Oscar I of Sweden
|King of Sweden and Norway|
|Reign||8 March 1844 – 8 July 1859|
|Coronation||28 September 1844, Stockholm|
|Predecessor||Charles XIV & III John|
|Successor||Charles XV & IV|
|Born||Joseph François Oscar Bernadotte|
4 July 1799
Paris, French First Republic
|Died||8 July 1859 (aged 60)|
|Burial||8 August 1859|
|Issue||Charles XV of Sweden|
Prince Gustaf, Duke of Uppland
Oscar II of Sweden
Prince August, Duke of Dalarna
|Father||Charles XIV John of Sweden|
|Religion||Church of Sweden|
prev. Catholic Church
Oscar I (born Joseph François Oscar Bernadotte; 4 July 1799 – 8 July 1859) was King of Sweden and Norway from 8 March 1844 until his death. He was the second monarch of the House of Bernadotte.
The only child of King Charles XIV John, Oscar inherited the thrones upon the death of his father. Throughout his reign he would pursue a liberal course in politics in contrast to Charles XIV John, instituting reforms and improving ties between Sweden and Norway. In an address to him in 1857, the Riksdag declared that he had promoted the material prosperity of the kingdom more than any of his predecessors.
Early life and family
Oscar was born at 291 Rue Cisalpine in Paris (today: 32 Rue Monceau) to Jean-Baptiste Jules Bernadotte, then-French Minister of War and later Marshal of the Empire and Sovereign Prince of Pontecorvo, and Désirée Clary, Napoleon Bonaparte's former fiancée. He was named Joseph after his godfather Joseph Bonaparte, who was married to his mother's elder sister Julie, but was also given the names François Oscar. The latter name was chosen by Napoleon after one of the heroes in the Ossian cycle of poems. Désirée is said to have chosen Napoleon to be Oscar's godfather.
Prince of Sweden
On 21 August 1810, Oscar's father was elected heir-presumptive to the Swedish throne by the Riksdag of the Estates, as King Charles XIII was without legitimate heirs. Two months later, on 5 November, he was formally adopted by the king under the name of "Charles John"; Oscar was then created a Prince of Sweden with the style of Royal Highness, and further accorded the title of Duke of Södermanland. Oscar and his mother moved from Paris to Stockholm in June 1811; while Oscar soon acclimated to life at the royal court, quickly acquiring the Swedish language, Désirée had difficulty adjusting and despised the cold weather. Consequently, she left Sweden in the summer of 1811, and would not return until 1823.
Oscar became Crown Prince in 1818 upon the death of his adoptive grandfather, and the accession of Charles John to the Swedish and Norwegian thrones.
In 1832-34 he completed the romantic opera Ryno, the errant knight, which had been left unfinished on the death of the young composer Eduard Brendler. In 1839 he wrote a series of articles on popular education, and in 1841 anonymously published Om Straff och straffanstalter, a work advocating prison reforms.
Marriage and issue
Seeking to legitimise the new Bernadotte dynasty, Charles XIV John had selected four princesses as candidates for marriage, in order of his priority:
- Vilhelmina of Denmark (born 18 January 1808), daughter of Frederick VI of Denmark and Marie Sophie of Hesse-Kassel (ultimately she married first Frederick VII of Denmark and second Karl, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg)
- Josephine of Leuchtenberg (born 14 March 1807), daughter of Eugene, 1st Duke of Leuchtenberg and Augusta of Bavaria, and granddaughter of the Empress Josephine.
- Marie of Hesse-Kassel (born 6 September 1804), daughter of William II, Elector of Hesse and Augusta of Prussia (ultimately she married Bernard II of Saxe-Meiningen)
- Marie of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (born 3 February 1808), daughter of Charles Frederick I of Saxe-Weimar and Maria Pavlovna of Russia (ultimately she married Prince Charles of Prussia)
The couple had five children:
- King Charles XV & IV (1826–1872)
- Prince Gustaf, Duke of Uppland (1827–1852)
- King Oscar II (1829–1907)
- Princess Eugenie (1830–1889)
- Prince August, Duke of Dalarna (1831–1873)
- Hjalmar Högquist, born 18 June 1839 in Hamburg, died 1874 in London.
