Tomsk in Vilyuchinsk.
|Name:||Oscar ll class|
|Preceded by:||Papa class|
|Succeeded by:||Yasen class|
|Planned:||20 (2 949, 18 949A)|
|Completed:||13 (2 949, 11 949A)|
|Cancelled:||6 (2 incomplete, 4 never laid down)|
|Active:||6 +2 on modernization to 949AM|
|Length:||155 m (508 ft 6 in) maximum|
|Beam:||18.2 m (59 ft 9 in)|
|Draught:||9 m (29 ft 6 in)|
|Installed power:||2 × pressurized water cooled reactors|
|Propulsion:||2 × steam turbines delivering 73,070 kW (97,990 shp) to two shafts|
Project 949 submarines were the largest cruise missile submarines in service, until the Ohio-class ballistic missile submarines were converted to carry cruise missiles in 2007. They are the fourth largest class of submarines in displacement and length. Only the Typhoon-class Soviet/Russian submarines, the American Ohio-class ballistic missile submarines and the Russian Borei-class submarines are larger.
The first submarine of Project 949 was laid down in the mid-1970s and was commissioned in 1980. In 1982 an updated and larger version (Project 949A) replaced the earlier version. In total thirteen submarines were constructed. The Oscar class was designed to attack NATO carrier battle groups using long-range SS-N-19 "Shipwreck" anti-ship missiles and targeting data provided by the EORSAT satellite system (via the submarine's "Punch Bowl" antenna). In the financial problems that followed the fall of the Soviet Union the Oscar class was prioritized by the Russian Navy and when many older submarine classes were retired the Oscar class remained active in both the Northern and Pacific Fleets. As of 2011[update], five submarines are currently active with several more in reserve or waiting for repairs.
Project 949 Granit
Two Project 949 Granit submarines were built at Severodvinsk between 1975 and 1982 and assigned to the Soviet Northern Fleet. K-525 was laid down in 1975 and K-206 was laid down in 1979. After the construction of the first two submarines, production continued with the improved project 949A Antey. Both submarines of the Project 949 were decommissioned in 1996 and scrapped in 2004.
Project 949A Antey
Eleven Project 949A Antey submarines were completed at Severodvinsk, of which five were assigned to the Soviet Northern Fleet. At one stage it had been planned to develop a new fourth-generation follow-on to the Project 949A, but this plan was later dropped. The external differences between the two classes were that the 949A class is about 10 metres (33 ft) longer than its predecessor (~154 metres (505 ft) rather than 143 m (469 ft)), providing space for improved electronics and possibly quieter propulsion.
Some sources speculate that the acoustic performance of the Oscar II class is superior to early Akula-class submarine but inferior to the Akula II as well as subsequent (4. generation) designs. It also has a larger fin, and a seven-bladed propeller instead of a four-bladed one. Like all post-World War II Soviet designs, they are of double hull construction. Similarly, like other Soviet submarine designs, Project 949 not only has a bridge open to the elements on top of the sail but, for use in inclement weather, there is an enclosed bridge forward and slightly below this station in the fin/sail. A distinguishing mark is a slight bulge at the top of the fin. A large door on either side of the fin reaches this bulge. These are wider at the top than on the bottom, and are hinged on the bottom. The Federation of American Scientists reports that this submarine carries an emergency crew escape capsule; it is possible that these doors cover it. The VSK escape capsule can accommodate 110 people.
In September 2015, during a visit to the Zvezda shipyard at Bolshoy Kamen on Russia's Pacific coast, Russian defence minister Sergei Shoigu announced that at least three Oscar-class submarines will be modernized to a new Project 949AM standard. The modernization will include updated electronic and communication equipment as well as new weaponry. Up to eight submarines will be modenized at a cost of 12 billion RUB (180 million USD) per submarine. The modernization will include replacing the 24 P-700 Granit missiles with up to 72 newer P-800 Oniks or Kalibr anti-ship missiles.
In December 2012, construction began on a special purpose research and rescue submarine, designated project 09852, and based on the incomplete project 949A (Oscar II class) submarine Belgorod. The submarine is reportedly designed to carry both manned (e.g. Project 18511 midget submarine) as well as unmanned (e.g. Klavesin-1R) underwater vessels. However, while carrying smaller unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) would be possible as-is on an Oscar-class hull, the accommodation of a midget submarine such as Project 18511 Paltus or the even larger Project 10831 Losharik, would probably require a major hull extension in order to accommodate a docking compartment. For example, the length of the submarine BS-64 Podmoskovye was increased by 9 metres (30 ft) even though the SLBM missile compartment was completely removed. It is estimated that Belgorod will be 184 metres (604 ft) long which would make it the longest submarine in the world.
