 1956. It was the first Shojo manga given a serious plot line that deviated from the common comical or one-shot style of the day.[citation needed]

In 1954 Tezuka first published what he would consider his life's work, Phoenix, in Weekly Shonen Magazine.[citation needed] In 1958 Tezuka was asked by Toei Animation if his manga Son-Goku The Monkey could be adapted into an animation. Tezuka accepted, but only if he could also work on the project personally.[citation needed] This marked Tezuka's debut in animation.[citation needed] While working on the team, Tezuka had become confrontational, often disagreeing with other staff members about the direction of the film; this made Tezuka unpopular.[citation needed] Tezuka wanted the final scene of the film to end with the death of the protagonist's girlfriend in order to do something that hadn't yet been tried even by Disney however, this too proved a unpopular idea. In the end it was decided the film would have a happy ending. In 1959 Tezuka is married to Etsuko Okada at a Takarazuka Hotel. The film would release in 1960 however, Tezuka felt slightly betrayed due to the decisions made.

Personal life[edit]

Tezuka is a descendent of Hattori Hanzō,[9] a famous ninja and samurai who faithfully served Tokugawa Ieyasu during the Sengoku period in Japan. His son Makoto Tezuka became a film and anime director.[10] Tezuka guided many well-known manga artists such as Shotaro Ishinomori and Go Nagai.

Tezuka enjoyed bug-collecting, entomology, Walt Disney, baseball, and licensed the "grown up" version of his character Kimba the White Lion as the logo for the Seibu Lions of the Nippon Professional Baseball League.[10][11] Tezuka met Walt Disney in person at the 1964 New York World's Fair. In a 1986 entry in his personal diary, Tezuka stated that Disney wanted to hire him for a potential science fiction project. Tezuka was a fan of Superman and was made honorary chairman of the Superman Fan Club in Japan.[12]

Tezuka was an agnostic, but was buried in a Buddhist cemetery in Tokyo.[13]

Death and legacy[edit]

Tezuka died of stomach cancer on 9 February 1989 in Tokyo.[14] His last words were: "I'm begging you, let me work!", spoken to a nurse who had tried to take away his drawing equipment.[15]

The city of Takarazuka, Hyōgo, where Tezuka grew up, opened a museum in his memory.[3] Stamps were issued in his honor in 1997. Also, beginning in 2003, the Japanese toy company Kaiyodo began manufacturing a series of figurines of Tezuka's creations, including Princess Knight, Unico, the Phoenix, Dororo, Marvelous Melmo, Ambassador Magma and many others. To date three series of the figurines have been released.

His legacy has continued to be honored among Manga artists and animators. Artists such as Hayao Miyazaki (Spirited Away) and Akira Toriyama (Dr. Slump and Dragon Ball)[16] have cited Tezuka as inspiration for their works.

From 2003 to 2009, Naoki Urasawa and Takashi Nagasaki adapted an arc of Astro Boy into the murder mystery series Pluto.[17]

Tezuka was a personal friend (and apparent artistic influence) of Brazilian comic book artist Mauricio de Sousa. In 2012, Maurício published a two-issue story arc in the Monica Teen comic book featuring some of Tezuka's main characters, such as Astro Boy, Black Jack, Sapphire and Kimba, joining Monica and her friends in an adventure in the Amazon rainforest against a smuggling organization chopping down hundreds of trees. This was the first time that Tezuka Productions has allowed overseas artists to use Tezuka's characters.[18]

Works[edit]

His complete oeuvre includes over 700 volumes with more than 150,000 pages.[19][20] A complete list of his works can be found on the Tezuka Osamu Manga Museum website.[21]

When he was younger, Tezuka's arms swelled up and he became ill. He was treated and cured by a doctor, which made him want to be a doctor. However, he began his career as a manga artist while a university student, drawing his first professional work while at school. At a crossing point, he asked his mother whether he should look into doing manga full-time or whether he should become a doctor. At the time, being a manga author was not a particularly rewarding job. The answer his mother gave was: "You should work doing the thing you like most of all." Tezuka decided to devote himself to manga creation on a full-time basis. He graduated from Osaka University and obtained his medical degree, but he would later use his medical and scientific knowledge to enrich his sci-fi manga, such as Black Jack.[20][22]