- Max Högquist, born 12 August 1840 in Stockholm, died 1872 in China.
With his second mistress, Jaquette Löwenhielm (née Gyldenstolpe), Oscar had a daughter:
- Oscara Hilder née Meijergeer (1819–1880)
In 1824 and 1833, Oscar briefly served as Viceroy of Norway.
In 1838 Charles XIV John began to suspect that his son was plotting with the Liberal politicians to bring about a change of ministry, or even his own abdication. If Oscar did not actively assist the Opposition on this occasion, his disapprobation of his father's despotic behaviour was notorious, though he avoided an actual rupture. Yet his liberalism was of the most cautious and moderate character, as the Opposition—shortly after his accession to the thrones in 1844—discovered to their great chagrin. The new king would not hear of any radical reform of the cumbersome and obsolete 1809 Instrument of Government, which made the king a near-autocrat. However, one of his earliest measures was to establish freedom of the press. He also passed the first law supporting gender equality in Sweden when he in 1845 declared that in the absence of a will specifying otherwise, brothers and sisters should have equal inheritance. Oscar I also formally established equality between his two kingdoms by introducing new flags with the common Union badge of Norway and Sweden, as well as a new coat of arms for the union.
In foreign affairs, Oscar I was a friend of the principle of nationality; in 1848 he supported Denmark against the Kingdom of Prussia in the First War of Schleswig by placing Swedish and Norwegian troops in cantonments in Funen and North Schleswig (1849–1850), and was the mediator of the Truce of Malmö (26 August 1848). He was also one of the guarantors of the integrity of Denmark (the London Protocol, 8 May 1852).
As early as 1850, Oscar I had conceived the plan of a dynastic union of the three Scandinavian kingdoms, but such difficulties presented themselves that the scheme had to be abandoned. He succeeded, however, in reversing his father's favored-nation policy towards Imperial Russia. His fear lest Russia should demand a stretch of coast along the Varanger Fjord induced him to remain neutral during the Crimean War, and, subsequently, to conclude an alliance with Great Britain and the Second French Empire (25 November 1855) for preserving the territorial integrity of Sweden-Norway.
In the 1850s, Oscar's health began to rapidly deteriorate, becoming paralyzed in 1857; he died two years later at the Royal Palace in Stockholm on 8 July 1859. His eldest son, who served as Regent during his absence, succeeded him as Charles XV.
Swedish and Norwegian honours
- Knight and Commander of the Order of the Seraphim, 26 September 1810
- Knight of the Order of Charles XIII, 26 September 1810
- Commander Grand Cross of the Order of the Sword, 26 September 1810
- Commander Grand Cross of the Order of the Polar Star, 26 September 1810
- Commander Grand Cross of the Order of Vasa, 26 September 1810
- Founder and Master of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav, 21 August 1847
- Kingdom of Prussia: Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle, 27 August 1811
- Russian Empire:
- Denmark: Knight of the Order of the Elephant, 1 December 1835
- Spain: Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece, 15 June 1844
- Kingdom of Bavaria: Knight of the Order of St. Hubert, 1844
- Hohenzollern: Cross of Honour of the Princely House Order of Hohenzollern, 1st Class
- Empire of Brazil:
- Netherlands: Knight Grand Cross of the Military William Order, 21 June 1849
- Belgium: Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold (military), 20 October 1849
- Kingdom of Hanover:
- Austrian Empire: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St. Stephen, 1850
- Nassau: Knight of the Order of the Gold Lion of Nassau, July 1858
Arms and monogram
Crown Prince, Duke of Södermanland
Crown Prince, Duke of Södermanland
King Oscar I of Sweden and Norway
Royal Monogram of King Oscar I
|Ancestors of Oscar I of Sweden|
- "Oscar 1, Konge". Norsk biografisk leksikon. Retrieved September 1, 2016.
