Oskar Fried (August 1, 1871 – July 5, 1941) was a German conductor and composer. An admirer of Gustav Mahler, Fried was the first conductor to record a Mahler symphony. Fried also held the distinction of being the first foreign conductor to perform in Russia after the Bolshevik Revolution. He eventually left his homeland to work in the Soviet Union after the political rise of Adolf Hitler's Nazi Party, and became a Soviet citizen in 1940.
Born in Berlin, the son of a Jewish shopkeeper, he worked as a clown, a stable boy and a dog trainer before studying composition with Iwan Knorr (1891–92, Hoch'sche Conservatory) and Engelbert Humperdinck (as private student) in Frankfurt. He later moved to Düsseldorf to study painting and art history. After a spell in Paris, he returned to Berlin in 1898 to study counterpoint with Xaver Scharwenka.
The performance in Berlin, and later in Vienna, of his composition Das trunkene Lied ("The Drunken Song") for chorus and orchestra brought Fried his first public successes and led to his appointment in 1904 as the conductor of a Berlin choral society.
Fried first met Gustav Mahler in Vienna 1905. The meeting resulted in the second complete performance of Mahler's "Resurrection" Symphony in Berlin on 8 November 1905, in the presence of the composer (Otto Klemperer led the offstage band during this performance). On 10 November 1906 he introduced Russia to Mahler's music when he performed the same work in St Petersburg. From 1907 to 1910, he directed the famous choral society, Sternscher Gesangverein in Berlin. On 4 February 1913 Fried conducted the German premiere with the Berlin Philharmonic of Mahler's Ninth Symphony, the second performance of the work. Between 24 September and 18 October 1920 he gave the first cycle of Mahler works in Vienna, conducting all the symphonies (except the 8th which he apparently never had performed), incl.Das Lied von der Erde, the Kindertotenlieder, Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen, and some Wunderhorn songs. The same year, on 7 December, he returned to Vienna, and gave a performance of Mahler's Das klagende Lied.
In 1922, he went to the USSR as the first foreign conductor invited to perform after the Russian Revolution, and was greeted by Lenin on the station platform. On 23 Octobere 1921 (in the Scala Theatre in Berlin) he made the first recording (acoustic) of any Mahler symphony, the Second, with the Berlin Staatskapelle, and with Emmi Leisner and Gertrud Bindernagel as soloists, cf. Berliner Tageblatt, 23 Oct. 1921. (This was apparently Fried's last Mahler performance in Berlin). However, probably for financial reasons, the recording was only made available to the public in 1924. The performance has later been praised as "remarkably successful" and a "highly adventurous undertaking for an acoustic recording" which required "careful planning and experimentation". That same year, he also made the first recording of any complete Bruckner symphony: his Seventh.
In November 1927, at the invitation of the BBC programme planner and his own former student Edward Clark, he made his British conducting debut, in a program of Delius, Weber, Brahms and Liszt in London.
Driven from Germany by the anti-Semitism of the Nazi regime in 1933, he emigrated to the Georgian city of Tbilisi in the Soviet Union. He conducted the Tbilisi opera and later the Moscow Radio Symphony Orchestra, eventually becoming a Soviet citizen. He died in Moscow in 1941.
- de la Grange (1999), p. 243
- de la Grange (1999), p. 244
- The Encyclopedia Americana: A Library of Universal Knowledge. New York: Encyclopedia Americana C. 1919. p. 103. OCLC 7308909. Article "Fried, Oskar".
- Lawson, Colin (2002). The Cambridge Companion to the Orchestra. Cambridge Companions to Music. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 205. ISBN 0-521-00132-3.
- Pickett, David (2005). "Mahler on Record: the Spirit or the Letter?". In Barham, Jeremy. Perspectives on Gustav Mahler. Aldershot, Hampshire, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgate. p. 350. ISBN 0-7546-0709-7.
- Delius Society Journal, April 1985, Oskar Fried issue
- Peter Cahn: Das Hoch'sche Konservatorium in Frankfurt am Main (1878-1978), Frankfurt am Main: Kramer, 1979.
- de la Grange, Henry-Louis (1999). Gustav Mahler Volume 3. Vienna: Triumph and Disillusion (1904-1907). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-315160-X.
- David Ewen, Encyclopedia of Concert Music. New York; Hill and Wang, 1959.