Tezuka's creations include Astro Boy (Mighty Atom in Japan), Black Jack, Princess Knight, Phoenix (Hi no Tori in Japan), Kimba the White Lion (Jungle Emperor in Japan), Unico, Message to Adolf, The Amazing 3 and Buddha. His "life's work" was Phoenix—a story of life and death that he began in the 1950s and continued until his death.[23]

In January 1965, Tezuka received a letter from American film director Stanley Kubrick, who had watched Astro Boy and wanted to invite Tezuka to be the art director of his next movie, 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968). Although flattered by Kubrick's invitation, Tezuka could not afford to leave his studio for a year to live in England, so he had to turn it down. Although he could not work on it, he loved the film, and would play its soundtrack at maximum volume in his studio to keep him awake during long nights of work.[24][25]

Many young manga artists once lived in the apartment where Tezuka lived, Tokiwa-sō. The residents included Shotaro Ishinomori, Fujio Akatsuka, and Abiko Motou and Hiroshi Fujimoto (who worked together under the pen name Fujiko Fujio).[26][27]

Style[edit]

Tezuka is known for his imaginative stories and stylized Japanese adaptations of western literature with reading novels and watching films that came from the West. His early works included manga versions of Disney movies such as Bambi.[28] Tezuka's "cinematic" page layouts, influenced by Milt Gross' early graphic novel He Done Her Wrong, which he read as a child, became a common characteristic for many manga artists who followed in Tezuka's footsteps.[29] His work, like that of other manga creators, was sometimes gritty and violent.

Tezuka headed the animation production studio Mushi Production ("Bug Production"), which pioneered TV animation in Japan.[30] The distinctive "large eyes" style of Japanese animation was invented by Tezuka,[31] drawing inspiration from Western cartoons and animated films of the time such as Betty Boop, Mickey Mouse and other Disney movies.

Museum[edit]

The Osamu Tezuka Manga Museum

The Osamu Tezuka Manga Museum (宝塚市立手塚治虫記念館?, lit. "Takarazuka City Tezuka Osamu Memorial Hall"), located in the city of Takarazuka, Hyōgo Prefecture, was inaugurated on April 25, 1994, and has three floors (15069.47 ft²). In the basement there is an "Animation Workshop" in which visitors can make their own animation, and a mockup of the city of Takarazuka and a replica of the table where Osamu Tezuka worked.

On the ground floor on the way before the building's entrance, are imitations of the hands and feet of several characters from Tezuka (as in a true walk of fame) and on the inside, the entry hall, a replica of Princess Knight's furniture. On the same floor, is a permanent exhibition of manga and a room for the display of anime. The exhibition is divided into two parts: Osamu Tezuka and the city of Takarazuka and Osamu Tezuka, the author.

On the first floor are held several exhibitions and are available a manga library, with five hundred works of Tezuka (some foreign editions are also present), a video library and a lounge with a decor inspired by Kimba the White Lion.

There is also a center of glass that represents the planet Earth and is based on a book written by him in his childhood called "Our Earth of Glass".

Awards[edit]

Bibliography (manga)[edit]