- "Kong Oscar I (1799-1859)". kongehuset.no. Retrieved September 1, 2016.
- "Oskar, konungar af Sverige och Norge". Nordisk familjebok. Retrieved September 1, 2016.
- Cronholm, Neander N. (1902). A History of Sweden from the Earliest Times to the Present Day. ch 40 pp 273-88
- "Karl 3 Johan, Konge". Norsk biografisk leksikon. Retrieved September 1, 2016.
- "Desideria, Dronning". Norsk biografisk leksikon. Retrieved September 1, 2016.
- Lars Elgklou (1995). Familjen Bernadotte. En släktkrönika. (The Bernadotte family. A family chronicle.) (in Swedish). Skogs Boktryckeri Trelleborg. p. 21. ISBN 91-7054-755-6.
- "Karl 2". Store norske leksikon. Retrieved September 1, 2016.
- Hjalmar Lagerqvist, Sveriges drottningar
- "Josefine, Dronning". Norsk biografisk leksikon. Retrieved September 1, 2016.
- Chisholm 1911.
- "Oscar 2, Konge". Norsk biografisk leksikon. Retrieved September 1, 2016.
- Söderhjelm & Palmstierna in Oscar I, Bonniers, Stockholm 1944, p. 279
- "Oscar I". Soylent Communications. Retrieved September 1, 2016.
- Lars O. Lagerqvist in Sverige och dess regenter under 1000 år (Sweden and Her Rulers for 1000 years) ISBN 91-0-075007-7 pp. 273-274
- "The Order of St. Olav". www.royalcourt.no. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
- Liste der Ritter des Königlich Preußischen Hohen Ordens vom Schwarzen Adler (1851), "Von Seiner Majestät dem Könige Friedrich Wilhelm III. ernannte Ritter" p. 16
- Almanach de la cour: pour l'année ... 1817. l'Académie Imp. des Sciences. 1817. pp. 63, 78.
- Johann Heinrich Friedrich Berlien (1846). Der Elephanten-Orden und seine Ritter: eine historische Abhandlung über die ersten Spuren dieses Ordens und dessen fernere Entwicklung bis zu seiner gegenwärtigen Gestalt, und nächstdem ein Material zur Personalhistorie, nach den Quellen des Königlichen Geheimen-Staatsarchivs und des Königlichen Ordenskapitelsarchivs zu Kopenhagen. Gedruckt in der Berlingschen Officin. pp. 168-169.
- "Caballeros existentes en la insignie Orden del Toison de Oro". Guía de forasteros en Madrid para el año de 1850 (in Spanish). En la Imprenta Nacional. 1850. p. 80.
- Bayern (1858). Hof- und Staatshandbuch des Königreichs Bayern: 1858. Landesamt. p. 7.
- Hof- und Adreß-Handbuch des Fürstenthums Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen: 1844. Beck und Fränkel. 1844. p. 19.
- Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Großherzogtum Baden (1853), "Großherzogliche Orden" pp. 31, 46
- "Militaire Willems-Orde: Wales, Oscar I." [Military William Order: Oscar I]. Ministerie van Defensie (in Dutch). 21 June 1849. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- "Liste des Membres de l'Ordre de Léopold", Almanach Royal Officiel (in French), 1850, p. 35 – via Archives de Bruxelles
- Staat Hannover (1858). Hof- und Staatshandbuch für das Königreich Hannover: 1858. Berenberg. pp. 37, 66.
- "A Szent István Rend tagjai" Archived 22 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- Staats- und Adreß-Handbuch des Herzogthums Nassau: 1859. Schellenberg. 1859. p. 7.
- public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Oscar I.". Encyclopædia Britannica. 20 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the
- The American Cyclopædia. 1879. .
- Cronholm, Neander N. (1902). A History of Sweden from the Earliest Times to the Present Day. pp. 273–88.
- Ulvros, Eva Helen (2007) Oscar I: en biografi (Stockholm: Historiska media) ISBN 978-91-85507-10-8
- Media related to Oscar I of Sweden at Wikimedia Commons