Belgorod may also carry the rumored Kanyon (Status-6) strategic weapon, with four such weapons being carried horizontally (two on each side of the submarine) in place of the 24 SS-N-19 Shipwreck launchers for total yield of 400 megatonnes.
|949||25 July 1975||3 May 1980||30 December 1980||Northern Fleet||Decommissioned 1996, scrapped in 2004|
|K-206||Murmansk||949||22 April 1979||10 December 1982||30 November 1983||Northern Fleet||Decommissioned 1996, scrapped in 2004|
|K-148||Krasnodar||949A||22 July 1982||3 March 1985||30 September 1986||Northern Fleet||Retired, scrapping began in late 2012|
|K-173||Krasnoyarsk||949A||4 August 1983||27 March 1986||31 December 1986||Pacific Fleet||Inactive, caught fire during scrapping|
|K-132||Irkutsk||949A||8 May 1985||27 December 1987||30 December 1988||Pacific Fleet||Currently being modernized at Zvezda shipyard|
|K-119||Voronezh||949A||25 February 1986||16 December 1988||29 December 1989||Northern Fleet||Active, after overhaul completed in November 2011|
|K-410||Smolensk||949A||9 December 1986||20 January 1990||22 December 1990||Northern Fleet||Active, after overhaul completed in December 2013|
|K-442||Chelyabinsk||949A||21 May 1987||18 June 1990||28 December 1990||Pacific Fleet||Currently being modernized at Zvezda shipyard|
|949A||9 February 1988||28 June 1991||18 August 1992||Pacific Fleet||Active|
|949AM||19 January 1989||22 May 1992||30 December 1992||Northern Fleet||Active, after overhaul completed in April 2017|
|K-186||Omsk||949A||13 July 1989||10 May 1993||20 July 1996||Pacific Fleet||Active, after overhaul completed in 2008|
|K-150||Tomsk||949A||27 August 1991||20 July 1996||30 December 1996||Pacific Fleet||Active, after overhaul completed in 2014|
|K-141||Kursk||949A||22 March 1992||16 May 1994||30 December 1994||Northern Fleet||Lost 12 August 2000|
|K-139||Belgorod||949A||24 July 1992||Under construction, in conversion for special missions|
|K-135||Volgograd||949A||2 September 1993||Unfinished, parts used in the construction of newer submarines |
Construction may be restarted
|K-165||Barnaul||949A||April 1994||Unfinished, parts used in the construction of newer submarines |
Construction may be restarted
- Podvodnye Lodki, Yu.V. Apalkov, Sankt Peterburg, 2002, ISBN 5-8172-0069-4
- Siddiqi, Asif (November 1999). "Staring at the Sea: The Soviet RORSAT and EORSAT Progammes" (PDF). Journal of British Interplanetary Society. 52 (11): 397–416.
- "SSGN Oscar II Class (Project 949.A) (Kursk) – Naval Technology". naval-technology.com.
- "Oscar 1 class". Military Today. Retrieved 2011-12-30.
- "Zvezdochka dismantling two nuclear subs". Bellona Foundation. 2 April 2004. Archived from the original on 22 March 2012. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- "China's Noisy Nuclear Submarines » FAS Strategic Security Blog". Fas.org. Retrieved 2013-03-24.
- "Project 949 Granit / Oscar I ; Project 949A Antey / Oscar II". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 2011-12-30.
- "949 /A Oscar I/II class". warfare.be. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
- "A Mystery In The Deep". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on 16 January 2012. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "Russia details ambitious effort to modernise nuclear-powered submarines to bolster order of battle". janes.com.
- "Russia builds deep-sea research submarine". World-nuclear-news.org. 2012-12-21. Retrieved 2013-02-06.
- "Russia builds nuclear submarine for deep-water research". Barents Observer. Retrieved 29 April 2013.
- John Pike. "Project 210 Losharik". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2013-02-06.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-02-12. Retrieved 2016-12-26.
- ЦС "Звездочка" завершил ремонт атомного подводного ракетного крейсера К-119 "Воронеж" [CA "Star" completed the renovation of nuclear submarine K-119 "Voronezh"]. flot.com (in Russian). I-mash.ru. Retrieved 2012-01-01.
- "Defense shipyard Zvezda claims RUR 65 mln for repairs of SSGN Omsk". rusnavy.com. 7 September 2010. Retrieved 2012-01-01.
- "Court obliged Pacific Fleet to pay for repair of SSN Omsk". rusnavy.com. 8 April 2011. Retrieved 2012-01-01.
- Safronov, Sergey (9 February 2012). "Russia to Convert Belgorod Submarine for Special Missions". Ria Novosti. Retrieved 2012-01-01.
- Лодки с крылатыми ракетами defendingrussia.ru
- The Encyclopedia Of Warships, From World War Two To The Present Day, General Editor Robert Jackson.
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