  • Astro Boy, 1952–68. A sequel to Captain ATOM (1951), with Atom renamed Astro Boy in the US.[35] as its main character. Eventually, Astro Boy would become Tezuka's most famous creation. He created the nuclear-powered, yet peace-loving, boy robot first after being punched in the face by a drunken GI.[35] In 1963, Astro Boy made its debut as the first domestically produced animated program on Japanese television. The 30-minute weekly program (of which 193 episodes were produced) led to the first craze for anime in Japan.[36] In America, the TV series (which consisted of 104 episodes licensed from the Japanese run) was also a hit,[37][38] becoming the first Japanese animation to be shown on US television, although the U.S. producers downplayed and disguised the show's Japanese origins.[39][40] Several other Astro Boy series have been made since, as well as a 2009 CGI-animated feature film Astro Boy.
  • Phoenix, 1956–89. Tezuka's most profound and ambitious work, dealing with man's quest for immortality, ranging from the distant past to the far future. The central character is the Phoenix, the physical manifestation of the cosmos, who carries within itself the power of immortality; either granted by the Phoenix or taken from the Phoenix by drinking a small amount of its blood. Other characters appear and reappear throughout the series; usually due to their reincarnation. The work remained unfinished at the time of Tezuka's death in 1989. Phoenix has been filmed several times, most notably as Phoenix 2772 (1980). Baku Yumemakura was influenced by Phoenix; Yumemakura would go on to write the script for Boku no Son Goku.
  • Black Jack, 1973–83. The story of Black Jack, a talented surgeon who operates illegally, using radical and supernatural techniques to combat rare afflictions. Black Jack received the Japan Cartoonists' Association Special Award in 1975 and the Koudansha Manga Award in 1977. Three Black Jack TV movies were released between 2000-01. In fall 2004, an anime television series was aired in Japan with 61 episodes, releasing another movie afterward. A new series, titled Black Jack 21, started broadcasting on April 10, 2006. In September 2008, the first volume of the manga had been published in English by Vertical Publishing and more volumes are being published to this day.
  • Buddha, 1972–83, is Tezuka's unique interpretation of the life of Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism. The critically acclaimed series is often referred to as a gritty portrayal of the Buddha's life. The series began in September 1972 and ended in December 1983, as one of Tezuka's last epic manga works. Nearly three decades after the manga was completed, an anime film adaptation was released in 2011.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tezuka Osamu Monogatari, Tezuka Productions, 1992 .
  2. ^ Patten 2004, p. 145.
  3. ^ a b Galbraith, Patrick W. (2009). The Otaku Encyclopedia: An Insider's Guide to the Subculture of Cool Japan. Kodansha International. pp. 220–21. ISBN 978-4-7700-3101-3. 
  4. ^ Gravett, Paul (2004). Manga: 60 Years of Japanese Comics. Harper Design. p. 77. ISBN 1-85669-391-0. 
  5. ^ http://www.tcj.com/tezuka-osamu-outwits-the-phantom-blot-the-case-of-new-treasure-island-contd/2/
  6. ^ Wells, Dominic (2008-09-13). "Osamu Tezuka the master of mighty manga". The Times. London. Retrieved 2010-05-20. 
  7. ^ http://tezukaosamu.net/en/manga/186.html
  8. ^ http://tezukaosamu.net/en/about/1950.html
  9. ^ "Birth", Osamu Permanent Exhibition, Tezuka, retrieved 2011-10-18 .
  10. ^ a b Biography for Osamu Tezuka at the Internet Movie Database
  11. ^ "The Four Lions of Asia", Japan, Hockey, Baseball, &c, retrieved 2011-09-22 .
  12. ^ "About Tezuka Osamu". www.tezukaosamu.net. Retrieved 2015-05-20. 
  13. ^ Schodt, Frederik L (2007). The Astro Boy Essays: Osamu Tezuka, Mighty Atom, and the Manga/Anime Revolution. Stone Bridge Press. p. 141. ISBN 978-1-93333054-9. His family was associated with a Zen Buddhist sect, and Tezuka is buried in a Tokyo Buddhist cemetery, but his views on religion were actually quite agnostic and as flexible as his views on politics. 
  14. ^ Patten 2004, p. 198
  15. ^ Takayuki Matsutani (date unknown). Viz Media's English language release of the Hi no Tori manga. In an afterword written by Takayuki Matsutani, president of Mushi Productions.
  16. ^ "Shonen Jump interview". My favorite games. Retrieved 2013-03-25. 
  17. ^ "Pluto". Jason Thompson's House of 1000 Manga. Anime News Network. 2012-09-13. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  18. ^ Hirayama, Ari (February 1, 2012). "Brazilian cartoonist to publish manga with Osamu Tezuka". Asahi Shimbun. Retrieved February 28, 2012. 
  19. ^ Katayama, Lisa (2007-05-31). "Museum Show Spotlights Artistry of Manga God Osamu Tezuka". Wired. Retrieved 2007-07-18. 
  20. ^ a b "The Story of Tezuka, Osamu". Tezuka Osamu @ World. Retrieved 2007-07-18. 
  21. ^ "Manga : TezukaOsamu.net(EN)". tezukaosamu.net. Retrieved 2016-09-10. 
  22. ^ Santiago, Ardith. "Tezuka: God of Comics". Hanabatake. Archived from the original on 2007-07-16. Retrieved 2007-07-18. 
  23. ^ Patten 2004, p. 199.
  24. ^ "Osamu Star Annals: 1960s". Tezuka Osamu @ World. Tezuka Productions. Retrieved 2007-08-11. 
  25. ^ "Tezuka Osamu". Japan Zone. Retrieved 2007-08-11. 
  26. ^ Tchiei, Go (1998). "Tezuka Osamu and the Expressive Techniques of Contemporary Manga". Dai Nippon Printing. Retrieved 2007-07-18. 
  27. ^ Gerow, Aaron (1996-03-28). "Drawn to a Legend". Yomiuri Shimbun. Ohio state university. Retrieved 2007-07-18. 
  28. ^ Patten 2004, p. 234.
  29. ^ "A Yiddishe Manga: The Creative Roots of Japan's God of Comics" (PDF). Innovative Research in Japanese Studies. Wix. Retrieved 2014-07-17. 
  30. ^ Foster, Melanie. "Osamu Tezuka, Animation Pioneer". Archived from the original on 2007-10-24. Retrieved 2008-02-08. 
  31. ^ Patten 2004, p. 144.
  32. ^ a b 小学館漫画賞: 歴代受賞者 (in Japanese). Shogakukan. Retrieved 2007-08-19. 
  33. ^ a b Hahn, Joel. "Kodansha Manga Awards". Comic Book Awards Almanac. Archived from the original on 2007-08-16. Retrieved 2007-08-21. 
  34. ^ "Osamu Tezuka's The Mysterious Underground Men Wins Eisner Award". Anime News Network. July 26, 2014. Retrieved July 26, 2014. 
  35. ^ a b "Mighty Tezuka!" Bluefat, January 2001
  36. ^ Company Profile, 1963, Tezuka Osamu 
  37. ^ Deneroff, Harvey (1996). "Fred Ladd: An Interview". Animation World Network. Retrieved 24 March 2015. 
  38. ^ Ladd 2009, p. 6.
  39. ^ Schodt, Frederik L. "Introduction". Astro Boy Volume 1 (Comic by Osamu Tezuka). Dark Horse Comics and Studio Proteus. Page 3 of 3 (The introduction section has 3 pages). ISBN 1-56971-676-5.
  40. ^ Ladd 2009, p. 21.

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Helen McCarthy. The Art of Osamu Tezuka: God of Manga. (New York: Abrams ComicArts, 2009). ISBN 978-0-81098249-9. Biography and presentation of Tezuka's works.
  • Frederik L. Schodt. "The Astro Boy Essays: Osamu Tezuka, Mighty Atom, and the Manga/Anime Revolution". (Berkeley: Stone Bridge Press, 2007). ISBN 978-1-93333054-9.
  • Frederik L. Schodt. "Dreamland Japan: Writings on Modern Manga". (Berkeley: Stone Bridge Press, 1996/2011). ISBN 978-1-93333095-2
  • Natsu Onoda Power. "God of Comics: Osamu Tezuka and the Creation of Post-World War II Manga". (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi). ISBN 978-1-60473221-4.

External links[edit]